As the name implies, the cerebral cortex forms a shell that covers the brain. In fact, cortex forms most of the visible surface of the brain. Below its surface is a complex network of neurons, their axons, and glia. The cerebral cortex is not uniform; rather, it is composed of many structurally and functionally unique subunits that perform a wide range of sensory, motor, and mnemonic processes associated with cognition. The cerebral cortex organizes affective behaviors including responses to painful stimuli, maternal and sexual behaviors, and the expression of rage and other emotions. Like other parts of the CNS, the cerebral cortex does not function in isolation; it is a part of a intricate plexus of overlapping circuits. In this chapter, you will be acquainted with the morphology of cortical neurons and the way in which these neurons are assembled into clusters, columns, and areas. In addition, this chapter describes the intrinsic and extrinsic circuitries that subserve...
KeywordsMotor Cortex Pyramidal Neuron Precentral Gyrus Apical Dendrite Central Sulcus
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