This chapter reviews common genetic variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) that reportedly influence baseline and resistance training induced changes in skeletal muscle size and strength. Genetic variants associated with strength and size have been found in a structural gene (alpha-actinin 3), growth factor genes (e.g., insulin-like growth factor 1 and myostatin), and inflammatory genes (e.g., interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha). The biological basis for each of these three categories of genes is discussed and SNP association studies are highlighted. In most cases, single variants and single genes account for low percentages of trait variability on their own and few interactions between multiple genetic variations have been investigated to date. Future studies would benefit from emerging high throughput genotyping methods to enable comparisons across multiple genes, which can enhance identification of multiple gene/loci associations. Potential practical applications of exercise/muscle genomics include the ability to identify individuals with gene variants associated with increased athletic performance, optimization of training and rehabilitation strategies via individually tailored programs, and enhanced musculoskeletal health over the lifespan through the development of gene and pathway targeted therapeutics.
- Resistance training
- Genetic variants
- Genotype association
- Single nucleotide polymorphism
- Fiber type
- Alpha-actinin 3
- Protein synthesis
- Growth factors
- Protein kinase B
- Mammalian target of rapamycin
- Insulin-like growth factor
- Mechano growth factor
- Inflammatory factors
- Tumor necrosis factor alpha
- Exercise genomics
- Polygenic traits
- Genome wide association study
- Next generation sequencing
- Genetic testing
- Angiotensin converting enzyme
- Protein phosphatase 3 regulatory subunit B
- Insulin-like growth factor binding protein
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
Baechle T, Earle R, editors. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning: Human Kinetics, 2008.
Sale DG. Neural adaptation to resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1988;20 (5 Suppl):S135–45.
Hubal MJ, Gordish-Dressman H, Thompson PD, Price TB, Hoffman EP, Angelopoulos TJ, et al. Variability in muscle size and strength gain after unilateral resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(6):964–72.
Thomis MA, Beunen GP, Van Leemputte M, Maes HH, Blimkie CJ, Claessens AL, et al. Inheritance of static and dynamic arm strength and some of its determinants. Acta Physiol Scand. 1998;163(1):59–71.
Thomis MA, Beunen GP, Maes HH, Blimkie CJ, Van Leemputte M, Claessens AL, et al. Strength training: importance of genetic factors. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30(5):724–31.
Perusse L, Lortie G, Leblanc C, Tremblay A, Theriault G, Bouchard C. Genetic and environmental sources of variation in physical fitness. Ann Hum Biol. 1987;14(5):425–34.
Seeman E, Hopper JL, Young NR, Formica C, Goss P, Tsalamandris C. Do genetic factors explain associations between muscle strength, lean mass, and bone density? A twin study. Am J Physiol. 1996;270(2 Pt 1):E320–7.
Nguyen TV, Howard GM, Kelly PJ, Eisman JA. Bone mass, lean mass, and fat mass: same genes or same environments? Am J Epidemiol. 1998;147(1):3–16.
Forbes GB, Sauer EP, Weitkamp LR. Lean body mass in twins. Metabolism. 1995;44(11):1442–6.
Calvo M, Rodas G, Vallejo M, Estruch A, Arcas A, Javierre C, et al. Heritability of explosive power and anaerobic capacity in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002;86(3):218–25.
Baar K, Nader G, Bodine S. Resistance exercise, muscle loading/unloading and the control of muscle mass. Essays Biochem. 2006;42:61–74.
Weiss A, Leinwand LA. The mammalian myosin heavy chain gene family. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1996;12:417–39.
Delmonico MJ, Kostek MC, Doldo NA, Hand BD, Walsh S, Conway JM, et al. Alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism influences knee extensor peak power response to strength training in older men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;62(2):206–12.
MacArthur DG, North KN. A gene for speed? The evolution and function of alpha-actinin-3. Bioessays. 2004;26(7):786–95.
MacArthur DG, North KN. ACTN3: A genetic influence on muscle function and athletic performance. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2007;35(1):30–4.
Norman B, Esbjornsson M, Rundqvist H, Osterlund T, von Walden F, Tesch PA. Strength, power, fiber types, and mRNA expression in trained men and women with different ACTN3 R577X genotypes. J Appl Physiol. 2009;106(3):959–65.
