Holmes A, Lachowicz JE, Sibley DR. Phenotypic analysis of dopamine receptor knockout mice; recent insights into the functional specificity of dopamine receptor subtypes. Neuropharmacology 2004;47:1117–34.
Tan S, Hermann B, Borrelli E. Dopaminergic mouse mutants: investigating the roles of the different dopamine receptor subtypes and the dopamine transporter. Int Rev Neurobiol 2003;54:145–97.
Waddington JL, Clifford JJ, McNamara FN, Tomiyama K, Koshikawa N, Croke DT. The psychopharmacology-molecular biology interface: exploring the behavioural roles of dopamine receptor subtypes using targeted gene deletion (‘knockout’). Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2001;25:925–64.
Waddington JL, O‘Tuathaigh C, O‘Sullivan G, Tomiyama K, Koshikawa N, Croke DT. Phenotypic studies on dopamine receptor subtype and associated signal transduction mutants: insights and challenges from 10 years at the psychopharmacology-molecular biology interface. Psychopharmacology 2005;181:611–38.
Zhou QY, Palmiter RD. Dopamine-deficient mice are severely hypoactive, adipsic, and aphagic. Cell 1995;83:1197–209.
Giros B, Jaber M, Jones SR, Wightman RM, Caron MG. Hyperlocomotion and indifference to cocaine and amphetamine in mice lacking the dopamine transporter. Nature 1996;379:606–12.
Accili D, Fishburn CS, Drago J, et al. A targeted mutation of the D3 dopamine receptor gene is associated with hyperactivity in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93:1945–9.
Baik JH, Picetti R, Saiardi A, et al. Parkinsonian-like locomotor impairment in mice lacking dopamine D2 receptors. Nature 1995;377:424–8.
Rubinstein M, Phillips TJ, Bunzow JR, et al. Mice lacking dopamine D4 receptors are supersensitive to ethanol, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Cell 1997;90:991–1001.
Xu M, Moratalla R, Gold LH, et al. Dopamine D1 receptor mutant mice are deficient in striatal expression of dynorphin and in dopamine-mediated behavioral responses. Cell 1994;79:729–42.
Usiello A, Baik JH, Rouge-Pont F, et al. Distinct functions of the two isoforms of dopamine D2 receptors. Nature 2000;408:199–203.
Wang Y, Xu R, Sasaoka T, Tonegawa S, Kung MP, Sankoorikal EB. Dopamine D2 long receptor-deficient mice display alterations in striatum-dependent functions. J Neurosci 2000;20:8305–14.
Drago J, Padungchaichot P, Accili D, Fuchs S. Dopamine receptors and dopamine transporter in brain function and addictive behaviors: insights from targeted mouse mutants. Dev Neurosci 1998;20:188–203.
Glickstein SB, Schmauss C. Dopamine receptor functions: lessons from knockout mice. Pharmacol Ther 2001;91:63–83.
Sibley DR. New insights into dopaminergic receptor function using antisense and genetically altered animals. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 1999;39:313–41.
Viggiano D, Ruocco LA, Sadile AG. Dopamine phenotype and behaviour in animal models: in relation to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2003;27:623–37.
Zhang J, Xu M. Toward a molecular understanding of psychostimulant actions using genetically engineered dopamine receptor knockout mice as model systems. J Addict Dis 2001;20:7–18.
Niznik HB, Sugamori KS, Clifford JJ, Waddington JL. D1-like dopamine receptors: molecular biology and pharmacology. In: Di Chiara G, ed. Handbook of experimental pharmacology: Dopamine in the CNS 1. Berlin: Springer; 2002:121–58.
Waddington JL, Daly SA, Downes RP, Deveney AM, McCauley PG, O‘Boyle KM. Behavioural pharmacology of ‘D1-like’ dopamine receptors: further subtyping, new pharmacological probes and interactions with ‘D2-like’ receptors. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1995;19:811–31.
Waddington JL, Daly SA, McCaulay PG, O‘Boyle KM. Levels of functional interaction between D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptor systems. In: Niznik HB, ed. Dopamine receptors and transporters: Pharmacology, structure and function. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1994:511–37.
Adachi K, Hasegawa M, Fujita S, et al. Prefrontal, accumbal [shell] and ventral striatal mechanisms in jaw movements and non-cyclase-coupled dopamine D1-like receptors. Eur J Pharmacol 2003;473:47–54.
Adachi K, Ikeda H, Hasegawa M, Nakamura S, Waddington JL, Koshikawa N. SK&F 83959 and non-cyclase-coupled dopamine D1-like receptors in jaw movements via dopamine D1-like/D2-like receptor synergism. Eur J Pharmacol 1999;367:143–9.
