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Graves Disease

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Abstract

Graves disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disease characterized by the formation of thyrotropin receptor-stimulating antibodies that activate the thyrotropin receptor causing thyrotoxicosis. Although the etiology of GD is unknown, it is believed to be a complex autoimmune disease caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers, such as iodine and infection. GD is diagnosed mainly by demonstrating the presence of thyrotoxicosis and the pathognomonic thyrotropin stimulating antibodies. GD is associated with two main complications, Graves’ ophthalmopathy and dermopathy. The etiology of these complications is unknown, but is believed to be due to a cross-over autoimmune response. Therapy of GD is directed at the thyrotoxicosis and not at the autoimmune mechanisms causing the disease, which are still not fully understood. The thyrotoxicosis is treated by either suppressing the production of thyroid hormones with anti-thyroid medications, or removing/ablating the thyroid gland by surgery or radioactive iodine.

Keywords

  • Thyroid
  • Graves disease
  • autoimmunity
  • thyrotoxicosis
  • ophthalmopathy

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© 2008 Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

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Menconi, F., Oppenheim, Y.L., Tomer, Y. (2008). Graves Disease. In: Shoenfeld, Y., Cervera, R., Gershwin, M.E. (eds) Diagnostic Criteria in Autoimmune Diseases. Humana Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60327-285-8_44

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