Clarkson PM, Devaney JM, Gordish-Dressman H, Thompson PD, Hubal MJ, Urso M, et al. ACTN3 genotype is associated with increases in muscle strength in response to resistance training in women. J Appl Physiol. 2005;99(1):154–63.
Yang N, MacArthur DG, Gulbin JP, Hahn AG, Beggs AH, Easteal S, et al. ACTN3 genotype is associated with human elite athletic performance. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;73(3):627–31.
Vincent B, De Bock K, Ramaekers M, Van den Eede E, Van Leemputte M, Hespel P, et al. ACTN3 (R577X) genotype is associated with fiber type distribution. Physiol Genomics. 2007;32(1):58–63.
MacArthur DG, Seto JT, Chan S, Quinlan KG, Raftery JM, Turner N, et al. An Actn3 knockout mouse provides mechanistic insights into the association between alpha-actinin-3 deficiency and human athletic performance. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17(8):1076–86.
MacArthur DG, Seto JT, Raftery JM, Quinlan KG, Huttley GA, Hook JW, et al. Loss of ACTN3 gene function alters mouse muscle metabolism and shows evidence of positive selection in humans. Nat Genet. 2007;39(10):1261–5.
Chan S, Seto JT, MacArthur DG, Yang N, North KN, Head SI. A gene for speed: contractile properties of isolated whole EDL muscle from an alpha-actinin-3 knockout mouse. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295(4):C897–904.
Friden J. Changes in human skeletal muscle induced by long-term eccentric exercise. Cell Tissue Res. 1984;236(2):365–72.
Friden J, Sjostrom M, Ekblom B. Myofibrillar damage following intense eccentric exercise in man. Int J Sports Med. 1983;4(3):170–6.
Clarkson PM, Hoffman EP, Zambraski E, Gordish-Dressman H, Kearns A, Hubal M, et al. ACTN3 and MLCK genotype associations with exertional muscle damage. J Appl Physiol. 2005;99(2):564–9.
Phillips SM, Tipton KD, Aarsland A, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR. Mixed muscle protein synthesis and breakdown after resistance exercise in humans. Am J Physiol. 1997;273(1 Pt 1):E99–107.
Biolo G. Increased rates of muscle protein turnover and amino acid transport after resistance exercise in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 1995;268:E514–E20.
Macdougall JD, Gibala, MJ, Tarnapolsky, MA. The time course for elevated muscle protein synthesis following heavy resistance exercise. Can J Appl Physiol. 1995;20:480–6.
Zanchi NE, Lancha AH, Jr. Mechanical stimuli of skeletal muscle: implications on mTOR/p70s6k and protein synthesis. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;102(3):253–63.
Trendelenburg AU, Meyer A, Rohner D, Boyle J, Hatakeyama S, Glass DJ. Myostatin reduces Akt/TORC1/p70S6K signaling, inhibiting myoblast differentiation and myotube size. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296(6):C1258–70.
Sacheck JM, Ohtsuka A, McLary SC, Goldberg AL. IGF-I stimulates muscle growth by suppressing protein breakdown and expression of atrophy-related ubiquitin ligases, atrogin-1 and MuRF1. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287(4):E591–601.
Deldicque L, Louis M, Theisen D, Nielens H, Dehoux M, Thissen JP, et al. Increased IGF mRNA in human skeletal muscle after creatine supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(5):731–6.
Latres E, Amini AR, Amini AA, Griffiths J, Martin FJ, Wei Y, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) inversely regulates atrophy-induced genes via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway. J Biol Chem. 2005;280(4):2737–44.
Goldspink G. Mechanical Signals, IGF-I Gene Splicing, and Muscle Adaptation. Physiology. 2005;20(4):232–8.
Cheema U, Brown R, Mudera V, Yang SY, McGrouther G, Goldspink G. Mechanical signals and IGF-I gene splicing in vitro in relation to development of skeletal muscle. J Cell Physiol. 2005;202(1):67–75.
Bamman MM, Petrella JK, Kim JS, Mayhew DL, Cross JM. Cluster analysis tests the importance of myogenic gene expression during myofiber hypertrophy in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2007;102(6):2232–9.
