Advertisement

Asiatic Cholera: Mole Hills and Mountains

  • Asish K. Mukhopadhyay
  • T. RamamurthyEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Infectious Disease book series (ID)

Abstract

The disease cholera has persisted in Asia since time immemorial. Almost all the pandemic phases of cholera had its origin from the Indian subcontinent. Historically, waves of cholera have wiped many million lives in this region mainly due to the general insanitary conditions and poor management of the disease. All the three cholera causing vibrios namely classical, El Tor, and the O139 have emerged from Asia at different times and one was replaced by the other by overcoming the acquired immunity. Antimicrobial resistance was not a big problem in the early 1960s as its use was very limited. With the use of third-generation drugs, Vibrio cholerae has acquired many resistance mechanisms over the passage of time and also due to prevailing antibiotic pressure. With its biotypes/serotypes there are considerable variations at the genetic level and many clones of V. cholerae have been detected. Recently, the hybrid strain of El Tor has spread in many Asian countries causing several cholera outbreaks. However, the importance of such genetic changes was not fully strengthened in epidemiological perspective. The perspectives of cholera vaccines have shown to be encouraging in many recent vaccine trials in Asia. Traditional medicine has lost its glory as it lacks the scientific evidence in curing infectious diseases. Some of the herbal formulations are now reconsidered for extensive research. The control measures for preventing cholera are yet to gain momentum in many Asian countries, as it involves coordination of government and the public with adequate funds to revamp the water supply and waste disposal systems. On the other hand, the clinical management of cholera and other diarrheal diseases are largely under the control in Asia.

Keywords

Endemic cholera Epidemics Antimicrobial resistance Sanitation Molecular typing Vaccines 

References

  1. 1.
    Barua, D. History of cholera. 1992. In: Barua CD, Greenough III WB, editors. Cholera New York, USA: Plenum Pub. Co. pp. 1–35.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Datta KK, Singh J. Epidemiological profile of outbreaks of cholera in India during 1975–1989. J Commun Dis. 1990;22:151–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Darbari BS, Tiwari HL, Agarwal S. Pattern of cholera in Raipur: a twelve year appraisal. J Indian Assoc Commun Dis. 1982;5:83–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Khanna KK, Dhanvijay A, Riley LW, Sehgal S, Kumari S. Cholera outbreak in Delhi-1988. J Commun Dis. 1990;22:35–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Narang P, Mendiratta DK, Deotale VS, Narang R. Changing patterns of Vibrio cholerae in Sevagram between 1990 and 2005. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2008;26:40–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Das S, Gupta S. Diversity of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Delhi, India, during 1992–2000. J Health Popul Nutr. 2005;23:44–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hamner S, Tripathi A, Mishra RK, Bouskill N, Broadaway SC, Pyle BH, Ford TE. The role of water use patterns and sewage pollution in incidence of water-borne/enteric diseases along the Ganges river in Varanasi, India. Int J Environ Health Res. 2006;16:113–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kaistha N, Mehta M, Gautam V, Gupta V. Outbreak of cholera in and around Chandigarh during two successive years (2002, 2003). Indian J Med Res. 2005;122:404–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Deen JL, von Seidlein L, Sur D, Agtini M, Lucas ME, Lopez AL, Kim DR, Ali M, Clemens JD. The high burden of cholera in children: comparison of incidence from endemic areas in Asia and Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Siddiqui FJ, Bhutto NS, von Seidlein L, Khurram I, Rasool S, Ali M, Zafar A, Deen JL, Clemens JD, Nizami Q, Bhutta ZA. Consecutive outbreaks of Vibrio cholerae O139 and V. cholerae O1 cholera in a fishing village near Karachi, Pakistan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006;100:476–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shah WA, Shahina M, Ali N. First report of Vibrio cholerae infection from Andaman and Nicobar, India. J Commun Dis. 2002;34:270–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sugunan AP, Ghosh AR, Roy S, Gupte MD, Sehgal SC. A cholera epidemic among the Nicobarese tribe of Nancowry, Andaman, and Nicobar, India. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;71:822–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chakraborty S, Deokule JS, Garg P, Bhattacharya SK, Nandy RK, Nair GB, Yamasaki S, Takeda Y, Ramamurthy T. Concomitant infection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in an outbreak of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 in Ahmadabad, India. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:3241–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sharma NC, Mandal PK, Dhillon R, Jain M. Changing profile of Vibrio cholerae O1, O139 in Delhi and its periphery (2003–2005). Indian J Med Res. 2007;125:633–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dutta B, Ghosh R, Sharma NC, Pazhani GP, Taneja N, Raychowdhuri A, Sarkar BL, Mondal SK, Mukhopadhyay AK, Nandy RK, Bhattacharya MK, Bhattacharya SK, Ramamurthy T. Spread of cholera with newer clones of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, serotype Inaba, in India. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:3391–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pal BB, Khuntia HK, Samal SK, Das SS, Chhotray GP. Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Inaba causing outbreaks of cholera in Orissa, India. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2006;59:266–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sugunan AP, Roy S, Shahina M, Shah WA, Bharadwaj AP, Singh SS, Thanasekaran K, Sathya Prakash M, Vijayachari P. Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. J Public Health. 2007;29:308–9.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Samadi AR, Huq MI, Shahid N, Khan MU, Eusof A, Rahman AS, Yunus M, Faruque AS. Classical Vibrio cholerae biotype displaces El tor in Bangladesh. Lancet. 1983;1:805–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Khan MU, Samadi AR, Huq MI, Yunus M, Eusof A. Simultaneous classical and El Tor cholera in Bangladesh. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 1984;2:13–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Siddique AK, Baqui AH, Eusof A, Haider K, Hossain MA, Bashir I, Zaman K. Survival of classic cholera in Bangladesh. Lancet. 1991;337:1125–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Samadi AR, Chowdhury MK, Huq MI, Khan MU. Seasonality of classical and El Tor cholera in Dhaka, Bangladesh: 17-year trends. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1983;77:853–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Huq MI, Sanyal SC, Samadi AR, Monsur KA. Comparative behaviour of classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated in Bangladesh during 1982. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 1983;1:5–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Longini M Jr, Yunus M, Zaman K, Siddique AK, Sack RB, Nizam A. Epidemic and endemic cholera trends over a 33-year period in Bangladesh. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:246–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Siddique AK, Zaman K, Baqui AH, Akram K, Mutsuddy P, Eusof A, Haider K, Islam S, Sack RB. Cholera epidemics in Bangladesh: 1985–1991. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 1992;10:79–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Koelle K, Pascual M, Yunus M. Serotype cycles in cholera dynamics. Proc Biol Sci. 2006;273:2879–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ali M, Emch M, Yunus M, Sack RB. Are the environmental niches of Vibrio cholerae O139 different from those of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor? Int J Infect Dis. 2001;5:214–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Alam M, Sultana M, Nair GB, Sack RB, Sack DA, Siddique AK, Ali A, Huq A, Colwell RR. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in the aquatic environment of Mathbaria, Bangladesh. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:2849–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Faruque SM, Islam MJ, Ahmad QS, Biswas K, Faruque AS, Nair GB, Sack RB, Sack DA, Mekalanos JJ. An improved technique for isolation of environmental Vibrio cholerae with epidemic potential: monitoring the emergence of a multiple-antibiotic-resistant epidemic strain in Bangladesh. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:1029–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kuo CL, Fukui H. Geographical structures and the cholera epidemic in modern Japan: Fukushima prefecture in 1882 and 1895. Int J Health Geogr. 2007;6:25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chemouilli P. The cholera epidemics and the development of public health in Meiji Japan. 1. Modernity, cholera, and health thought. Med Sci (Paris). 2004;20:109–14 (In French).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chemouilli P. The cholera epidemics and the development of public health in Meiji Japan. 2. Strength and weakness of public health politics. Med Sci (Paris). 2004;20:236–40 (In French).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fukase Y. On the prevalence of Asiatic cholera in Okinawa, 1879 and “Ryukyu-kiko”. In: Tsuchiya H, editor. Nippon Ishigaku Zasshi. 1999;45:373–400 (In Japanese).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Minami A, Hashimoto S, Abe H, Arita M, Taniguchi T, Honda T, Miwatani T, Nishibuchi M. Cholera enterotoxin production in Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated from the environment and from humans in Japan. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991;57:2152–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Miyagi K, Nakano T, Yagi T, Hanafusa M, Imura S, Honda T, Nakano Y, Sano K. Survey of Vibrio cholerae O1 and its survival over the winter in marine water of Port of Osaka. Epidemiol Infect. 2003;131:613–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kam KM, Leung TH, Ho YY, Ho NK, Saw TA. Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Hong Kong related to contaminated fish tank water. Public Health. 1995;109:389–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wong HC, Ting SH, Shieh WR. Incidence of toxigenic vibrios in foods available in Taiwan. J Appl Bacteriol. 1992;73:197–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Liu HL, Zhang JY, Feng ZH, Li W, Cui ZG, Zhang LJ, Zhu XP, Kan B. Application of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing in tracing and carrying out surveillance programs on O139 cholera outbreaks. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2006;27:102–6 (In Chinese).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhang J, Chang ZR, Zhong HJ, Wang DC, Xu J, Kan B, Ran L, Wang ZJ. Investigation on status of pollution of Vibrio cholerae in seafood and aquatic products in 12 provinces of China in 2005. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2007;41:208–11(In Chinese).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chang ZR, Zhang J, Wang DC, Zhong HJ, Xu J, Ran L, Wang MW, Wang ZJ, Kan B. Identification and molecular study on Vibrio cholerae in sea products. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2007;41:304–6 (In Chinese).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lü HK, Chen EF, Xie SY, Chai CL, Wei YD, Mo ST, Ye JL, Luo Y. Investigation on Vibrio cholerae carried in aquatic products of littoral areas, Zhejiang Province. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2006;40:336–8 (In Chinese).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bubshait SA, Al-Turki K, Qadri MH, Fontaine RE, Cameron D. Seasonal, non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa infections in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia. Int J Infect Dis. 2000;4:198–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Valenciano M, Coulombier D, Lopes Cardozo B, Colombo A, Alla MJ, Samson S, Connolly MA. Challenges for communicable disease surveillance and control in southern Iraq, April–June 2003. JAMA. 2003;290:654–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Khazaei HA, Rezaei N, Bagheri GR, Moin AA. A six-year study on Vibrio cholerae in southeastern Iran. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2005;58:8–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kakar F, Ahmadzai AH, Habib N, Taqdeer A, Hartman AF. A successful response to an outbreak of cholera in Afghanistan. Trop Doct. 2008;38:17–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Forssman B, Mannes T, Musto J, Gottlieb T, Robertson G, Natoli JD, Shadbolt C, Biffin B, Gupta L. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor cluster in Sydney linked to imported whitebait. Med J Aust. 2007;187:345–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tarantola A, Ioos S, Rotureau B, Paquet C, Quilici ML, Fournier JM. Retrospective analysis of the cholera cases imported to France from 1973 to 2005. J Travel Med. 2007;14:209–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yadav H, Chee CM. Cholera in Sarawak: a historical perspective (1873–1989). Med J Malaysia. 1990;45:194–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kelly-Hope LA, Alonso WJ, Thiem VD, Canh do G, Anh DD, Lee H, Miller MA. Temporal trends and climatic factors associated with bacterial enteric diseases in Vietnam, 1991–2001. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:7–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hashizume M, Armstrong B, Hajat S, Wagatsuma Y, Faruque AS, Hayashi T, Sack DA. The effect of rainfall on the incidence of cholera in Bangladesh. Epidemiology. 2008;19:103–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Simanjuntak CH, Larasati W, Arjoso S, Putri M, Lesmana M, Oyofo BA, Sukri N, Nurdin D, Kusumaningrum RP, Punjabi NH, Subekti D, Djelantik S, Sukarma, Sriwati, Muzahar, Lubis A, Siregar H, Mas’ud B, Abdi M, Sumardiati A, Wibisana S, Hendarwanto, Setiawan B, Santoso W, Putra E, Sarumpaet S, Ma’ani H, Lebron C, Soeparmanto SA, Campbell JR, Corwin AL. Cholera in Indonesia in 1993–1999. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65:788–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Pancharoen C, Niwattanakanjana N, Mekmullica J, Chongsrisawat V. Hospital-based epidemiology of childhood cholera: a 6-year review in a university hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai. 2004;87:S59–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tamang MD, Sharma N, Makaju RK, Sarma AN, Koju R, Nepali N, Mishra SK. An outbreak of El Tor cholera in Kavre district, Nepal. Kathmandu Univ Med J. 2005;3:138–42.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cooper PJ, Chico M, Sandoval C, Espinel I, Guevara A, Levine MM, Griffin GE, Nutman TB. Human infection with Ascaris lumbricoides is associated with suppression of the interleukin-2 response to recombinant cholera toxin B subunit following vaccination with the live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR. Infect Immun. 2001;69:1574–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Nagoba BS, Deshmukh SR, Dharane SM, Narute JV. Association of Giardia lamblia with Vibrio in cholera cases. Indian J Pediatr. 1992;59:386–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Saha DR, Rajendran K, Ramamurthy T, Nandy RK, Bhattacharya SK. Intestinal parasitism and Vibrio cholerae infection among diarrhoeal patients in Kolkata, India. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:661–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chadee K, Keller K, Forstner J, Innes DJ, Ravdin JI. Mucin and nonmucin secretagogue activity of Entamoeba histolytica and cholera toxin in rat colon. Gastroenterol. 1991;100:986–97.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ramamurthy T, Garg S, Sharma R, Bhattacharya SK, Nair GB, Shimada T, Takeda T, Karasawa T, Kurazano H, Pal A, Takeda Y. Emergence of novel strain of Vibrio cholerae with epidemic potential in southern and eastern India. Lancet. 1993;341:703–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shimada T, Arakawa E, Itoh K, Okitsu T, Matsushima A, Asai Y, Yamai S, Nakazato T, Nair GB, Islam MS, Albert MJ, Takeda Y. Extended serotyping scheme for Vibrio cholerae. Curr Microbiol. 1994;28:175–8.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Albert MJ, Siddique AK, Islam MS, Faruque AS, Ansaruzzaman M, Faruque SM, Sack RB. Large outbreak of clinical cholera due to Vibrio cholerae non-O1 in Bangladesh. Lancet. 1993;341:704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Nair GB, Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya SK, Mukhopadhyay AK, Garg S, Bhattacharya MK, Takeda T, Shimada T, Takeda Y, Deb BC. Spread of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal in India. J Infect Dis. 1994;169:1029–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mahalanabis D, Faruque AS, Albert MJ, Salam MA, Hoque SS. An epidemic of cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O139 in Dhaka, Bangladesh: clinical and epidemiological features. Epidemiol Infect. 1994;112:463–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya MK, Nair GB, Dutta D, Deb A, Ramamurthy T, Garg S, Saha PK, Dutta P, Moitra A, Mandal BK, Shimada T, Takeda Y, Deb BC. Clinical profile of acute diarrhoea cases infected with the new epidemic strain of Vibrio cholerae O139: designation of the disease as cholera. J Infect. 1993;27:11–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Singh J, Bora D, Sachdeva V, Sharma RS, Verghese T. Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 in less than five years old children hospitalised for watery diarrhoea in Delhi, 1993. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 1997;15:3–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sheikh A, Khan A, Malik T, Fisher-Hoch SP. Cholera in a developing megacity; Karachi, Pakistan. Epidemiol Infect. 1997;119:287–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Faruque AS, Fuchs GJ, Albert MJ. Changing epidemiology of cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 Bengal in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Epidemiol Infect. 