Global Food Restriction

  • Michelle E. Matzko
  • Roger J. McCarter
  • Edward J. Masoro
Chapter
Part of the Aging Medicine book series (AGME)

Abstract

The use of restricted feeding paradigms to understand mechanisms of aging in rodent models is discussed. The phrase global food restriction is defined so as to avoid ambiguities that have arisen with the use of the phrase dietary restriction. Evidence is evaluated regarding the claim that such procedures not only extend longevity but also retard aging processes. Several hypotheses that have been advanced to explain this action (such as growth retardation, reduction of body fat, decreased metabolic rate, decreased plasma levels of various metabolites, and decreased levels of oxidative damage) are assessed and found wanting. Evidence is described in support of an overall mechanism in which hormesis plays an important role. It is suggested that moderate reduction of energy intake constitutes a low-intensity stressor that results in the mobilization of cellular defense mechanisms. These defense mechanisms decrease the accumulation of the cellular molecular damage that underlies senescence. It seems likely that the energy-restricted animal now exists in a new metabolic state in which many, rather than few, metabolic characteristics are altered. Many or all of these altered metabolic characteristics may play a role in the beneficial effects of caloric restriction.

Keywords

Caloric restriction dietary restriction extended longevity mechanisms of aging rodent models hormesis 

Abbreviations

AGE

Advanced glycosylation end product

AL

Ad libitum

CR

Caloric restriction

DR

Dietary restriction

FOXO

Forkhead

GH

Growth hormone

IGF-I

Insulin-like growth factor I

MNCL

Mononuclear cell leukemia

MR

Metabolic rate

mtDNA

Mitochondrial DNA

NTG

Nontransgenic

PGC-1α

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1

PPARα

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

RAGE

Receptor for advanced glycosylation end product

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

TG

Transgenic

TOR

Target of rapamycin

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Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michelle E. Matzko
    • 1
  • Roger J. McCarter
    • 1
  • Edward J. Masoro
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Developmental and Health GeneticsThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging StudiesUniversity of Texas Health Science CenterSan AntonioUSA

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