Evidence-Based Guidelines for Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Japan

  • Kiyoshi Hasegawa
  • Norihiro Kokudo


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has five characteristics that are strikingly different from those of other malignant tumors of the digestive system: (1) a strong causal relationship with hepatitis viruses (especially type B and type C), (2) a major impact of the status of hepatic functional reserve and liver damage on the choice of treatment and the prognosis, (3) a high recurrence rate, with many of the recurrences developing within the liver, and the existence of two major routes of recurrence, i.e., multicentric carcinogenesis and intrahepatic metastasis, (4) the possibility of performing effective treatment, if confined to the liver and liver functional reserve permits, and (5) the existence of a clear outcome determinant as vascular invasion. Because of these characteristics, choosing the method of treatment for HCC is not easy, although several useful methods are available to treat HCC.


Evidence-based medicine Clinical practice guidelines Randomized controlled trial Treatment algorithm 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kiyoshi Hasegawa
    • 1
  • Norihiro Kokudo
    • 2
  1. 1.Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery Division, Department of SurgeryUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery Division, Department of SurgeryUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan

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