Fujita S, Lee J, Kiguchi M, et al. Topographical resolution of jaw movements mediated by cyclase- vs. non-cyclase-coupled dopamine D(1)-like receptors: studies with SK&F 83822. Eur J Pharmacol 2006;538:94–100.
Hasegawa M, Adachi K, Nakamura S, Sato M, Waddington JL, Koshikawa N. Ventral striatal vs. accumbal (shell) mechanisms and non-cyclase-coupled dopamine D(1)-like receptors in jaw movements. Eur J Pharmacol 2001;423:171–8.
Makihara Y, Okuda Y, Kawada C, et al. Differential involvement of cyclase- versus non-cyclase-coupled D1-like dopamine receptors in orofacial movement topography in mice: studies with SKF 83822. Neurosci Lett 2007;415:6–10.
Makihara Y, Yamamoto H, Inoue M, Tomiyama K, Koshikawa N, Waddington JL. Topographical effects of D1-like dopamine receptor agonists on orofacial movements in mice and their differential regulation via oppositional versus synergistic D1-like: D2-like interactions: cautionary observations on SK&F 82958 as an anomalous agent. J Psychopharmacol 2004;18:484–95.
Tomiyama K, McNamara FN, Clifford JJ, Kinsella A, Koshikawa N, Waddington JL. Topographical assessment and pharmacological characterization of orofacial movements in mice: dopamine D(1)-like vs. D(2)-like receptor regulation. Eur J Pharmacol 2001;418:47–54.
Setler PE, Sarau HM, Zirkle CL, Saunders HL. The central effects of a novel dopamine agonist. Eur J Pharmacol 1978;50:419–30.
Molloy AG, Waddington JL. Dopaminergic behaviour stereospecific promoted by the D1 agonist R-SK & F 38393 and selectively blocked by the D1 antagonist SCH 23390. Psychopharmacology 1984;82:409–10.
Cromwell HC, Berridge KC. Implementation of action sequences by a neostriatal site: a lesion mapping study of grooming syntax. J Neurosci 1996;16:3444–58.
Kalueff AV, Aldridge JW, LaPorte JL, Murphy DL, Tuohimaa P. Analyzing grooming microstructure in neurobehavioral experiments. Nat Protoc 2007;2:2538–44.
Waddington JL, O‘Boyle KM. Drugs acting on brain dopamine receptors: a conceptual re-evaluation five years after the first selective D1 antagonist. Pharmacol Ther 1989;43:1–52.
Andersen PH, Jansen JA. Dopamine receptor agonists: selectivity and dopamine D1 receptor efficacy. Eur J Pharmacol 1990;188:335–47.
O‘Boyle KM, Gaitanopoulos DE, Brenner M, Waddington JL. Agonist and antagonist properties of benzazepine and thienopyridine derivatives at the D1 dopamine receptor. Neuropharmacology 1989;28:401–5.
Jenner P. The rationale for the use of dopamine agonists in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 1995;45:S6–12.
Graham DL, Hoppenot R, Hendryx A, Self DW. Differential ability of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor agonists to induce and modulate expression and reinstatement of cocaine place preference in rats. Psychopharmacology 2007;191:719–30.
Braun AR, Laruelle M, Mouradian MM. Interactions between D1 and D2 dopamine receptor family agonists and antagonists: the effects of chronic exposure on behavior and receptor binding in rats and their clinical implications. J Neural Transm 1997;104:341–62.
Beninger RJ, Miller R. Dopamine D1-like receptors and reward-related incentive learning. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1998;22:335–45.
O‘Sullivan GJ, Roth BL, Kinsella A, Waddington JL. SK&F 83822 distinguishes adenylyl cyclase from phospholipase C-coupled dopamine D1-like receptors: behavioural topography. Eur J Pharmacol 2004;486:273–80.
Rashid AJ, So CH, Kong MM, et al. D1-D2 dopamine receptor heterooligomers with unique pharmacology are coupled to rapid activation of Gq/11 in the striatum. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007;104:654–9.
Arnt J, Hyttel J. Differential involvement of dopamine D-1 and D-2 receptors in the circling behaviour induced by apomorphine, SK & F 38393, pergolide and LY 171555 in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Psychopharmacology 1985;85:346–52.
Starr BS, Starr MS. Differential effects of dopamine D1 and D2 agonists and antagonists on velocity of movement, rearing and grooming in the mouse. Implications for the roles of D1 and D2 receptors. Neuropharmacology 1986;25:455–63.
Jenner P. Dopamine agonists, receptor selectivity and dyskinesia induction in Parkinson’s disease. Curr Opin Neurol 2003;16(Suppl 1):S3–7.
Yamamoto M, Usuda S, Tachikawa S, Maeno H. Pharmacological studies on a new benzamide derivative, YM-09151-2, with potential neuroleptic properties. Neuropharmacology 1982;21:945–51.
