Cardiovascular CT: Image Reconstruction

  • Annemarie M. den Harder
  • Arnold M. R. Schilham
  • Martin J. Willemink
Part of the Contemporary Medical Imaging book series (CMI)


Image reconstruction is the formation of images based on CT projection data. This process has undergone tremendous improvements over the last years. The current chapter covers different types of image reconstructions. First, the steps before the actual reconstruction can take place will be explained, including calibration of the CT system, formation of raw data, z-interpolation for spiral acquisitions, and ECG editing. Subsequently, the most common reconstruction techniques filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative reconstruction and their applications in cardiac CT will be discussed.


Computed tomography for cardiology Iterative reconstruction in cardiovascular CT Filtered back projection in cardiovascular CT Z-interpolation ECG editing Image reconstruction in cardiovascular CT 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ketcham RA, Hannah RD. Beam hardening correction for X-ray computed tomography of heterogeneous materials. Comput Geosci. 2014;67:49–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boas FE, Fleischmann D. CT artifacts: causes and reduction techniques. Imaging Med. 2012;4:229–40.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Goldman LW. Principles of CT: multislice CT. J Nucl Med Technol. 2008;36(2):57,68; quiz 75–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brink JA, Heiken JP, Wang G, McEnery KW, Schlueter FJ, Vannier MW. Helical CT: principles and technical considerations. Radiographics. 1994;14(4):887–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Matsumoto H, Kondo T, Watanabe S, et al. ECG-edited middiastolic phase reconstruction improves image quality at 64-MDCT coronary angiography of patients with atrial fibrillation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008;191(6):1659–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cademartiri F, Mollet NR, Runza G, et al. Improving diagnostic accuracy of MDCT coronary angiography in patients with mild heart rhythm irregularities using ECG editing. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186(3):634–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kruger BL, Lee F, Bruesewitz MR, Primak A, Williamson EE, McCollough CH. Quality recovery in cardiac CT angiography: how to edit an ECG trace to improve image quality. Abstract Archives of the RSNA 2007(LL-PH5183).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cademartiri F, La Grutta L, Runza G, et al. Influence of convolution filtering on coronary plaque attenuation values: observations in an ex vivo model of multislice computed tomography coronary angiography. Eur Radiol. 2007;17(7):1842–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Willemink MJ, de Jong PA, Leiner T, et al. Iterative reconstruction techniques for computed tomography part 1: technical principles. Eur Radiol. 2013;23(6):1623–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fleischmann D, Boas FE. Computed tomography–old ideas and new technology. Eur Radiol. 2011;21(3):510–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Den Harder AM, Willemink MJ, De Ruiter QM, et al. Dose reduction with iterative reconstruction for coronary CT angiography: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Radiol. 2015;89:20150068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hecht HS, de Siqueira ME, Cham M, et al. Low- vs. standard-dose coronary artery calcium scanning. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2015;16(4):358–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    van Osch JA, Mouden M, van Dalen JA, et al. Influence of iterative image reconstruction on CT-based calcium score measurements. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014;30(5):961–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Willemink MJ, Schilham AM, Leiner T, Mali WP, de Jong PA, Budde RP. Iterative reconstruction does not substantially delay CT imaging in an emergency setting. Insights Imaging. 2013;4(3):391–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Oda S, Weissman G, Vembar M, Weigold WG. Cardiac CT for planning redo cardiac surgery: effect of knowledge-based iterative model reconstruction on image quality. Eur Radiol. 2015;25(1):58–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annemarie M. den Harder
    • 1
  • Arnold M. R. Schilham
    • 1
  • Martin J. Willemink
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations