Pernicious Anemia

  • Mario García-Carrasco
  • Mario Jiménez-Hernández
  • Claudia Mendoza-Pinto
  • Alejandro Ruiz-Argüelles
  • Salvador Fuentes-Alexandro


Pernicious anemia (PA) is the most common manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency, in which an autoimmune pathogenesis is supported by (a) the presence of mononuclear-cell infiltration into gastric mucosa with loss of parietal cells, (b) autoantibodies to parietal cells and intrinsic factor, (c) autoreactive T cells, (d) regeneration of parietal cells after therapy with corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs, (e) familial predisposition and (f) association with other autoimmune diseases. The progression of the chronic atrophic gastritis to gastric atrophy and clinical anemia is likely to span 20 to 30 years. The presence of serum antibodies to gastric parietal-cells predicts autoimmune gastritis. Immune suppression with corticosteroids or azathioprine appears to be the best treatment in early stages of the disease.


Pernicious anemia vitamin B12 deficiency type A gastritis 


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Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario García-Carrasco
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mario Jiménez-Hernández
    • 1
    • 2
  • Claudia Mendoza-Pinto
    • 1
  • Alejandro Ruiz-Argüelles
    • 3
  • Salvador Fuentes-Alexandro
    • 4
  1. 1.Systemic Autoimmune Diseases Research Unit, HGR #36, CMN Manuel Ávila Camacho, IMSSPueblaMéxico
  2. 2.Rheumatology DepartmentBenemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, School of MedicinePueblaMéxico
  3. 3.Laboratorios Clínicos de PueblaPueblaMéxico
  4. 4.Internal Medicine CMN siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro SocialMéxico

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