Starr MS. The role of dopamine in epilepsy. Synapse 1996;22:159–94.
Ahlenius S, Salmi P. Behavioral and biochemical effects of the dopamine D3 receptor-selective ligand, 7-OH-DPAT, in the normal and the reserpine-treated rat. Eur J Pharmacol 1994;260:177–81.
Pugsley TA, Davis MD, Akunne HC, et al. Neurochemical and functional characterization of the preferentially selective dopamine D3 agonist PD 128907. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995;275:1355–66.
Kagaya T, Yonaga M, Furuya Y, Hashimoto T, Kuroki J, Nishizawa Y. Dopamine D3 agonists disrupt social behavior in rats. Brain Res 1996;721:229–32.
Rogoz Z, Skuza G, Klodzinska A. Anxiolytic-like effects of preferential dopamine D3 receptor agonists in an animal model. Pol J Pharmacol 2003;55:449–54.
Chagas-Martinich L, Carey RJ, Carrera MP. 7-OH-DPAT effects on latent inhibition: low dose facilitation but high dose blockade: implications for dopamine receptor involvement in attentional processes. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2007;86:441–8.
Micheli F, Heidbreder C. Selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonists: a review 2001–2005. Recent Patents CNS Drug Discov 2006;1:271–88.
Joyce JN, Millan MJ. Dopamine D3 receptor antagonists as therapeutic agents. Drug Discov Today 2005;10:917–25.
Oak JN, Oldenhof J, Van Tol HH. The dopamine D(4) receptor: one decade of research. Eur J Pharmacol 2000;405:303–27.
Clifford JJ, Waddington JL. Topographically based search for an ‘Ethogram’ among a series of novel D(4) dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists. Neuropsychopharmacology 2000;22:538–44.
Zhang K, Grady CJ, Tsapakis EM, Andersen SL, Tarazi FI, Baldessarini RJ. Regulation of working memory by dopamine D4 receptor in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 2004;29:1648–55.
Arnsten AF, Murphy B, Merchant K. The selective dopamine D4 receptor antagonist, PNU-101387G, prevents stress-induced cognitive deficits in monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology 2000;23:405–10.
Zhang K, Davids E, Tarazi FI, Baldessarini RJ. Effects of dopamine D4 receptor-selective antagonists on motor hyperactivity in rats with neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions. Psychopharmacology 2002;161:100–6.
Shah AA, Sjovold T, Treit D. Selective antagonism of medial prefrontal cortex D4 receptors decreases fear-related behaviour in rats. Eur J Neurosci 2004;19:3393–7.
Bernaerts P, Tirelli E. Facilitatory effect of the dopamine D4 receptor agonist PD168,077 on memory consolidation of an inhibitory avoidance learned response in C57BL/6 J mice. Behav Brain Res 2003;142:41–52.
Powell SB, Paulus MP, Hartman DS, Godel T, Geyer MA. RO-10-5824 is a selective dopamine D4 receptor agonist that increases novel object exploration in C57 mice. Neuropharmacology 2003;44:473–81.
Drago J, Gerfen CR, Lachowicz JE, et al. Altered striatal function in a mutant mouse lacking D1A dopamine receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994;91:12564–8.
McNamara FN, Clifford JJ, Tighe O, et al. Congenic D1A dopamine receptor mutants: ethologically based resolution of behavioural topography indicates genetic background as a determinant of knockout phenotype. Neuropsychopharmacology 2003;28:86–99.
Smith DR, Striplin CD, Geller AM, et al. Behavioural assessment of mice lacking D1A dopamine receptors. Neuroscience 1998;86:135–46.
Holmes A, Hollon TR, Gleason TC, et al. Behavioral characterization of dopamine D5 receptor null mutant mice. Behav Neurosci 2001;115:1129–44.
Xu M, Hu XT, Cooper DC, et al. Elimination of cocaine-induced hyperactivity and dopamine-mediated neurophysiological effects in dopamine D1 receptor mutant mice. Cell 1994;79:945–55.
El-Ghundi M, Fletcher PJ, Drago J, Sibley DR, O‘Dowd BF, George SR. Spatial learning deficit in dopamine D(1) receptor knockout mice. Eur J Pharmacol 1999;383:95–106.
Tran AH, Tamura R, Uwano T, Kobayashi T, Katsuki M, Ono T. Dopamine D1 receptors involved in locomotor activity and accumbens neural responses to prediction of reward associated with place. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005;102:2117–22.
Karasinska JM, George SR, El-Ghundi M, Fletcher PJ, O‘Dowd BF. Modification of dopamine D(1) receptor knockout phenotype in mice lacking both dopamine D(1) and D(3) receptors. Eur J Pharmacol 2000;399:171–81.
Karasinska JM, George SR, Cheng R, O‘Dowd BF. Deletion of dopamine D1 and D3 receptors differentially affects spontaneous behaviour and cocaine-induced locomotor activity, reward and CREB phosphorylation. Eur J Neurosci 2005;22:1741–50.
Centonze D, Grande C, Saulle E, et al. Distinct roles of D1 and D5 dopamine receptors in motor activity and striatal synaptic plasticity. J Neurosci 2003;23:8506–12.
Clifford JJ, Tighe O, Croke DT, Sibley DR, Drago J, Waddington JL. Topographical evaluation of the phenotype of spontaneous behaviour in mice with targeted gene deletion of the D1A dopamine receptor: paradoxical elevation of grooming syntax. Neuropharmacology 1998;37:1595–602.
Wong JY, Clifford JJ, Massalas JS, Kinsella A, Waddington JL, Drago J. Essential conservation of D1 mutant phenotype at the level of individual topographies of behaviour in mice lacking both D1 and D3 dopamine receptors. Psychopharmacology 2003;167:167–73.
El-Ghundi M, O‘Dowd BF, Erclik M, George SR. Attenuation of sucrose reinforcement in dopamine D1 receptor deficient mice. Eur J Neurosci 2003;17:851–62.
Nitz DA, Kargo WJ, Fleischer J. Dopamine signaling and the distal reward problem. Neuroreport 2007;18:1833–6.
Tomiyama K, McNamara FN, Clifford JJ, et al. Phenotypic resolution of spontaneous and D1-like agonist-induced orofacial movement topographies in congenic dopamine D1A receptor ‘knockout’ mice. Neuropharmacology 2002;42:644–52.
Short JL, Ledent C, Drago J, Lawrence AJ. Receptor crosstalk: characterization of mice deficient in dopamine D1 and adenosine A2A receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology 2006;31:525–34.
El-Ghundi M, O‘Dowd BF, George SR. Prolonged fear responses in mice lacking dopamine D1 receptor. Brain Res 2001;892:86–93.
Drago J, Gerfen CR, Westphal H, Steiner H. D1 dopamine receptor-deficient mouse: cocaine-induced regulation of immediate-early gene and substance P expression in the striatum. Neuroscience 1996;74:813–23.
Clifford JJ, Tighe O, Croke DT, et al. Conservation of behavioural topography to dopamine D1-like receptor agonists in mutant mice lacking the D1A receptor implicates a D1-like receptor not coupled to adenylyl cyclase. Neuroscience 1999;93:1483–9.
Drago F, Contarino A, Busa L. The expression of neuropeptide-induced excessive grooming behavior in dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-deficient mice. Eur J Pharmacol 1999;365:125–31.
Xu M, Guo Y, Vorhees CV, Zhang J. Behavioral responses to cocaine and amphetamine administration in mice lacking the dopamine D1 receptor. Brain Res 2000;852:198–207.
Hiroi N, Martin AB, Grande C, Alberti I, Rivera A, Moratalla R. Molecular dissection of dopamine receptor signaling. J Chem Neuroanat 2002;23:237–42.
Miner LL, Drago J, Chamberlain PM, Donovan D, Uhl GR. Retained cocaine conditioned place preference in D1 receptor deficient mice. Neuroreport 1995;6:2314–6.
Caine SB, Thomsen M, Gabriel KI, et al. Lack of self-administration of cocaine in dopamine D1 receptor knock-out mice. J Neurosci 2007;27:13140–50.
Becker A, Grecksch G, Kraus J, et al. Loss of locomotor sensitisation in response to morphine in D1 receptor deficient mice. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2001;363:562–8.
Miyamoto S, Mailman RB, Lieberman JA, Duncan GE. Blunted brain metabolic response to ketamine in mice lacking D(1A) dopamine receptors. Brain Res 2001;894:167–80.
El-Ghundi M, George SR, Drago J, et al. Disruption of dopamine D1 receptor gene expression attenuates alcohol-seeking behavior. Eur J Pharmacol 1998;353:149–58.
Crawford CA, Drago J, Watson JB, Levine MS. Effects of repeated amphetamine treatment on the locomotor activity of the dopamine D1A-deficient mouse. Neuroreport 1997;8:2523–7.
Karper PE, De la Rosa H, Newman ER, et al. Role of D1-like receptors in amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization: a study using D1A receptor knockout mice. Psychopharmacology 2002;159:407–14.
McDougall SA, Reichel CM, Cyr MC, Karper PE, Nazarian A, Crawford CA. Importance of D(1) receptors for associative components of amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization and conditioned activity: a study using D(1) receptor knockout mice. Psychopharmacology 2005;183:20–30.
O‘Sullivan GJ, Dunleavy M, Hakansson K, et al. Dopamine D1 vs D5 receptor-dependent induction of seizures in relation to DARPP-32, ERK1/2 and GluR1-AMPA signalling. Neuropharmacology 2008;54:1051–61.
O‘Sullivan GJ, Clifford JJ, Tomiyama K, et al. D1-like dopamine receptor-mediated function in congenic mutants with D1 vs. D5 receptor ‘knockout’. J Recept Signal Transduct Res 2004;24:107–16.
Montague DM, Striplin CD, Overcash JS, Drago J, Lawler CP, Mailman RB. Quantification of D1B(D5) receptors in dopamine D1A receptor-deficient mice. Synapse 2001;39:319–22.
O‘Sullivan GJ, Kinsella A, Sibley DR, Tighe O, Croke DT, Waddington JL. Ethological resolution of behavioural topography and D1-like versus D2-like agonist responses in congenic D5 dopamine receptor mutants: identification of D5:D2-like interactions. Synapse 2005;55:201–11.
Cromwell HC, Berridge KC, Drago J, Levine MS. Action sequencing is impaired in D1A-deficient mutant mice. Eur J Neurosci 1998;10:2426–32.
O‘Sullivan GJ, Kinsella A, Grandy DK, Tighe O, Croke DT, Waddington JL. Ethological resolution of behavioral topography and D2-like vs. D1-like agonist responses in congenic D4 dopamine receptor ‘knockouts’: identification of D4:D1-like interactions. Synapse 2006;59:107–18.
Valjent E, Pascoli V, Svenningsson P, et al. Regulation of a protein phosphatase cascade allows convergent dopamine and glutamate signals to activate ERK in the striatum. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005;102:491–6.
Dracheva S, Xu M, Kelley KA, et al. Paradoxical locomotor behavior of dopamine D1 receptor transgenic mice. Exp Neurol 1999;157:169–79.
Dracheva S, Haroutunian V. Locomotor behavior of dopamine D1 receptor transgenic/D2 receptor deficient hybrid mice. Brain Res 2001;905:142–51.
Drago J, Padungchaichot P, Wong JY, et al. Targeted expression of a toxin gene to D1 dopamine receptor neurons by cre-mediated site-specific recombination. J Neurosci 1998;18:9845–57.
Gantois I, Fang K, Jiang L, et al. Ablation of D1 dopamine receptor-expressing cells generates mice with seizures, dystonia, hyperactivity, and impaired oral behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007;104:4182–7.
Wong JY, Padungchaichot P, Massalas JS, Drago J. Late direct and transneuronal effects in mice with targeted expression of a toxin gene to D1 dopamine receptor neurons. Neuroscience 2000;95:1035–41.
Tomiyama K, Makihara Y, Yamamoto H, et al. Disruption of orofacial movement topographies in congenic mutants with dopamine D5 but not D4 receptor or DARPP-32 transduction ‘knockout’. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2006;16:437–45.
Elliot EE, Sibley DR, Katz JL. Locomotor and discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine in dopamine D5 receptor knockout mice. Psychopharmacology 2003;169:161–8.
Homanics GE, Quinlan JJ, Firestone LL. Pharmacologic and behavioral responses of inbred C57BL/6 J and strain 129/SvJ mouse lines. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1999;63:21–6.
Ciliax BJ, Nash N, Heilman C, et al. Dopamine D(5) receptor immunolocalization in rat and monkey brain. Synapse 2000;37:125–45.
Dziewczapolski G, Menalled LB, Garcia MC, Mora MA, Gershanik OS, Rubinstein M. Opposite roles of D1 and D5 dopamine receptors in locomotion revealed by selective antisense oligonucleotides. Neuroreport 1998;9:1–5.
Jung MY, Skryabin BV, Arai M, et al. Potentiation of the D2 mutant motor phenotype in mice lacking dopamine D2 and D3 receptors. Neuroscience 1999;91:911–24.
Kelly MA, Rubinstein M, Asa SL, et al. Pituitary lactotroph hyperplasia and chronic hyperprolactinemia in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice. Neuron 1997;19:103–13.
Yamaguchi H, Aiba A, Nakamura K, et al. Dopamine D2 receptor plays a critical role in cell proliferation and proopiomelanocortin expression in the pituitary. Genes Cells 1996;1:253–68.
Kelly MA, Rubinstein M, Phillips TJ, et al. Locomotor activity in D2 dopamine receptor-deficient mice is determined by gene dosage, genetic background, and developmental adaptations. J Neurosci 1998;18:3470–9.
Boulay D, Depoortere R, Perrault G, Borrelli E, Sanger DJ. Dopamine D2 receptor knock-out mice are insensitive to the hypolocomotor and hypothermic effects of dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonists. Neuropharmacology 1999;38:1389–96.
Clifford JJ, Kinsella A, Tighe O, et al. Comparative, topographically-based evaluation of behavioural phenotype and specification of D(1)-like:D(2) interactions in a line of incipient congenic mice with D(2) dopamine receptor ‘knockout’. Neuropsychopharmacology 2001;25:527–36.
Fowler SC, Zarcone TJ, Vorontsova E, Chen R. Motor and associative deficits in D2 dopamine receptor knockout mice. Int J Dev Neurosci 2002;20:309–21.
Tomiyama K, McNamara FN, Clifford JJ, et al. Comparative phenotypic resolution of spontaneous, D2-like and D1-like agonist-induced orofacial movement topographies in congenic mutants with dopamine D2 vs. D3 receptor ‘knockout’. Synapse 2004;51:71–81.
Maldonado R, Saiardi A, Valverde O, Samad TA, Roques BP, Borrelli E. Absence of opiate rewarding effects in mice lacking dopamine D2 receptors. Nature 1997;388:586–9.
Elmer GI, Pieper JO, Levy J, et al. Brain stimulation and morphine reward deficits in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice. Psychopharmacology 2005;182:33–44.
Tran AH, Tamura R, Uwano T, et al. Altered accumbens neural response to prediction of reward associated with place in dopamine D2 receptor knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002;99:8986–91.
Kruzich PJ, Grandy DK. Dopamine D2 receptors mediate two-odor discrimination and reversal learning in C57BL/6 mice. BMC Neurosci 2004;5:12.
Kruzich PJ, Mitchell SH, Younkin A, Grandy DK. Dopamine D2 receptors mediate reversal learning in male C57BL/6 J mice. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2006;6:86–90.
Glickstein SB, Hof PR, Schmauss C. Micelacking dopamine D2 and D3 receptors have spatial working memory deficits. J Neurosci 2002;22:5619–29.
Boulay D, Depoortere R, Oblin A, Sanger DJ, Schoemaker H, Perrault G. Haloperidol-induced catalepsy is absent in dopamine D(2), but maintained in dopamine D(3) receptor knock-out mice. Eur J Pharmacol 2000;391:63–73.
Chen JF, Moratalla R, Impagnatiello F, et al. The role of the D(2) dopamine receptor (D(2)R) in A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)R)-mediated behavioral and cellular responses as revealed by A(2A) and D(2) receptor knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001;98:1970–5.
Zahniser NR, Simosky JK, Mayfield RD, et al. Functional uncoupling of adenosine A(2A) receptors and reduced response to caffeine in mice lacking dopamine D2 receptors. J Neurosci 2000;20:5949–57.
Hayward MD, Low MJ. Naloxone’s suppression of spontaneous and food-conditioned locomotor activity is diminished in mice lacking either the dopamine D(2) receptor or enkephalin. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2005;140:91–8.
Glickstein SB, Schmauss C. Effect of methamphetamine on cognition and repetitive motor behavior of mice deficient for dopamine D2 and D3 receptors. Ann NY Acad Sci 2004;1025:110–8.
Risbrough VB, Masten VL, Caldwell S, Paulus MP, Low MJ, Geyer MA. Differential contributions of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors to MDMA-induced effects on locomotor behavior patterns in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology 2006;31:2349–58.
Palmer AA, Low MJ, Grandy DK, Phillips TJ. Effects of a Drd2 deletion mutation on ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and sensitization suggest a role for epistasis. Behav Genet 2003;33:311–24.
Phillips TJ, Brown KJ, Burkhart-Kasch S, et al. Alcohol preference and sensitivity are markedly reduced in mice lacking dopamine D2 receptors. Nat Neurosci 1998;1:610–5.
Welter M, Vallone D, Samad TA, Meziane H, Usiello A, Borrelli E. Absence of dopamine D2 receptors unmasks an inhibitory control over the brain circuitries activated by cocaine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007;104:6840–5.
Chausmer AL, Elmer GI, Rubinstein M, Low MJ, Grandy DK, Katz JL. Cocaine-induced locomotor activity and cocaine discrimination in dopamine D2 receptor mutant mice. Psychopharmacology 2002;163:54–61.
Elmer GI, Pieper JO, Rubinstein M, Low MJ, Grandy DK, Wise RA. Failure of intravenous morphine to serve as an effective instrumental reinforcer in dopamine D2 receptor knock-out mice. J Neurosci 2002;22:RC224.
Dockstader CL, Rubinstein M, Grandy DK, Low MJ, van der Kooy D. The D2 receptor is critical in mediating opiate motivation only in opiate-dependent and withdrawn mice. Eur J Neurosci 2001;13:995–1001.
Caine SB, Negus SS, Mello NK, et al. Role of dopamine D2-like receptors in cocaine self-administration: studies with D2 receptor mutant mice and novel D2 receptor antagonists. J Neurosci 2002;22:2977–88.
Bozzi Y, Borrelli E. Dopamine D2 receptor signaling controls neuronal cell death induced by muscarinic and glutamatergic drugs. Mol Cell Neurosci 2002;19:263–71.
Bozzi Y, Vallone D, Borrelli E. Neuroprotective role of dopamine against hippocampal cell death. J Neurosci 2000;20:8643–9.
Fetsko LA, Xu R, Wang Y. Effects of age and dopamine D2L receptor-deficiency on motor and learning functions. Neurobiol Aging 2005;26:521–30.
Smith JW, Fetsko LA, Xu R, Wang Y.Dopamine D2L receptor knockout mice display deficits in positive and negative reinforcing properties of morphine and in avoidance learning. Neuroscience 2002;113:755–65.
Vargas-Perez H, Borrelli E, Diaz JL. Wheel running use in dopamine D2L receptor knockout mice. Neurosci Lett 2004;366:172–5.
Vukhac KL, Sankoorikal EB, Wang Y. Dopamine D2L receptor- and age-related reduction in offensive aggression. Neuroreport 2001;12:1035–8.
Fetsko LA, Xu R, Wang Y. Alterations in D1/D2 synergism may account for enhanced stereotypy and reduced climbing in mice lacking dopamine D2L receptor. Brain Res 2003;967:191–200.
Xu R, Hranilovic D, Fetsko LA, Bucan M, Wang Y. Dopamine D2S and D2L receptors may differentially contribute to the actions of antipsychotic and psychotic agents in mice. Mol Psychiatry 2002;7:1075–82.
Centonze D, Usiello A, Costa C, et al. Chronic haloperidol promotes corticostriatal long-term potentiation by targeting dopamine D2L receptors. J Neurosci 2004;24:8214–22.
Vallone D, Pignatelli M, Grammatikopoulos G, et al. Activity, non-selective attention and emotionality in dopamine D2/D3 receptor knock-out mice. Behav Brain Res 2002;130:141–8.
Xu M, Koeltzow TE, Santiago GT, et al. Dopamine D3 receptor mutant mice exhibit increased behavioral sensitivity to concurrent stimulation of D1 and D2 receptors. Neuron 1997;19:837–48.
Joseph JD, Wang YM, Miles PR, et al. Dopamine autoreceptor regulation of release and uptake in mouse brain slices in the absence of D(3) receptors. Neuroscience 2002;112:39–49.
Boulay D, Depoortere R, Rostene W, Perrault G, Sanger DJ. Dopamine D3 receptor agonists produce similar decreases in body temperature and locomotor activity in D3 knock-out and wild-type mice. Neuropharmacology 1999;38:555–65.
Betancur C, Lepee-Lorgeoux I, Cazillis M, Accili D, Fuchs S, Rostene W. Neurotensin gene expression and behavioral responses following administration of psychostimulants and antipsychotic drugs in dopamine D(3) receptor deficient mice. Neuropsychopharmacology 2001;24:170–82.
Narita M, Mizuo K, Mizoguchi H, Sakata M, Tseng LF, Suzuki T. Molecular evidence for the functional role of dopamine D3 receptor in the morphine-induced rewarding effect and hyperlocomotion. J Neurosci 2003;23:1006–12.
Siuciak JA, Fujiwara RA. The activity of pramipexole in the mouse forced swim test is mediated by D2 rather than D3 receptors. Psychopharmacology 2004;175:163–9.
McNamara FN, Clifford JJ, Tighe O, et al. Phenotypic, ethologically based resolution of spontaneous and D(2)-like vs D(1)-like agonist-induced behavioural topography in mice with congenic D(3) dopamine receptor ‘knockout’. Synapse 2002;46:19–31.
Steiner H, Fuchs S, Accili D. D3 dopamine receptor-deficient mouse: evidence for reduced anxiety. Physiol Behav 1997;63:137–41.
Leggio GM, Micale V, Drago F. Increased sensitivity to antidepressants of D3 dopamine receptor-deficient mice in the forced swim test (FST). Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2008;18:271–7.
Le Foll B, Diaz J, Sokoloff P. Neuroadaptations to hyperdopaminergia in dopamine D3 receptor-deficient mice. Life Sci 2005;76:1281–96.
Carta AR, Gerfen CR, Steiner H. Cocaine effects on gene regulation in the striatum and behavior: increased sensitivity in D3 dopamine receptor-deficient mice. Neuroreport 2000;11:2395–9.
Le Foll B, Frances H, Diaz J, Schwartz JC, Sokoloff P. Role of the dopamine D3 receptor in reactivity to cocaine-associated cues in mice. Eur J Neurosci 2002;15:2016–26.
McNamara RK, Logue A, Stanford K, Xu M, Zhang J, Richtand NM. Dose-response analysis of locomotor activity and stereotypy in dopamine D3 receptor mutant mice following acute amphetamine. Synapse 2006;60:399–405.
Pritchard LM, Logue AD, Hayes S, et al. 7-OH-DPAT and PD 128907 selectively activate the D3 dopamine receptor in a novel environment. Neuropsychopharmacology 2003;28:100–7.
Leriche L, Schwartz JC, Sokoloff P. The dopamine D3 receptor mediates locomotor hyperactivity induced by NMDA receptor blockade. Neuropharmacology 2003;45:174–81.
Pritchard LM, Newman AH, McNamara RK, et al. The dopamine D3 receptor antagonist NGB 2904 increases spontaneous and amphetamine-stimulated locomotion. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2007;86:718–26.
Le Foll B, Sokoloff P, Stark H, Goldberg SR. Dopamine D3 receptor ligands block nicotine-induced conditioned place preferences through a mechanism that does not involve discriminative-stimulus or antidepressant-like effects. Neuropsychopharmacology 2005;30:720–30.
Koeltzow TE, Xu M, Cooper DC, et al. Alterations in dopamine release but not dopamine autoreceptor function in dopamine D3 receptor mutant mice. J Neurosci 1998;18:2231–8.
Schwartz JC, Diaz J, Pilon C, Sokoloff P. Possible implications of the dopamine D(3) receptor in schizophrenia and in antipsychotic drug actions. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2000;31:277–87.
Diaz J, Pilon C, Le Foll B, et al. Dopamine D3 receptors expressed by all mesencephalic dopamine neurons. J Neurosci 2000;20:8677–84.
Munafo MR, Yalcin B, Willis-Owen SA, Flint J. Association of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and approach-related personality traits: meta-analysis and new data. Biol Psychiatry 2008;63:197–206.
Dulawa SC, Grandy DK, Low MJ, Paulus MP, Geyer MA. Dopamine D4 receptor-knock-out mice exhibit reduced exploration of novel stimuli. J Neurosci 1999;19:9550–6.
Falzone TL, Gelman DM, Young JI, Grandy DK, Low MJ, Rubinstein M. Absence of dopamine D4 receptors results in enhanced reactivity to unconditioned, but not conditioned, fear. Eur J Neurosci 2002;15:158–64.
Faraone SV, Doyle AE, Mick E, Biederman J. Meta-analysis of the association between the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine D(4) receptor gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158:1052–7.
Grady DL, Chi HC, Ding YC, et al. High prevalence of rare dopamine receptor D4 alleles in children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Mol Psychiatry 2003;8:536–45.
Avale ME, Falzone TL, Gelman DM, Low MJ, Grandy DK, Rubinstein M. The dopamine D4 receptor is essential for hyperactivity and impaired behavioral inhibition in a mouse model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Mol Psychiatry 2004;9:718–26.
Katz JL, Chausmer AL, Elmer GI, Rubinstein M, Low MJ, Grandy DK. Cocaine-induced locomotor activity and cocaine discrimination in dopamine D4 receptor mutant mice. Psychopharmacology 2003;170:108–14.
Kruzich PJ, Suchland KL, Grandy DK. Dopamine D4 receptor-deficient mice, congenic on the C57BL/6 J background, are hypersensitive to amphetamine. Synapse 2004;53:131–9.
Montkowski A, Poettig M, Mederer A, Holsboer F. Behavioural performance in three substrains of mouse strain 129. Brain Res 1997;762:12–8.
Fishburn CS, Carmon S, Fuchs S. Molecular cloning and characterisation of the gene encoding the murine D4 dopamine receptor. FEBS Lett 1995;361:215–9.
Gan L, Falzone TL, Zhang K, Rubinstein M, Baldessarini RJ, Tarazi FI. Enhanced expression of dopamine D(1) and glutamate NMDA receptors in dopamine D(4) receptor knockout mice. J Mol Neurosci 2004;22:167–78.
Kobayashi M, Iaccarino C, Saiardi A, et al. Simultaneous absence of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-mediated signaling is lethal in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004;101:11465–70.
Ridray S, Griffon N, Mignon V, et al. Coexpression of dopamine D1 and D3 receptors in islands of Calleja and shell of nucleus accumbens of the rat: opposite and synergistic functional interactions. Eur J Neurosci 1998;10:1676–86.
Glickstein SB, Schmauss C. Focused motor stereotypies do not require enhanced activation of neurons in striosomes. J Comp Neurol 2004;469:227–38.