Advertisement

The Re-emergence of Cholera in the Americas

  • Gabriela Delgado
  • Rosario Morales
  • Jose Luis Mendez
  • Alejandro CraviotoEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Infectious Disease book series (ID)

Abstract

In the history of cholera, seven cholera pandemics occurred during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and five of these affected the American continent. Ships transporting European immigrants in the nineteenth century probably brought the disease to the American continent during the second pandemic. Between 1973 and 1991, infrequent indigenous cholera cases were reported in different parts of the USA including Louisiana, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, which have been linked to the Gulf Coast reservoir. In 1991, cholera resurfaced in Latin America accounting for 66% (396,536 cases) of all cholera cases reported worldwide that year. Unexpectedly, cholera re-emerged in Peru during early 1991 and quickly turned into an epidemic that extended to Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, Venezuela, and Mexico. During this time, several important environmental factors including El Niño were attributed to the increased incidence of cholera. During and after the cholera outbreaks in South America, intensive measures were taken that include epidemiological surveillance, setting up of a laboratory network, proper patient care, improvements in basic sanitation, and clean water supply systems. Such timely measures helped to control cholera and other diarrheal diseases. Several molecular techniques have allowed the study of clonal variations in Vibrio cholerae for the first time. Molecular tools helped in identifying the epidemiological links with import of cholera by travelers as well as of the environmental origin. Several serotypes of V. cholerae exist in costal environments and seroconversion may play an important role in the epidemiology of cholera.

Keywords

American Continent Epidemiological Surveillance Cholera Outbreak Somatic Antigen Cholerae Strain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research was supported by grants from the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología de México (project 2397 PB) and the UNAM Dirección General de Apoyo al Personal Académico (project IN211496).

References

  1. 1.
    Giono S, Gutierrez Cogno L, Rodriguez Angeles G, del Rio Zolezzi A, Valdespino Gonzalez JL, Sepulveda Amor J. Vibrio cholerae O1 fenotipos y genotipos en México. Gac Med Méx. 1995;131:28–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shears P. Cholerae. Ann Trop Med Para. 1994;88:109–22.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rodríguez SE, Ruiz RM, Oineda MR, Murguía MR, Valtierra RA. Historia. En Manual para la Vigilancia del Colera. In: Luna Rafael, editor. Dirección General de Epidemiología. Secretaria de Salud, 1999. pp. 11–8.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Weissman JB, DeWitt WE, Thompson J, Muchnick CN, Portnoy BL, Feeley JC, Gangarosa EJ. A case of cholera in Texas 1973. Am J Epidemiol. 1974;100:487–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Klontz KC, Tauxe RV, Cook WL, Riley WH, Wachsmuth IK. Cholera after the consumption of raw oysters. Ann Intern Med. 1987;107:846–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lowry PW, Pavia AT, McFarland LM, Peltier BH, Barrett TJ, Bradford HB, Quan JM, Lynch J, Mathison JB, Gunn RA, Blake PA. Cholera in Louisiana. Widening spectrum of seafood vehicles. Arch Intern Med. 1989;149:2079–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pavia AT, Campbell JF, Blake PA, Smith JD, McKinley TW, Martin Dl. Cholera from raw oysters shipped interstate. J Am Med Assoc. 1987;285:2374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    CDC. Epidemiologic notes and reports cholera in a tourist returning from Cancún, Mexico—New Jersey. MMWR. 1983;32:357.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lin F-Y, Morris GJ Jr., Kaper JB, Gross T, Michalski J, Morrison C, Libonati JO, Israel E. Persistence of cholera in the United States: isolation of Vibrio cholerae O1 from a patient with diarrhea in Maryland. J Clin Microbiol. 1986;23:624–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Johnston JM, Martin DL, Perdue J, McFarland LM, Caraway CT, Lippy EC, Blake PA. Cholera on a Gulf Coast oil ring. N Engl J Med. 1983;309:523–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Number of Cholera Cases in the Americas (1990–2004). Ministries of Health. http://www.paho.org/Spanish/AD/DPC/CD/cholera-1990-2004pdf
  12. 12.
    CDC. Cholera—Peru, 1991. MMWR. 1991;40:108–10.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    CDC. Update: cholera outbreak—Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. MMWR. 1991;40:225–7.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    CDC. Update: cholera—Western hemisphere, 1991. MMWR. 1991;40:860.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Seas C, Gotuzzo E. Cholera overview of epidemiologic, therapeutic, and preventive issues learned from recent epidemic. Int J Inf Dis. 1996;1:38–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Anonymous. The economic impact of cholera epidemic, Peru 1991. Epidemiol Bull. 1992;13:9–11.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Seas C. Miranda J, Gil AI, Leon-Barua R, Patz J, Huq A, Colwell RR, Sack RB. New insights on the emergence of cholera in Latin America during 1991: the Peruvian experience. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000;62:513–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cowell RR. Global climate and infectious disease: the cholera paradigm. Science. 1996;274:2025–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Situación epidemiológica de cólera. Republica Mexicana. Secretaria de Salud. Febrero 1992.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kumate J, Sepúlveda J, Gutiérrez G. El cólera: epidemias, endemias y pandemias. McGraw-Hill, México: Interamericana, 1993.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    CDC. Cholera—New York. 1991. MMWR. 1991;40:516–8.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    CDC. 1992. Cholera associated with an international airline flight. MMWR. 1992;41:134–5.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Weekly Epidemiological Record. Cholera 1997. WHO, Geneva. 1998;73:201.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Weekly Epidemiological Record. Cholera 1998. WHO, Geneva. 1999;74:257–64.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Weekly Epidemiological Record. Cholera 1999. WHO, Geneva. 2000;75:249–56.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Weekly Epidemiological Record. Cholera 2000. WHO, Geneva. 2001;76:233–40.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Weekly Epidemiological Record. Cholera 2001. WHO, Geneva. 2002;77:257–68.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Weekly Epidemiological Record. Cholera 2002. WHO, Geneva. 2003;78:269–76.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Weekly Epidemiological Record. Cholera 2003. WHO, Geneva. 2004;79:281–8.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Weekly Epidemiological Record. Cholera 2004. WHO, Geneva. 2005;80:261–8.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    CDC. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 infections—Louisiana and Florida. MMWR. 1986;35:606–7.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gergatz SJ, McFarland LM. Cholera on the Louisiana Gulf Coast: historical notes and case report. J La State Med Soc. 1989;141:29–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Huq A, Colwell RR, Rahman R, Ali A, Chowdhury MA, Parveen S, Sack DA, Russek-Cohen E. Detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 in the aquatic environment by fluorescent-monoclonal antibody and culture methods. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990;56:2370–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Colwell R, Huq A. Vibrios in the environment: viable but non-culturable Vibrio cholerae. In: Kaye Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik O, editors. Vibrio cholerae and cholera: Molecular to global perspectives. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology; 1994. pp. 117–33.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Islam M, Drasar B, Bradley Sack R. The aquatic environment as a reservoir of Vibrio cholerae: a review. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 1993;11:197–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Miller C, Feachem R, Drasar B. Cholera epidemiology in developed and developing countries: new thoughts on transmission, seasonality, and control. Lancet. 1985;1:261–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Miller CJ, Drasar BS, Feachem RG, Hayes RJ. The impact of physico-chemical stress on the toxigenicity of Vibrio cholerae. J Hyg (Cambridge). 1986;96:49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Glass R, Black R. The epidemiology of cholera. In: Barua D, Greenough III W, editors. Cholera. New York: Plenum Medical Company; 1992. pp. 129–54.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nebel B, Wright R. Environmental science: the way the world works. 4a. ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall; 1993.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tyler Miller Jr. G. Environmental science: sustaining the earth. 3a ed. San Francisco: Wadsworth Publishing Company; 1991.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Blake P, Allegra D, Snyder. Cholera: a possible focus in the United Stated. N Engl J Med.1980;302:305–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    DePaola A, Capers G, Motes ML, Olsvik O, Fields PI, Wells J, Wachsmuth IK, Cebula TA, Koch WH, Khambaty F, et al. Isolation of Latin American epidemic strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 from US Gulf Coast. Lancet. 1992;339:624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hood M, Ness G, Rodrick G. Isolation of Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 from the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1981;41:555–8.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tamplin M, Carrillo C. Environmental spread of Vibrio cholerae in Peru. Lancet. 1991;338:1216–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Baine WB, Mazzotti M, Greco D, Izzo E, Zampieri A, Angioni G, Di Gioia M, Gangarosa EJ, Pocchiari F. Epidemiology of cholera in Italy, 1973. Lancet. 1974;2:1370–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ramírez PM. Frecuencia de Aislamiento de Vibrio spp. En muestras de agua, ostión y sedimento en la laguna de Mecoacán, Tabasco, México. Tésis de Maestría, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2003.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wilson R, Lieb S, Roberts A, Stryke S, Janowski H, Gunn R, Davis B, Riddler CF, Barrett T, Morris JG, Blake PA. Non-O group 1 Vibrio cholerae gastroenteritis associated with eating raw oyster. Am J Epidemiol. 1981;114:293–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bik Em, Gouw RD, Mooi FR. DNA fingerprinting of Vibrio cholerae strains with a novel insertion sequence element: a tool to identify epidemic strain. J Clin Microbiol. 1996;34:1453–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Isaac-Marquez AP, Ledezma-Davila CM, Eslava CC, Navarro-Ocaña A, Cravioto-Quintana A. Serotypes of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 isolated from water supplies for human consumption in Campeche, Mexico and their antibiotic susceptibility patter. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1998;93:17–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Binsztein N, Costagliola MC, Pichel M, Jurquiza V, Ramirez FC, Akselman R, Vacchino M, Huq A, Colwell R. Viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae O1 in the aquatic environment of Argentina. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:7481–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sepulveda J, Valdespino JL, Garcia-Garcia L. Cholera in Mexico: the paradoxical benefits of the last pandemic. Intern J Infec Dis. 2006;10:4–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wachsmuth K, Olsvik O, Evins G, Popovic T. Molecular epidemiology of cholera. In: Wachsmuth K, Blake P, Olsvik O, editors. Vibrio cholerae and cholera. Molecular to global perspectives. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology; 1994.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Selander RK, Caugant DA, Ochman H, Musser JM, Gilmour MN, Whittam T. Methods of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis for bacterial population genetics and systemics. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1986;51:873–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Stroeher UH, Karageorgos LE, Morona R, Manning PA. Serotype conversion in Vibrio cholerae O1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1992;89:2566–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    García-Martínez J, Martínez-Murcia AJ, Rodríguez Varela F, Zorraquino A. Molecular evidence supporting the existence of two major groups in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 1996;14:231–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lan R, Reeves P. Recombination between rRNA operons created most of the ribotype variation observed in the seventh pandemic clone of Vibrio cholerae. Microbiology 1998;144:1213–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wachsmuth K, Evins G, Fields P, Olsvik O, Popovic T, Bopp C, Wells J, Carrillo C, Blake P. The molecular epidemiology of cholera in Latin America. J Infect Dis. 1993;167:621–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Popovic T, Boop Ch, Olsvic O, Wachsmuth K. Epidemiologic application of standarized ribotype scheme for Vibrio cholerae O1. J Clin Microbiol. 1993;31:2474–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chen F, Evins GM, Cook WL, Almeida R, Hargrett-Bean N, Wachsmuth K. Genetic diversity among toxigenic and non toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated from the Western hemisphere. Epidemiol Infect. 1991;107:225–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cravioto A, Beltrán P, Delgado G, Navarro A, Eslava C, Leon S, González A. Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae O139 “Bengal” is genetically related to Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa isolated in Mexico. J Infect Dis. 1994;169:1412–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cameron DN, Khambaty FM, Wachsmuth K, Tauxe RV, Barret TJ. Molecular characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. J Clin Microbiol. 1994;32:1685–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Evins G, Cameron D, Wells J, Green K, Popovic T, Giono S, Wachsmuth K, Tauxe R. The emerging diversity of electrophoretic types of Vibrio cholerae in the Western hemisphere. J Infect Dis. 1995;172:173–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Giono S, Rodriguez MG, Gutierrez L, Valdespino JL. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1. Rev Latinoam Microbiol. 1994;36:243–51.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Beltrán P, Delgado Gabriela, Navarro A, Trujillo F, Selander R, Cravioto A. Genetic diversity and population structure of Vibrio cholerae. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:581–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Shimada T, Arakawa E, Itoh K, Okitsu T, Matsushima A, Asai Y, Yamai S, Nakazato T, Nair B, Albert MJ, Takeda Y. Extended serotyping scheme for Vibrio cholerae. Curr Microbiol. 1994;28:175–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Yamai S, Okitsu T, Shimada T, Katsube Y. Distribution of serogroups of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 non-O139 with specific reference to their ability to produce cholera toxin, and addition of novel serogroups. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1997;71:1037–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Salle CA, Momen H. Identification of Vibrio cholerae by enzyme electrophoresis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1991;85:544–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Karaolis DKR, Lan R, Reeves PR. The sixth and seventh cholera pandemics are due to independent clones separately derived from environmental non toxigenic, non-O1 Vibrio cholerae. J Bacteriol. 1996;177:3191–8.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bik EM, Bunschoten AE, Gouw RD, Mooi FR. Genesis of the novel epidemic Vibrio cholerae O139 strain: evidence for horizontal transfer of genes involved in polysaccharide synthesis. EMBO J. 1995;14:209–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Delgado G. Análisis molecular de cepas de Vibrio cholerae. Tésis de Maestría. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2005.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Berche P, Poyart C, Abachin E, Lelievre H, Vandepitte J, Dodin A, Fournier JM. The novel epidemic strain O139 is closely related to the pandemic strain O1 of Vibrio cholerae. J Infect Dis. 1994;170:701–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Popovic T, Fields P, Olsvik O, Wells JG, Evins GM, Cameron DN, Farmer III JJ, Bopp CA, Wachsmuth K, Sack RB, Albert MJ, Nair B, Shimada T, Feeley JC. Molecular subtyping of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O139 causing epidemic cholera in India and Bangladesh, 1992–1993. J Infect Dis. 1995;171:122–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Calia K, Murtagh, Ferraro M, Calderwood S. Comparison of Vibrio cholerae O139 with Vibrio cholerae O1 Classical and El Tor biotypes. Infect Immun. 1994;62:1504–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Stroeher UH, Jedani KE, Dredge BK, Morona R, Brown MH, Karageorgos LE, Albert MJ, Manning PA. Genetic rearrangements in the rfb regions of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1995;92:10374–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Faruque S. Manujendra S. Asadulghani, Sack D. Sack B, Takeda Y, Nair B. The O139 serogroup of Vibrio cholerae comprises diverse clones of epidemic and non epidemic strains derived from multiple V. cholerae O1 or non-O1 progenitors. J Infect Dis. 2000;182:1161–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Karaolis DKR, Johnson JA, Bailey CC, Boedeker EC, Kaper JB, Reeves PR. A Vibrio cholerae pathogenicity island associated with epidemic and pandemic strains. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998;95:3134–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Colwell RR, Huq A, Chowdhury MA, Brayton PR, Xu B. Serogroup conversion of Vibrio cholerae. Can J Microbiol. 1995;41:946–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriela Delgado
    • 1
  • Rosario Morales
    • 1
  • Jose Luis Mendez
    • 1
  • Alejandro Cravioto
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Public Health, Faculty of MedicineUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases ResearchDhakaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations