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Morphogens, Membranes and Mechanotransduction in Articular Cartilage

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Part of the Handbook of Modern Biophysics book series (HBBT)

Abstract

The three fundamentals of developmental biology are cell growth, cellular differentiation, and morphogenesis. Morphogenesis is the process of the generation of the shape of tissues, organs, and entire organisms from various cells. During embryonic development, as cells reproduce and divide, chemical and mechanical signals induce the cell to sort and differentiate into specialized cells. Morphogenesis is the process by which these cells become distributed and organized into tissues and organs. Morphogenetic responses can be stimulated in organisms by morphogenetic proteins, hormones, and environmental cues. There are different types of molecules that play an important role during morphogenesis and include the transcription factors and morphogens themselves.

Keywords

Articular Cartilage Articular Chondrocytes Superficial Zone Articular Cartilage Repair Intramedullary Nail Fixation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Further Study

  1. Reddi AH. 2003. Cartilage morphogenetic proteins: role in joint development, homoeostasis, and regeneration. Ann Rheum Dis 62(Suppl 2):73–78.Google Scholar
  2. Reddi AH. 1998. Role of morphogenetic proteins in skeletal tissue engineering and regeneration. Nat Biotechnol 16(3):247–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Khouri RK, Koudsi B, Reddi AH. 1991. Tissue transformation into bone in vivo. JAMA 266:1953–1955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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Copyright information

© Humana Press 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryLawrence Ellison Center for Tissue Regeneration, University of California Davis, School of MedicineSacramentoCalifornia
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical SciencesFaculty of Science, Tshwane University of TechnologyPretoriaSouth Africa

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