Greig CA, Hameed M, Young A, Goldspink G, Noble B. Skeletal muscle IGF-I isoform expression in healthy women after isometric exercise. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2006;16(5-6):373–6.
Psilander N, Damsgaard R, Pilegaard H. Resistance exercise alters MRF and IGF-I mRNA content in human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol. 2003;95(3):1038–44.
Coffey VG, Reeder DW, Lancaster GI, Yeo WK, Febbraio MA, Yaspelkis BB, 3rd, et al. Effect of high-frequency resistance exercise on adaptive responses in skeletal muscle. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(12):2135–44.
Musaro A, McCullagh KJ, Naya FJ, Olson EN, Rosenthal N. IGF-1 induces skeletal myocyte hypertrophy through calcineurin in association with GATA-2 and NF-ATc1. Nature. 1999;400(6744):581–5.
Ferry RJ, Jr., Katz LE, Grimberg A, Cohen P, Weinzimer SA. Cellular actions of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. Horm Metab Res. 1999;31(2-3):192–202.
Jones JI, Clemmons DR. Insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins: biological actions. Endocr Rev. 1995;16(1):3–34.
Goldberg AL, Etlinger JD, Goldspink DF, Jablecki C. Mechanism of work-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. Med Sci Sports. 1975;7(3):185–98.
Marsh DR, Criswell DS, Hamilton MT, Booth FW. Association of insulin-like growth factor mRNA expressions with muscle regeneration in young, adult, and old rats. Am J Physiol. 1997;273(1 Pt 2):R353–8.
McPherron AC, Lawler AM, Lee SJ. Regulation of skeletal muscle mass in mice by a new TGF-beta superfamily member. Nature. 1997;387(6628):83–90.
Grobet L, Martin LJ, Poncelet D, Pirottin D, Brouwers B, Riquet J, et al. A deletion in the bovine myostatin gene causes the double-muscled phenotype in cattle. Nat Genet. 1997;17(1):71–4.
Gonzalez-Cadavid NF, Taylor WE, Yarasheski K, Sinha-Hikim I, Ma K, Ezzat S, et al. Organization of the human myostatin gene and expression in healthy men and HIV-infected men with muscle wasting. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1998;95(25):14938–43.
Roth SM, Martel GF, Ferrell RE, Metter EJ, Hurley BF, Rogers MA. Myostatin gene expression is reduced in humans with heavy-resistance strength training: a brief communication. Exp Biol Med. 2003;228(6):706–9.
Kostek MC, Delmonico MJ, Reichel JB, Roth SM, Douglass L, Ferrell RE, et al. Muscle strength response to strength training is influenced by insulin-like growth factor 1 genotype in older adults. J Appl Physiol. 2005;98(6):2147–54.
Hand BD, Kostek MC, Ferrell RE, Delmonico MJ, Douglass LW, Roth SM, et al. Influence of promoter region variants of insulin-like growth factor pathway genes on the strength-training response of muscle phenotypes in older adults. J Appl Physiol. 2007;103(5):1678–87.
Sayer AA, Syddall H, O’Dell SD, Chen XH, Briggs PJ, Briggs R, et al. Polymorphism of the IGF2 gene, birth weight and grip strength in adult men. Age Ageing. 2002;31(6):468–70.
Schrager MA, Roth SM, Ferrell RE, Metter EJ, Russek-Cohen E, Lynch NA, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-2 genotype, fat-free mass, and muscle performance across the adult life span. J Appl Physiol. 2004;97(6):2176–83.
Devaney JM, Hoffman EP, Gordish-Dressman H, Kearns A, Zambraski E, Clarkson PM. IGF-II gene region polymorphisms related to exertional muscle damage. J Appl Physiol. 2007;102(5):1815–23.
Clarkson PM, Hubal MJ. Exercise-induced muscle damage in humans. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;81(11 Suppl):S52–69.
Yu JG, Carlsson L, Thornell LE. Evidence for myofibril remodeling as opposed to myofibril damage in human muscles with DOMS: an ultrastructural and immunoelectron microscopic study. Histochem Cell Biol. 2004;121(3):219–27.
Yu JG, Furst DO, Thornell LE. The mode of myofibril remodelling in human skeletal muscle affected by DOMS induced by eccentric contractions. Histochem Cell Biol. 2003;119(5):383–93.
Schuelke M, Wagner KR, Stolz LE, Hubner C, Riebel T, Komen W, et al. Myostatin mutation associated with gross muscle hypertrophy in a child. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(26):2682–8.
Ferrell RE, Conte V, Lawrence EC, Roth SM, Hagberg JM, Hurley BF. Frequent sequence variation in the human myostatin (GDF8) gene as a marker for analysis of muscle-related phenotypes. Genomics. 1999;62(2):203–7.
Ivey FM, Roth SM, Ferrell RE, Tracy BL, Lemmer JT, Hurlbut DE, et al. Effects of age, gender, and myostatin genotype on the hypertrophic response to heavy resistance strength training. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000;55(11):M641–8.
Walsh S, Metter EJ, Ferrucci L, Roth SM. Activin-type II receptor B (ACVR2B) and follistatin haplotype associations with muscle mass and strength in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2007;102(6):2142–8.
Saunders MA, Good JM, Lawrence EC, Ferrell RE, Li WH, Nachman MW. Human adaptive evolution at Myostatin (GDF8), a regulator of muscle growth. Am J Hum Genet. 2006;79(6):1089–97.
Kostek MA, Angelopoulos TJ, Clarkson PM, Gordon PM, Moyna NM, Visich PS, et al. Myostatin and follistatin polymorphisms interact with muscle phenotypes and ethnicity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(5):1063–71.
Frost RA, Lang CH. Protein kinase B/Akt: a nexus of growth factor and cytokine signaling in determining muscle mass. J Appl Physiol. 2007;103(1):378–87.
Tidball JG. Inflammatory processes in muscle injury and repair. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;288(2):R345–53.
Pahl HL. Activators and target genes of Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factors. Oncogene. 1999;18(49):6853–66.
Costelli P, Carbo N, Tessitore L, Bagby GJ, Lopez-Soriano FJ, Argiles JM, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediates changes in tissue protein turnover in a rat cancer cachexia model. J Clin Invest. 1993;92(6):2783–9.
Breuille D, Farge MC, Rose F, Arnal M, Attaix D, Obled C. Pentoxifylline decreases body weight loss and muscle protein wasting characteristics of sepsis. Am J Physiol. 1993;265(4 Pt 1):E660–6.
Fernandez-Celemin L, Pasko N, Blomart V, Thissen JP. Inhibition of muscle insulin-like growth factor I expression by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;283(6):E1279–90.
Langen RC, Schols AM, Kelders MC, Wouters EF, Janssen-Heininger YM. Inflammatory cytokines inhibit myogenic differentiation through activation of nuclear factor-kappaB. Faseb J. 2001;15(7):1169–80.
Greiwe JS, Cheng B, Rubin DC, Yarasheski KE, Semenkovich CF. Resistance exercise decreases skeletal muscle tumor necrosis factor alpha in frail elderly humans. Faseb J. 2001;15(2):475–82.
Bruunsgaard H, Bjerregaard E, Schroll M, Pedersen BK. Muscle strength after resistance training is inversely correlated with baseline levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors in the oldest old. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52(2):237–41.
Malm C, Nyberg P, Engstrom M, Sjodin B, Lenkei R, Ekblom B, et al. Immunological changes in human skeletal muscle and blood after eccentric exercise and multiple biopsies. J Physiol. 2000;529 Pt 1:243–62.
Dahlman JM, Wang J, Bakkar N, Guttridge DC. The RelA/p65 subunit of NF-kappaB specifically regulates cyclin D1 protein stability: implications for cell cycle withdrawal and skeletal myogenesis. J Cell Biochem. 2009;106(1):42–51.
Grounds MD, Radley HG, Gebski BL, Bogoyevitch MA, Shavlakadze T. Implications of cross-talk between tumour necrosis factor and insulin-like growth factor-1 signalling in skeletal muscle. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2008;35(7):846–51.
Guttridge DC, Albanese C, Reuther JY, Pestell RG, Baldwin AS, Jr. NF-kappaB controls cell growth and differentiation through transcriptional regulation of cyclin D1. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19(8):5785–99.
Guttridge DC, Mayo MW, Madrid LV, Wang CY, Baldwin AS, Jr. NF-kappaB-induced loss of MyoD messenger RNA: possible role in muscle decay and cachexia. Science. 2000;289(5488):2363–6.
Millino C, Fanin M, Vettori A, Laveder P, Mostacciuolo ML, Angelini C, et al. Different atrophy-hypertrophy transcription pathways in muscles affected by severe and mild spinal muscular atrophy. BMC Med. 2009;7:14.
Vary TC, Deiter G, Lang CH. Diminished ERK 1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle during sepsis. Shock. 2004;22(6):548–54.
Buford TW, Cooke MB, Willoughby DS. Resistance exercise-induced changes of inflammatory gene expression within human skeletal muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;107(4):463–71.
Febbraio MA, Pedersen BK. Muscle-derived interleukin-6: mechanisms for activation and possible biological roles. Faseb J. 2002;16(11):1335–47.
Pedersen BK, Febbraio MA. Muscle as an endocrine organ: focus on muscle-derived interleukin-6. Physiol Rev. 2008;88(4):1379–406.
Ip NY, Yancopoulos GD. Ciliary neurotrophic factor and its receptor complex. Prog Growth Factor Res. 1992;4(2):139–55.
Dennis RA, Zhu H, Kortebein PM, Bush HM, Harvey JF, Sullivan DH, et al. Muscle expression of genes associated with inflammation, growth, and remodeling is strongly correlated in older adults with resistance training outcomes. Physiol Genomics. 2009;38(2):169–75.
Nielsen AR, Mounier R, Plomgaard P, Mortensen OH, Penkowa M, Speerschneider T, et al. Expression of interleukin-15 in human skeletal muscle effect of exercise and muscle fibre type composition. J Physiol. 2007;584 (Pt 1):305–12.
Furmanczyk PS, Quinn LS. Interleukin-15 increases myosin accretion in human skeletal myogenic cultures. Cell Biol Int. 2003;27(10):845–51.
Quinn LS, Anderson BG, Drivdahl RH, Alvarez B, Argiles JM. Overexpression of interleukin-15 induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy in vitro: implications for treatment of muscle wasting disorders. Exp Cell Res. 2002;280(1):55–63.
Hubal MJ, Chen TC, Thompson PD, Clarkson PM. Inflammatory gene changes associated with the repeated-bout effect. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294(5):R1628–37.
Chen YW, Hubal MJ, Hoffman EP, Thompson PD, Clarkson PM. Molecular responses of human muscle to eccentric exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2003;95(6):2485–94.
Chazaud B, Sonnet C, Lafuste P, Bassez G, Rimaniol AC, Poron F, et al. Satellite cells attract monocytes and use macrophages as a support to escape apoptosis and enhance muscle growth. J Cell Biol. 2003;163(5):1133–43.
McDermott DH, Yang Q, Kathiresan S, Cupples LA, Massaro JM, Keaney JF, Jr., et al. CCL2 polymorphisms are associated with serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels and myocardial infarction in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2005;112(8):1113–20.
Liu D, Metter EJ, Ferrucci L, Roth SM. TNF promoter polymorphisms associated with muscle phenotypes in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2008;105(3):859–67.
Ljungman P, Bellander T, Nyberg F, Lampa E, Jacquemin B, Kolz M, et al. DNA variants, plasma levels and variability of interleukin-6 in myocardial infarction survivors: results from the AIRGENE study. Thromb Res. 2009;124(1):57–64.
Roth SM, Schrager MA, Lee MR, Metter EJ, Hurley BF, Ferrell RE. Interleukin-6 (IL6) genotype is associated with fat-free mass in men but not women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003;58(12):B1085–8.
Ruiz JR, Buxens A, Artieda M, Arteta D, Santiago C, Rodriguez-Romo G, et al. The -174 G/C polymorphism of the IL6 gene is associated with elite power performance. J Sci Med Sport. 2009.
Walston J, Arking DE, Fallin D, Li T, Beamer B, Xue Q, et al. IL-6 gene variation is not associated with increased serum levels of IL-6, muscle, weakness, or frailty in older women. Exp Gerontol. 2005;40(4):344–52.
Pistilli EE, Devaney JM, Gordish-Dressman H, Bradbury MK, Seip RL, Thompson PD, et al. Interleukin-15 and interleukin-15R alpha SNPs and associations with muscle, bone, and predictors of the metabolic syndrome. Cytokine. 2008;43(1):45–53.
Riechman SE, Balasekaran G, Roth SM, Ferrell RE. Association of interleukin-15 protein and interleukin-15 receptor genetic variation with resistance exercise training responses. J Appl Physiol. 2004;97(6):2214–9.
Roth SM, Metter EJ, Lee MR, Hurley BF, Ferrell RE. C174T polymorphism in the CNTF receptor gene is associated with fat-free mass in men and women. J Appl Physiol. 2003;95(4):1425–30.
Arking DE, Fallin DM, Fried LP, Li T, Beamer BA, Xue QL, et al. Variation in the ciliary neurotrophic factor gene and muscle strength in older Caucasian women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54(5):823–6.
De Mars G, Windelinckx A, Beunen G, Delecluse C, Lefevre J, Thomis MA. Polymorphisms in the CNTF and CNTF receptor genes are associated with muscle strength in men and women. J Appl Physiol. 2007;102(5):1824–31.
Walsh S, Kelsey BK, Angelopoulos TJ, Clarkson PM, Gordon PM, Moyna NM, et al. CNTF 1357 G -> A polymorphism and the muscle strength response to resistance training. J Appl Physiol. 2009;107(4):1235–40.
Conwit RA, Ling S, Roth S, Stashuk D, Hurley B, Ferrell R, et al. The relationship between ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) genotype and motor unit physiology: preliminary studies. BMC Physiol. 2005;5:15.
Bray MS, Hagberg JM, Perusse L, Rankinen T, Roth SM, Wolfarth B, et al. The human gene map for performance and health-related fitness phenotypes: the 2006-2007 update. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(1):35–73.
Folland J, Leach B, Little T, Hawker K, Myerson S, Montgomery H, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype affects the response of human skeletal muscle to functional overload. Exp Physiol. 2000;85(5):575–9.
Pescatello LS, Kostek MA, Gordish-Dressman H, Thompson PD, Seip RL, Price TB, et al. ACE ID genotype and the muscle strength and size response to unilateral resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(6):1074–81.
McCauley T, Mastana SS, Hossack J, Macdonald M, Folland JP. Human angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D and alpha-actinin 3 R577X genotypes and muscle functional and contractile properties. Exp Physiol. 2009;94(1):81–9.
Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Minne HW. Vitamin D and muscle function. Osteoporos Int. 2002;13(3):187–94.
Windelinckx A, De Mars G, Beunen G, Aerssens J, Delecluse C, Lefevre J, et al. Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene are associated with muscle strength in men and women. Osteoporos Int. 2007;18(9):1235–42.
Grundberg E, Brandstrom H, Ribom EL, Ljunggren O, Mallmin H, Kindmark A. Genetic variation in the human vitamin D receptor is associated with muscle strength, fat mass and body weight in Swedish women. Eur J Endocrinol. 2004;150(3):323–8.
Manolio TA, Collins FS, Cox NJ, Goldstein DB, Hindorff LA, Hunter DJ, et al. Finding the missing heritability of complex diseases. Nature. 2009;461(7265):747–53.
Liu XG, Tan LJ, Lei SF, Liu YJ, Shen H, Wang L, et al. Genome-wide association and replication studies identified TRHR as an important gene for lean body mass. Am J Hum Genet. 2009;84(3):418–23.
Tucker T, Marra M, Friedman JM. Massively parallel sequencing: the next big thing in genetic medicine. Am J Hum Genet 2009;85(2):142–54.
Schadt EE. Molecular networks as sensors and drivers of common human diseases. Nature. 2009;461(7261):218–23.
Editors and Affiliations
© 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Hubal, M.J., Urso, M.L., Clarkson, P.M. (2011). Genetic Aspects of Muscular Strength and Size. In: Pescatello, L., Roth, S. (eds) Exercise Genomics. Molecular and Translational Medicine. Humana Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60761-355-8_7
Publisher Name: Humana Press
Print ISBN: 978-1-60761-354-1
Online ISBN: 978-1-60761-355-8