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Closed Ecological Systems, Space Life Support and Biospherics

  • Mark Nelson
  • Nickolay S. Pechurkin
  • John P. Allen
  • Lydia A Somova
  • Josef I. Gitelson
Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering book series (HEE, volume 10)

Abstract

This chapter explores the development of a new type of scientific tool – man-made closed ecological systems. These systems have had a number of applications within the past 50 years. They are unique tools for investigating fundamental processes and interactions of ecosystems. They also hold the potentiality for creating life support systems for space exploration and habitation outside of Earth’s biosphere. Finally, they are an experimental method of working with small “biospheric systems” to gain insight into the functioning of Earth’s biosphere. The chapter reviews the terminology of the field, the history and current work on closed ecological systems, bioregenerative space life support and biospherics in Japan, Europe, Russia, and the United States where they have been most developed. These projects include the Bios experiments in Russia, the Closed Ecological Experiment Facility in Japan, the Biosphere 2 project in Arizona, the MELiSSA program of the European Space Agency as well as fundamental work in the field by NASA and other space agencies. The challenges of achieving full closure, and of recycling air and water and producing high-production crops for such systems are discussed, with examples of different approaches being used to solve these problems. The implications for creating sustainable technologies for our Earth’s environment are also illustrated.

Key Words

Life support biospherics bioregenerative food air water recycling microcosm closed ecological systems Bios NASA CEEF Biosphere 2 BIO-Plex 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Nelson
    • 1
  • Nickolay S. Pechurkin
    • 2
  • John P. Allen
    • 3
  • Lydia A Somova
    • 4
  • Josef I. Gitelson
    • 5
  1. 1.Institute of EcotechnicsLondonUK
  2. 2.Krasnoyarsk State UniversityKrasnoyarskRussia
  3. 3.Gobal Ecotechnics CorporationSanta FeUSA
  4. 4.Institute of Biophysics SB RASKrasnoyarskRussia
  5. 5.Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Russian Academy of SciencesKrasnoyarskRussia

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