1996;116:275–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mukhopadhyay AK, Garg S, Mitra R, Basu A, Rajendran K, Dutta D, Bhattacharya SK, Shimada T, Takeda T, Takeda Y, Nair GB. Temporal shifts in traits of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Calcutta: a 3-year (1993 to 1995) analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 1996;34:2537–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sack RB, Siddique AK, Longini IM Jr, Nizam A, Yunus M, Islam MS, Morris JG Jr, Ali A, Huq A, Nair GB, Qadri F, Faruque SM, Sack DA, Colwell RR. A 4-year study of the epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae in four rural areas of Bangladesh. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:96–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jabeen K, Hasan R. Re-emergence of Vibrio cholerae O139 in Pakistan: report from a tertiary care hospital. J Pak Med Assoc. 2003;53:335–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mitra R, Basu A, Dutta D, Nair GB, Takeda Y. Resurgence of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal with altered antibiogram in Calcutta, India. Lancet. 1996;348:1181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sundaram SP, Revathi J, Sarkar BL, Bhattacharya SK. Bacteriological profile of cholera in Tamil Nadu (1980–2001). Indian J Med Res. 2002;116:258–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Agrawal G, Jalgaonkar SV, Jagtap PM, Kamlakar UP, Deogade NG. Emergence and re-emergence of Vibrio cholerae O139: an epidemiological study during 1993–2002 at Nagpur, Central India. Indian J Med Sci. 2003;57:155–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Faruque SM, Chowdhury N, Kamruzzaman M, Ahmad QS, Faruque AS, Salam MA, Ramamurthy T, Nair GB, Weintraub A, Sack DA. Reemergence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae O139, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:1116–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sinha S, Chakraborty R, De K, Khan A, Datta S, Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya SK, Takeda Y, Nair GB. Escalating association of Vibrio cholerae O139 with cholera outbreaks in India. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:2635–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Al-Abbassi AM, Ahmed S, Al-Hadithi T. Cholera epidemic in Baghdad during 1999: clinical and bacteriological profile of hospitalized cases. East Mediterr Health J. 2005;11:6–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Imported cholera associated with a newly described toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O139 strain – California, 1993. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1993;42:501–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mahon BE, Mintz ED, Greene KD, Wells JG, Tauxe RV. Reported cholera in the United States, 1992–1994: a reflection of global changes in cholera epidemiology. JAMA. 1996;276:307–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kurazono T, Yamada F, Yamaguchi M, Ohzeki Y, Okuyama Y, Itoh K, Shimada T. The first report of traveler’s diarrhea associated with a newly described toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O139 strain in Japan. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1994;68:8–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Dalsgaard A, Nielsen GL, Echeverria P, Larsen JL, Schønheyder HC. Vibrio cholerae O139 in Denmark. Lancet. 1995;345:1637–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Faruque SM, Sack DA, Sack RB, Colwell RR, Takeda Y, Nair GB. Emergence and evolution of Vibrio cholerae O139. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003;100:1304–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dutta JK, Santhanam S, Misra BS, Ray SN. Effect of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole on vibrio clearance in cholera (El Tor): a comparative study. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1978;72:40–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Saraswathi K, Deodhar LP. A study of V. cholerae strains isolated in Bombay. J Postgrad Med. 1990;36:128–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ehara M, Nguyen BM, Nguyen DT, Toma C, Higa N, Iwanaga M. Drug susceptibility and its genetic basis in epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 in Vietnam. Epidemiol Infect. 2004;132:595–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Glass RI, Huq I, Alim AR, Yunus M. Emergence of multiply antibiotic-resistant Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh. J Infect Dis. 1980;142:939–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ranjit K, Nurahan M. Tetracycline resistant cholera in Kelantan. Med J Malaysia. 2000;55:143–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kondo S, Kongmuang U, Kalnauwakul S, Matsumoto C, Chen CH, Nishibuchi M. Molecular epidemiologic analysis of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated during the 1997–1998 cholera epidemic in southern Thailand. Epidemiol Infect. 2001;127:7–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Roychowdhury A, Pan A, Dutta D, Mukhopadhyay AK, Ramamurthy T, Nandy RK, Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya MK. Emergence of tetracycline-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Inaba, in Kolkata, India. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2008;61:128–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Phantouamath B, Sithivong N, Sisavath L, Munnalath K, Khampheng C, Insisiengmay S, Higa N, Kakinohana S, Iwanaga M. Transition of drug susceptibilities of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2001;32:95–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Mukhopadhyay AK, Basu A, Garg P, Bag PK, Ghosh A, Bhattacharya SK, Takeda Y, Nair GB. Molecular epidemiology of reemergent Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal in India. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:2149–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Basu A, Garg P, Datta S, Chakraborty S, Bhattacharya MK, Khan A, Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya SK, Yamasaki S, Takeda Y, Nair GB. Vibrio cholerae O139 in Calcutta, 1992–1998: incidence, antibiograms, and genotypes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:139–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Faruque SM, Siddique AK, Saha MN, Asadulghani, Rahman MM, Zaman K, Albert MJ, Sack DA, Sack RB. Molecular characterization of a new ribotype of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal associated with an outbreak of cholera in Bangladesh. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:1313–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Yamamoto T, Nair GB, Takeda Y. Emergence of tetracycline resistance due to a multiple drug resistance plasmid in Vibrio cholerae O139. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 1995;11:131–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tarantola A, Quilici ML; Laboratory Investigation Group. Vibrio cholerae O1 strains with decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in travellers returning from India (Rajasthan) to France, April 2007. Euro Surveill. 2007;12:E070503.2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Chatterjee S, Ghosh K, Raychoudhuri A, Pan A, Bhattacharya MK, Mukhopadhyay AK, Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya SK, Nandy RK. Phenotypic and genotypic traits and epidemiological implication of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 strains in India during 2003. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:824–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Pourshafie MR, Bakhshi B, Ranjbar R, Sedaghat M, Sadeghifard N, Zaemi Yazdi J, Parzadeh M, Raesi J. Dissemination of a single Vibrio cholerae clone in cholera outbreaks during 2005 in Iran. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:1615–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mukerjee S, Guha DK, Guha Roy UK, Studies on typing of cholera by bacteriophage- typing of Vibrio cholerae from Calcutta epidemics. Ann Biochem Exp Med. 1957;17:161–76.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Mukerjee S. Bacteriophage–typing of cholera. Bull WHO. 1963;28:337–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Basu S, Mukejee S. Bacteriophage typing of Vibrio El Tor. Experientia. 1968;24:299–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rathna K, Khairunnisa, Rajyalakshmi K, Naidu AS. Epidemiological patterns and incidence of bio-sero-and phage types of Vibrio cholerae in Hyderabad, India during 1971–1984. Acta Microbiol Hung. 1988;35:313–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Chattopadhyay DJ, Sarkar BL, Ansari MQ, Chakrabarti BK, Roy MK, Ghosh AN, Pal SC. New phage typing scheme for Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor strains. J Clin Microbiol. 1993;31:1579–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sarkar BL, De SP, Saha MR, Niyogi SK, Roy MK. Validity of new phage typing scheme against Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor strains. Indian J Med Res. 1994;99:159–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Chakrabarti AK, Ghose AN, Nair GB, Niyogi SK, Bhattacharya SK, Sarkar BL. Development and evaluation of a phage typing scheme for Vibrio cholerae O139. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:44–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Yam WC, Lung ML, Ng KY, Ng MH. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae in Hong Kong. J Clin Microbiol. 1989;27:1900–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Yam WC, Lung ML, Ng MH. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Vibrio cholerae strains associated with a cholera outbreak in Hong Kong. J Clin Microbiol. 1991;29:1058–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Matsumoto M, Suzuki M, Hiramatsu R, Yamazaki M, Matsui H, Sakae K, Suzuki Y, Miyazaki Y. Epidemiological investigation of a fatal case of cholera in Japan by phenotypic techniques and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Med Microbiol. 2002;51:264–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Radu S, Vincent M, Apun K, Abdul-Rahim R, Benjamin PG, Yuherman, Rusul G. Molecular characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 outbreak strains in Miri, Sarawak (Malaysia). Acta Trop. 2002;83:169–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Chen CH, Shimada T, Elhadi N, Radu S, Nishibuchi M. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics and epidemiological significance of ctx+ strains of Vibrio cholerae isolated from seafood in Malaysia. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:1964–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Pajni S, Sharma C, Bhasin N, Ghosh A, Ramamurthy T, Nair GB, Ramajayam S, Das B, Kar S, Roychowdhury S, Ghosh RK. Studies on the genesis of Vibrio cholerae O139: identification of probable progenitor strains. J Med Microbiol. 1995;42:20–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Shangkuan YH, Tsao CM, Lin HC. Comparison of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates by polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting and ribotyping. J Med Microbiol. 1997;46:941–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Olsvik O, Wahlberg J, Petterson B, Uhlén M, Popovic T, Wachsmuth IK, Fields PI. Use of automated sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-generated amplicons to identify three types of cholera toxin subunit B in Vibrio cholerae O1 strains. J Clin Microbiol. 1993;31:22–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Liu DP, Chen PJ, Lin CS, Wu TN. Molecular epidemiological studies of Vibrio cholerae in Taiwan: genotyping by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Zhonghua Min Guo Wei Sheng Wu Ji Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1995;28:291–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kurazono H, Okuda J, Takeda Y, Nair GB, Albert MJ, Sack RB, Chongsa-nguan M, Chaicumpa W. Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal isolated from India, Bangladesh and Thailand are clonal as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Infect. 1994;29:109–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Dalsgaard A, Serichantalergs O, Echeverria P. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of cholera toxin genes in Vibrio cholerae O139 recovered from patients in Thailand, India and Bangladesh. Scand J Infect Dis. 1995;27:585–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Garg P, Aydanian A, Smith D, J Glenn M Jr, Nair GB, Stine OC. Molecular epidemiology of O139 Vibrio cholerae: mutation, lateral gene transfer, and founder flush. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:810–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Faruque SM, Saha MN, Asadulghani, Bag PK, Bhadra RK, Bhattacharya SK, Sack RB, Takeda Y, Nair GB. Genomic diversity among Vibrio cholerae O139 strains isolated in Bangladesh and India between 1992 and 1998. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000;184:279–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Falklind-Jerkérus S, Albert MJ, Weintraub A. Lack of polymorphism in a Vibrio cholerae O139-specific DNA region encoding the somatic antigen in strains isolated during 1993–1998. Int J Med Microbiol. 2003;292:505–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Qu M, Xu J, Ding Y, Wang R, Liu P, Kan B, Qi G, Liu Y, Gao S. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O139 in China: polymorphism of ribotypes and CTX elements. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:2306–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Sharma C, Nair GB, Mukhopadhyay AK, Bhattacharya SK, Ghosh RK, Ghosh A. Molecular characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor strains isolated between 1992 and 1995 in Calcutta, India: evidence for the emergence of a new clone of the El Tor biotype. J Infect Dis. 1997;175:1134–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Faruque SM, Ahmed KM, Abdul Alim AR, Qadri F, Siddique AK, Albert MJ. Emergence of a new clone of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor displacing V. cholerae O139 Bengal in Bangladesh. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:624–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kam KM, Luey CK, Tsang YM, Law CP, Chu MY, Cheung TL, Chiu AW. Molecular subtyping of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in Hong Kong: correlation with epidemiological events from 1994 to 2002. J Clin Microbiol. 2003; 41:4502–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Arakawa E, Murase T, Matsushita S, Shimada T, Yamai S, Ito T, Watanabe H. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-based molecular comparison of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from domestic and imported cases of cholera in Japan. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:424–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Tapchaisri P, Na-Ubol M, Jaipaew J, Srimanote P, Chongsa-Nguan M, Yamasaki S, Hayashi H, Nair GB, Kurazono H, Chaicumpa W. Virulence genes of clinical Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates in Thailand and their ribotypes. J Infect. 2007;55:557–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Vadivelu J, Iyer L, Kshatriya BM, Puthucheary SD. Molecular evidence of clonality amongst Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor during an outbreak in Malaysia. Epidemiol Infect. 2000;124:25–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Son R, Rusul G, Samuel L, Yuherman, Senthil S, Rasip A, Nasreldin EH, Nishibuchi M. Note: characterization of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal isolated from water in Malaysia. J Appl Microbiol. 1998;85:1073–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Yang M, Diao BW, Cheng HJ, Ding S, Cui ZG, Chen FH, Xu XQ, Kan B, Yuan H. Study on the application of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis regarding infection sources identification during an outbreak of Vibrio cholerae in Jiangxi Province. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2007;28:891–4 (In Chinese).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Wang M, Li XQ, Mo ZY, Liu YF, Deng ZA, Shen JC, Zhang XQ. Analysis of characteristics of major pathogenicity-related genes of Vibrio cholerae isolated in Guangzhou area from 2001 to 2005. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2006;40:257–61 (In Chinese).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Ramamurthy T, Bag PK, Pal A, Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya MK, Shimada T, Takeda T, Karasawa T, Kurazono H, Takeda Y. Virulence patterns of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 strains isolated from hospitalised patients with acute diarrhoea in Calcutta, India. J Med Microbiol. 1993;39:310–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Chandrasekhar MR, Krishna BV, Patil AB. Changing characteristics of Vibrio cholerae: emergence of multidrug resistance and non-O1, non-O139 serogroups. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2008;39:1092–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Chatterjee S, Ghosh K, Raychoudhuri A, Chowdhury G, Bhattacharya MK, Mukhopadhyay AK, Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya SK, Klose KE, Nandy RK. Incidence, virulence factors, and clonality among clinical strains of non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolates from hospitalized diarrheal patients in Kolkata, India. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:1087–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Pal A, Ramamurthy T, Bhadra RK, Takeda T, Shimada T, Takeda Y, Nair GB, Pal SC, Chakrabarti S. Reassessment of the prevalence of heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST) among environmental Vibrio cholerae non-O1 strains isolated from Calcutta, India, by using a NAG-ST DNA probe. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1992;58:2485–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Sharma A, Chaturvedi AN. Prevalence of virulence genes (ctxA, stn, ompW and tcpA) among non-O1 Vibrio cholerae isolated from fresh water environment. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2006;209:521–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kumar P, Peter WA, Thomas S. Detection of virulence genes in Vibrio cholerae isolated from aquatic environment in Kerala, Southern India. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2008;151:256–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Jesudason MV, Balaji V, Mukundan U, Thomson CJ. Ecological study of Vibrio cholerae in Vellore. Epidemiol Infect. 2000;124:201–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Garg P, Nandy RK, Chaudhury P, Chowdhury NR, De K, Ramamurthy T, Yamasaki S, Bhattacharya SK, Takeda Y, Nair GB. Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Inaba from the prevailing O1 Ogawa serotype strains in India. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:4249–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Raychoudhuri A, Chatterjee S, Pazhani GP, Nandy RK, Bhattacharya MK, Bhattacharya SK, Ramamurthy T, Mukhopadhyay AK. Molecular characterization of recent Vibrio cholerae O1, El Tor, Inaba strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Kolkata, India. J Infect. 2007;55:431–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Mohapatra SS, Ramachandran D, Mantri CK, Singh DV. Characterization of the genetic background of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Inaba strains isolated in Trivandrum, southern India. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:260–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Pourshafie MR, Grimont F, Saifi M, Grimont PA. Molecular epidemiological study of Vibrio cholerae isolates from infected patients in Teheran, Iran. J Med Microbiol. 2000;49:1085–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Pourshafie M, Grimont F, Kohestani S, Grimont PA. A molecular and phenotypic study of Vibrio cholerae in Iran. J Med Microbiol. 2002;51:392–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Ansaruzzaman M, Bhuiyan NA, Safa A, Sultana M, McUamule A, Mondlane C, Wang XY, Deen JL, von Seidlein L, Clemens JD, Lucas M, Sack DA, Balakrish Nair G. Genetic diversity of El Tor strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 with hybrid traits isolated from Bangladesh and Mozambique. Int J Med Microbiol. 2007;297:443–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Nair GB, Qadri F, Holmgren J, Svennerholm AM, Safa A, Bhuiyan NA, Ahmad QS, Faruque SM, Faruque AS, Takeda Y, Sack DA. Cholera due to altered El Tor strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Bangladesh. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:4211–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Safa A, Sultana J, Dac Cam P, Mwansa JC, Kong RY. Vibrio cholerae O1 hybrid El Tor strains, Asia and Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:987–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Raychoudhuri A, Patra T, Kausik K, Ramamurthy T, Nandy RK, Takeda Y, Nair GB, Mukhopadhyay AK. Classical ctxB in Vibrio cholerae O1, Kolkata, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:131–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    González-Bonilla C, Valle-Valdez JG, Núñez-León A, Moguel-Pech L, Villanueva-Zamudio A. Seroepidemiology of cholera in Mexico. Rev Latinoam Microbiol. 1994;36:253–6 (In Spanish).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Hunt MD, Woodward WE, Keswick BH, Dupont HL. Seroepidemiology of cholera in Gulf coastal Texas. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988;54:1673–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Harris JB, Larocque RC, Chowdhury F, Khan AI, Logvinenko T, Faruque AS, Ryan ET, Qadri F, Calderwood SB. Susceptibility to Vibrio cholerae infection in a cohort of household contacts of patients with cholera in Bangladesh. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Qadri F, Wennerås C, Albert MJ, Hossain J, Mannoor K, Begum YA, Mohi G, Salam MA, Sack RB, Svennerholm AM. Comparison of immune responses in patients infected with Vibrio cholerae O139 and O1. Infect Immun. 1997;65:3571–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Chaignat CL, Monti V, Soepardi J, Petersen G, Sorensen E, Narain J, Kieny MP. Cholera in disasters: do vaccines prompt new hopes? Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008;7:431–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Islam Z, Maskery B, Nyamete A, Horowitz MS, Yunus M, Whittington D. Private demand for cholera vaccines in rural Matlab, Bangladesh. Health Policy. 2008;85:184–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Kim D, Canh do G, Poulos C, Thoa le TK, Cook J, Hoa NT, Nyamete A, Thuy DT, Deen J, Clemens J, Thiem VD, Anh DD, Whittington D. Private demand for cholera vaccines in Hue, Vietnam. Value Health. 2008;11:119–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Trach DD, Cam PD, Ke NT, Rao MR, Dinh D, Hang PV, Hung NV, Canh DG, Thiem VD, Naficy A, Ivanoff B, Svennerholm AM, Holmgren J, Clemens JD. Investigations into the safety and immunogenicity of a killed oral cholera vaccine developed in Vietnam. Bull World Health Organ. 2002;80:2–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Thiem VD, Deen JL, von Seidlein L, Canh do G, Anh DD, Park JK, Ali M, Danovaro-Holliday MC, Son ND, Hoa NT, Holmgren J, Clemens JD. Long-term effectiveness against cholera of oral killed whole-cell vaccine produced in Vietnam. Vaccine. 2006;24:4297–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Hill DR, Ford L, Lalloo DG. Oral cholera vaccines: use in clinical practice. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7:176–8.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Mahalanabis D, Lopez AL, Sur D, Deen J, Manna B, Kanungo S, von Seidlein L, Carbis R, Han SH, Shin SH, Attridge S, Rao R, Holmgren J, Clemens J, Bhattacharya SK. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the bivalent killed, whole-cell, oral cholera vaccine in adults and children in a cholera endemic area in Kolkata, India. PLoS One. 2008;3:e2323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Mahalanabis D, Ramamurthy T, Nair GB, Ghosh A, Shaikh S, Sen B, Thungapathra M, Ghosh RK, Pazhani GP, Nandy RK, Jana S, Bhattacharya SK. Randomized placebo controlled human volunteer trial of a live oral cholera vaccine VA1.3 for safety and immune response. Vaccine. 2009;27:4850–6.Google Scholar
  154. 153a.
    Sur D, Lopez AL, Kanungo S, Paisely A, Manna B, Ali M, Niyogi SK, Park JK, Sarkar B, Puri MK, Kim DR, Deen JL, Holmgren J, Carbis R, Rao R, Nguyen TV, Donner A, Ganguly NK, Nair GB, Bhattacharya SK, Clemens JD. Efficacy and safety of a modified killed-whole-cell oral cholera vaccine in India: an interim analysis of a cluster-randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trail. Lancet. 2009;374:1694–702.Google Scholar
  155. 154.
    Ohashi K. Memoirs on Chlorodyne and Shinyaku. Yakushigaku Zasshi. 1999;34:89–96 (In Japanese).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 155.
    Oi H, Matsuura D, Miyake M, Ueno M, Takai I, Yamamoto T, Kubo M, Moss J, Noda M. Identification in traditional herbal medications and confirmation by synthesis of factors that inhibit cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002;99:3042–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 156.
    Kataoka S. Functional effects of Japanese style fermented soy sauce (shoyu) and its components. J Biosci Bioeng. 2005;100:227–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 157.
    Brown MS, Burns CE, Hellings PJ. Health care in China. Nurse Pract. 1984;39:42–4, 46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 158.
    Bibeau G. From China to Africa: the same impossible synthesis between traditional and western medicines. Soc Sci Med. 1985;21:937–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 159.
    Winardi B, Adhyatma M. Diarrhoeal diseases among refugees in Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1982;13:361–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 160.
    Glass RI, Alim AR, Eusof A, Snyder JD, Jusuf B, Anwar S, Bakri Z, Helmi C, Winardi B. Cholera in Indonesia: epidemiologic studies of transmission in Aceh Province. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1984;33:933–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 161.
    Forbes GI, Lockhart JD, Robertson MJ, Allan WG. Cholera case investigation and the detection and treatment of cholera carriers in Hong Kong. Bull World Health Organ. 1968;39:381–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 162.
    Swaddiwudhipong W, Akarasewi P, Chayaniyayodhin T, Kunasol P, Foy HM. Several sporadic outbreaks of El Tor cholera in Sunpathong, Chiang Mai, September–October, 1987. J Med Assoc Thai. 1989;72:583–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 163.
    Wang ZS, Shepard DS, Zhu YC, Cash RA, Zhao RJ, Zhu ZX, Shen FM. Reduction of enteric infectious disease in rural China by providing deep-well tap water. Bull World Health Organ. 1989;67:171–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 164.
    Isa AR, Othman WM, Ishak A. Cholera outbreak in Tumpat, Kelantan-1990. Med J Malaysia. 1990;45:187–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 165.
    Huq A, Xu B, Chowdhury MA, Islam MS, Montilla R, Colwell RR. A simple filtration method to remove plankton-associated Vibrio cholerae in raw water supplies in developing countries. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1996;62:2508–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 166.
    Colwell RR, Huq A, Islam MS, Aziz KM, Yunus M, Khan NH, Mahmud A, Sack RB, Nair GB, Chakraborty J, Sack DA, Russek-Cohen E. Reduction of cholera in Bangladeshi villages by simple filtration. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003;100:1051–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 167.
    Liew KB, Lepesteur M. Performance of the rural health improvement scheme in reducing the incidence of waterborne diseases in rural Sarawak, Malaysia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006;100:949–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 168.
    Dalsgaard A, Forslund A, Tam NV, Vinh DX, Cam PD. Cholera in Vietnam: changes in genotypes and emergence of class I integrons containing aminoglycoside resistance gene cassettes in Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated from 1979 to 1996. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:734–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 169.
    Korthuis PT, Jones TR, Lesmana M, Clark SM, Okoseray M, Ingkokusumo G, Wignall FS. An outbreak of El Tor cholera associated with a tribal funeral in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1998;29:550–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 170.
    Swaddiwudhipong W, Akarasewi P, Chayaniyayodhin T, Kunasol P, Foy HM. A cholera outbreak associated with eating uncooked pork in Thailand. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 1990;8:94–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 171.
    Hoge CW, Bodhidatta L, Echeverria P, Deesuwan M, Kitporka P. Epidemiologic study of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 in Thailand: at the advancing edge of the eighth pandemic. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;143:263–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 172.
    Golding J, Emmett PM, Rogers IS. Gastroenteritis, diarrhoea and breast feeding. Early Hum Dev. 1997;49:S83–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of Cholera and Enteric DiseasesKolkataIndia
  2. 2.National Institute of Cholera and Enteric DiseasesKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations