Advertisement

Aging Effects on the Optics of the Eye

  • Pablo Artal
Part of the Aging Medicine book series (AGME)

Abstract

Different factors contribute to the increase in optical aberrations with age: possible modifications in the aberrations of the cornea, the lens, or even their relative contributions. The aberrations associated with the anterior surface of the cornea slightly change with age in a normal population, but the aberrations of the crystalline lens change due to the continuous modification of the lens shape with age. As the lens grows, its dimensions, curvatures, and refractive index change, altering the lens aberrations. Glasser and Campbell found a large change in the spherical aberration of excised older lenses measured in vitro. Another important factor to be considered is the nature of aberration coupling within the eye. It was shown that, in young subjects, the lens tends to compensate part of the corneal aberrations to produce an improved retinal image. As the aberrations of the lens change with age, it is quite plausible that this compensation is partially or completely lost. This explains the overall increase in aberration and the reduction of retinal image quality throughout the life span. This chapter will review the current ideas on the change of ocular aberrations with age and the possible impact this will have on the design of some ophthalmic devices, such as intraocular lenses.

Keywords

Optics of the eye Increase in optical aberrations Aging of the eye Refractive index Ophthalmic devices 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Part of the research described in this chapter has been supported by the Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (MEC) in Spain, and by AMO_Groningen (The Netherlands). The author also wishes to thank all his collaborators in his laboratory at Murcia University and elsewhere who greatly contributed in many of the aspects of the research briefly described here.

References

  1. 1.
    Weale RA (1992) The senescence of human vision. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Owsley C, Sloane ME (1990) Vision and aging. In: Boller F, Grafman J (eds). Handbook of Neuropsychology, vol 4. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. (Biomedical Division), pp 229–249Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Owsley C, Sekuler R, and Siemsen D (1983) Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood. Vision Res 23:689–699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Artal P, Ferro M, Miranda I, and Navarro R (1993) Effects of aging in retinal image quality. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10:1656–1662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Burton KB, Owsley C, Sloane ME (1993) Aging and neural spatial contrast sensitivity: photopic vision. Vision Res. 33:939–946PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Guirao A, González C, Redondo M, Geraghty E, Norrby S, and Artal P (1999) Average optical performance of the human eye as a function of age in a normal population. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40:197–202Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jenkins TCA (1963) Aberrations of the eye and their effects on vision: part 1.Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 20:59–91Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Calver R, Cox MJ, and Elliot DB (1999) Effect of aging on the monochromatic aberrations of the human eye. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 16(9):2069–2078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McLellan JS, Marcos S, and Burns SA (2001) Age-related changed in monochromatic wave aberrations of the human eye. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42:1390–1395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    .Ijspeert JK, de Waard PWT, van den Berg TJTP, and de Jong PTVM (1990) The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age and pigmentation. Vision Res. 36:699–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Guirao A, Redondo M, and Artal P (2000) Optical aberrations of the human cornea as a function of age. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 17(10):1697–1702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Glasser A, and Campbell MCW (1998) Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age. Vision Res. 38:209–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Artal P and Guirao A (1998) Contribution of the cornea and the lens to the aberrations of the human eye. Optics Letters 23:1713–1715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Artal P, Guirao A, Berrio E, and Williams, DR (2001) Compensation of corneal aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye. Journal of Vision, 1(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Artal P, Berrio E, Guirao A, Piers P (2002) Contribution of the cornea and internal surfaces to the change of ocular aberrations with age. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 19:137–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Santamaría J, Artal P, Bescós J (1987) Determination of the point-spread function of the human eye using a hybrid optical-digital method. J Opt Soc Am A. 4:1109–1114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Artal P, Marcos S, Navarro R, Williams DR (1995) Odd aberrations and double-pass measurements of retinal image quality. J Opt Soc Am A. 12:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Díaz-Doutón F, Benito A, Pujol J, Arjona M, Güell JL, Artal P (2006) Comparison of the Retinal Image Quality with a Hartmann-Shack Wavefront Sensor and a Double-Pass Instrument. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47:1710–1716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liang J, Grimm B, Goelz S, and Bille JF (1994) Objective measurement of the WA’s aberration of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack sensor. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11:1949–1957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liang J and Williams DR (1997) Aberrations and retinal image quality of the normal human eye. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14:2873–2883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Prieto PM, Vargas-Martín F, Goelz S, and Artal P(2000) Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 17:1388–1398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Iglesias I, Berrio E and Artal P (1998) Estimates of the ocular wave aberration from pairs of double-pass retinal images. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 15:2466–2476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Guirao A and Artal P (2000) Corneal wave-aberration from videokeratography: accuracy and limitations of the procedure. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 17:955–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tabernero J, Piers P, Benito A, Redondo M and Artal P (2006) Predicting the optical performance of eyes implanted with IOLs to correct spherical aberration. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47:4651–4658PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tabernero J, Piers P and Artal P (2007) Intraocular lens to correct corneal coma. Opt. Lett. 32 (4):406–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pablo Artal
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratorio de Optica (Departamento de Fisica)Universidad de MurciaMurciaSpain

Personalised recommendations