Advertisement

Breathe Easy in Seattle

Addressing Asthma Disparities Through Healtheir Housing
  • James W. Krieger
  • Tim K. Takaro
  • Janice C. Rabkin

Abstract

Asthma is a common chronic health condition that disproportionately affects low income people and people of color. The prevalence and morbidity of asthma in the United States have increased dramatically in the past two decades and remain high (1). Relative to wealthier and white populations, disadvantaged populations have higher asthma prevalence and experience more severe impacts such as severe attacks leading to emergency department visits and hospitalizations (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12). Two recent publications summarize the disproportionate asthma morbidity found among black, Native American, and some Latino populations (13,14). Non-Hospanic blacks and American Indians of all ages had current asthma prevalence 30% higher than non-Hispanic whites in 2002 (15). The emergency department visit rate among blacks was 380% higher than that among whites, the hospitalization rate was 225% higher, and the mortality rate was 200% higher (15).

Keywords

Home Visit Public Housing Indoor Allergen Asthma Morbidity European Community Respiratory Health Survey 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Mannino, D. M., Homa, D. M., Akinbami, L. J., Moorman, J. E., Gwynn, C., and Redd, S. C. (2002) Surveillance for asthma—United States, 1980–1999. MMWR Surveill. Summ. 51(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aligne, C. A., Auinger, P., Byrd, R. S., and Weitzman, M. (2000) Risk factors for pediatric asthma: Contributions of poverty, race, and urban residence. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 162, 873–877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Crain, E. F., Weiss, K. B., Bijur, P. E., Hersh, M., Westbrook, L., and Stein, R. E. K. (1994) An estimate of the prevalence of asthma and wheezing among inner-city children. Pediatrics 94(3), 356–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Litonjua, A. A., Carey, V. J., Weiss, S. T., and Gold, D. R. (1999) Race, socioeconomic factors, and area of residence are associated with asthma prevalence. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 28(6), 394–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weiss, K. B. and Gergen, P. J. (1992) Inner-city asthma: the epidemology of an emerging US public health concern. Chest 101(suppl), 362S–367S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wissow, L. S., Gittelsohn, A. M., Szklo, M., et al. (1988) Poverty, race and hospitalization for childhood asthma. Am. J. Public Health 78, 777–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carr, W., Zeitel, L., and Weiss, K. (1992) Asthma hospitalization and mortality in New York City. Am. J. Public Health 82, 59–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Marder, D., Targonsky, P., Orris, O., Persky, V., and Addington, W. (1992) Effect of racial and socioeconomic factors on asthma mortality in Chicago. Chest 101, 427S–430S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Call, R. S., Smith, T. F., Morris, E., Chapman, M. D., and Platts-Mills, T. A. E. (1992) Risk factors for asthma in inner city children. J. Pediatr. 121, 862–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lang, D. M., Polansky, M. (1994) Patterns of asthma mortality in Philadelphia from 1969 to 1991, N Engl. J. Med. 331(23), 1542–1546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Grant, E. N., Alp, H. (1999) The challenge of inner-city asthma. Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med. 5(1), 27–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eggleston, P. A. (1998) Urban children and asthma. Immunol. Allergy Clin. North Am. 18, 75–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mayrides, M., and Levy, R. (2005) Ethnic Disparities in the Burden and Treatment of Asthma. Washington, DC: Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America and National Pharmaceutical Council, pp. 1–60.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gold, D. R. and Wright, R. (2005) Population disparities in asthma. Annu. Rev. Public Health 26, 89–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    NCHS (2002) Asthma Prevalence, Health Care Use and Mortality, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/asthma/asthma.htm, accessed 4/24/06.
  16. 16.
    Grant, E. N., Alp, H., and Weiss, K. B. (1999) The challenge of inner-city asthma. Curr. Opin. Pulm Med. 5(1), 27–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wooton, M. and Ashley, P. (2000) Residential Hazards: Asthma. Healthy Homes Initiative Background Information. US Department of HUD.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Huss, K., Rand, C. S., Butz, A. M., et al. (1994) Home environmental risk factors in urban minority asthmatic children. Ann. Allergy 72(2), 173–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Christiansen, S. C., Martin, S. B., Schleicher, N. C., Koziol, J. A., Hamilton, R. G., and Zuraw, B. L. (1996) Exposure and sensitization to environmental allergen of predominantly Hispanic children with asthma in San Diego’s inner city. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 98(2), 288–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Willies-Jacob, L. J., Denson-Lino, J. M., Rosas, A., O’Connor, R. D., and Wilson, N. W. (1993) Socioeconomic status and allergy in children with asthma. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 92(4), 630–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gelber, L. E., Seltzer, L. H., Bouzoukis, J. K., Pollart, S. M., Chapman, M. D., and Platts-Mills, T. A. (1993) Sensitization and exposure to indoor allergens as risk factors for asthma among patients presenting to hospital. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 147(3), 573–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sarpong, S. B., Hamilton, R. G., Eggleston, P. A., and Adkinson, N. F. (1996) Socioeconomic status and race as risk factors for cockroach allergen exposure and sensitization in children with asthma. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 97(6), 1393–1401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eggleston, P. A. (2000) Environmental causes of asthma in inner city children. The National Cooperative Inner City Asthma Study. Clin. Rev. Allergy Immunol. 18(3), 311–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lanphear, B. P., Aligne, C. A., Auinger, P., Weitzman, M., and Byrd, R. S. (2001) Residential exposures associated with asthma in US children. Pediatrics 107(3), 505–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Harrison, B. D. (1998) Psychosocial aspects of asthma in adults. Thorax 53(6), 519–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wright, R. J. and Steinbach, S. F. (2001) Violence: an unrecognized environmental exposure that may contribute to greater asthma morbidity in high risk inner-city populations. Environ. Health Perspect. 109(10), 1085–1089.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Crain, E. F., Kercsmar, C., Weiss, K. B., Mitchell, H., and Lynn, H. (1998) Reported difficulties in access to quality care for children with asthma in the inner city. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 152(4), 333–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Halm, E. A., Mora, P., and Leventhal, H. (2006) No symptoms, no asthma: the acute episodic disease belief is associated with poor self-management among inner-city adults with persistent asthma. Chest 129(3), 573–580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wright, R. J., Cohen, R. T., and Cohen, S. (2005) The impact of stress on the development and expression of atopy. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 5(1), 23–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Apter, A. J., Reisine, S. T., Affleck, G., Barrows, E., and ZuWallack, R. L. (1998) Adherence to twice-daily dosing of inhaled steroids. Socioeconomic and health-belief differences. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157, 1810–1817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Christiansen, S. C., Martin, S. B., Schleicher, N. C., Koziol, J. A., Hamilton, R. G., and Zuraw, B. L. (1996) Exposure and sensitization to environmental allergen of predominantly Hispanic children with asthma in San Diego’s inner city. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 98(2), 288–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Willies-Jacobo, L. J., Denson-Lino, J. M., Rosas, A., O’Connor, R. D., and Wilson, N. W. (1993) Socioeconomic status and allergy in children with asthma. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 92(4), 630–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gelber, L. E., Seltzer, L. H., Bouzoukis, J. K., Pollart, S. M., Chapman, M. D., and Platts-Mills, T. A. (1993) Sensitization and exposure to indoor allergens as risk factors for asthma among patients presenting to hospital. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 147(3), 573–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sarpong, S. B., Hamilton, R. G., Eggleston, P. A., and Adkinson, N. F. (1996) Socioeconomic status and race as risk factors for cockroach allergen exposure and sensitization in children with asthma. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 97(6), 1393–1401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gergen, P. J., Turkeltaub, P. C., and Kovar, M. G. (1987) The prevalence of allergic skin test reactivity to common aeroallergens in the US population. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 80, 669–679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lewis, S. A., Weiss, S. T., Platts-Mills, T. A. E., Syring, M., and Gold, D. R. (2001) Association of specific allergen sensitization with socioeconomic factors and allergic disease in a population of Boston women. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 107, 615–622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Strachan, D. (1996) Socioeconomic factors and the development of allergy. Toxicol. Lett. 86, 199–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Eggleston, P. A. and Bush, R. K. (2001) Environmental allergen avoidance: an overview. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 107(3 Suppl), S403–S405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Platts-Mills, T. A., Sporik, R. B., Wheatley, L. M., and Heymann, P. W. (1995) Is there a dose-response relationship between exposure to indoor allergens and symptoms of asthma? J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 96(4), 435–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sporik, R., Squillace, S. P., Ingram, J. M., Rakes, G., Honsinger, R. W., and Platts-Mills, T. A. (1999) Mite, cat, and cockroach exposure, allergen sensitisation, and asthma in children: a case-control study of three schools. Thorax 54(8), 675–680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chan-Yeung, M., Ferguson, A., Watson, W., et al. (2005) The Canadian childhood asthma primary prevention study: outcomes at 7 years of age. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 116, 49–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Institute of Medicine Committee on the Assessment of Asthma and Indoor Air. (2000) Clearing the Air: Asthma and Indoor Air Exposures. Washington DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Institute of Medicine, Committee on Damp Indoor Spaces and Health. (2004) Damp Indoor Spaces and Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Litonjua, A. A., Milton, D. K., Celedon, J. C., Ryah, L., Weiss, S. T., and Gold, D. R. (2002) A longitudinal analysis of wheezing in young children: the independent effects of early life exposure to house dust endotoxin, allergens, and pets. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110(5), 736–742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    von Mutius, E. (2004) Influences in allergy: Epidemiology and the environment. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 113(3), 373–379.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Huss, K., Rand, C. S., Butz, A. M., et al. (1994) Home environmental risk factors in urban minority asthmatic children. Ann. Allergy 72(2), 173–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kitch, B. T., Chew, G., Burge, H. A., et al. (2000) Socioeconomic predictors of high allergen levels in homes in the greater Boston area. Environ. Health Perspect. 108(4), 301–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rosen, G. (1958) A History of Public Health. Publications, New York, MD. 225p.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hyndman, S. (1998) Making connections between housing and health. Putting Health into Place. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, NY, pp. 191–207.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wood, R. A., Eggleston, P. A., Lind, P., et al. (1988) Antigenic analysis of household dust samples. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 137, 358–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gelber, L. E., Seltzer, L. H., Bouzoulkis, J. K., et al. (1993) Sensitization and exposure to dust mite allergens as risk factors for asthma among patients presenting to hospital. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 147, 573–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Robinson, T. and Russell, P. (1992) Healthy indoor environments for energy efficient housing, Proceedings of the 9th World Clean Air Congress. Montreal, Canada 7:IU-12B.11.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Northridge, M. E. and Shepard, P. M. (1997) Environmental racism and public health. Am. J. Public Health 87(5), 730–732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Custovic, A. and Woodcock, A. (2001) On allergens and asthma (again): does exposure to allergens in homes exacerbate asthma? Clin. Exp. Allergy 31, 670–673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dales, R. E. (1991) Respiratory health effects of home dampness and molds among Canadian children. Am. J. Epidemiol. 134(2), 196–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Andriessen, J. W., Brunkekreef, B., and Roemer, W. (1998) Home dampness and respiratory health status in European children. Clin. Exp. Allergy 28, 1191–1200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Carswell, F., Birmingham, K., Oliver, J., Crewes, A., and Weeks, J. (1996) The respiratory effects of reduction of mite allergen in the bedrooms of asthmatic children—a double-blind controlled trial. Clin. Exp. Allergy 26, 386–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Verhoeff, A. P., Van Strien, R. T., van Wijnen, J. H., and Brunekreef, B. (1995) Damp housing and childhood respiratory symptoms: The role of sensitization to dust mites and molds. Am. J. Epidemiol. 141, 103–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    De Blay, F., Chapman, M. D., and Platts-Mills, T. A. (1991) Airborne cat allergen (Fel d I). Environmental control with the cat in situ. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 143(6), 1334–1339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ostro, B. D., Lipsett, M. J., Mann, J. K., Wiener, M. B., and Selner, J. (1994) Indoor air pollution and asthma. results from a panel study. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 149(6), 1400–1406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rosenstreich, D. L., Eggleston, P., Kattan, M., et al. (1997) The role of cockroach allergy and exposure to cockroach allergen in causing morbidity among inner-city children with asthma. N. Engl. J. Med. 336(19), 1356–1363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Larson, T. V. and Koenig, J. Q. (1994) Wood smoke: emissions and noncancer respiratory effects. Ann. Rev. Public Health 15, 133–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zock, J. P., Jarvis, D., Luczynska, C., Sunyer, J. and Burney, P. (2002) European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Housing characteristics, reported mold exposure, and asthma in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110(2), 285–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lewis, S. A., Weiss, S. T., Platts-Mills, T. A. E., Burge, H., and Gold, D. (2002) The role of indoor allergen sensitization and exposure in causing morbidity in women with asthma. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165, 961–966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Eisner, M. D., Yelin, E. H., Katz, P. P., Earnest, G., and Blanc, P. D. (2002) Exposure to indoor combustion and adult asthma outcomes: environmental tobacco smoke, gas stoves and wood smoke. Thorax 57, 973–978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Woodcock, A., Forster, L., Matthews, E., et al. (2003) Control of Exposure to Mite Allergen and Allergen-Impermeable Bed Covers for Adults with Asthma. N. Engl. J. Med. 349, 225–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Eggleston, P. A. (2001) Methods and effectiveness of indoor environmental control. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 87(6 Suppl 3), 44–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    O’Connor, G. T. (2005) Allergen avoidance in asthma: what do we do now? J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 116(1), 26–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Krieger, J. K., Takaro, T. K., Allen, C., et al. (2002) The Seattle-King County Healthy Homes Project: implementation of a comprehensive approach to improving indoor environmental quality for low-income children with asthma. Environ. Health Perspect. 110(Suppl 2), 311–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Krieger, J. W., Takaro, T. K., Song, L., and Weaver, M. (2005) The Seattle-King County Healthy Homes project: A randomized, controlled trial of a community health worker intervention to decrease exposure to indoor asthma triggers. Am. J. Public Health 95, 652–659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Arbes, S. J., Jr., Cohn, R. D., Yin, M., Muilenberg, M. L., Friedman, W., and Zeldin, D. C. (2004) Dog allergen (Can f 1) and cat allergen (Fel d a) in UW homes: Results from the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 114, 111–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Alliance for Healthy Homes Home Page, http://www.afhh.org/., accessed April 11, 2007.
  73. 73.
    Healthy House Environmental Health Watch Home Page, at http://www.ehw.org/HealthyHouse/HH home.htm, accessed April 11, 2007.
  74. 74.
    Jacobs, D. E., Friedman, W., Ashley, P., and McNairy, M. (1999) The Healthy Homes Initiative: A Preliminary Plan (Full Report). Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Office of Lead Hazard Control.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Morgan, W. J., Crain, E. F., Gruchalla, R. S., et al. (2004) Results of a home-based environmental intervention among urban children with asthma. N. Engl. J. Med. 351, 1068–1080.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Butz, A. M., Tsoukleris, M. G., Donithan, M., et al. (2006) Effectiveness of nebulizer use-targeted asthma education on underserved children with asthma. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 160(6), 622–628.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Williams, S. G., Brown, C. M., Falter, K. H., et al. (2006) Does a multifaceted environmental intervention alter the impact of asthma on inner-city children? J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 98(2), 249–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Brown, J. V., Demi, A. S., and Wilson, S. R. (2002) Home-based asthma education of young low-income children and their families. J. Pediatr. Psychol. 27, 667–688.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Carter, M. C., Perzanowski, M. S., Raymond, A., et al. (2001) Home intervention in the treatment of asthma among inner-city children. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 108, 732–737.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Eggleston, P. A., Butz, A., Rand, C., et al. (2005) Home environmental intervention in inner-city asthma: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 95(6), 518–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    National Center for Healthy Housing, Comparing Green Building Guidelines and Healthy Homes Principles: A Preliminary Investigation. http://www.centerforhealthyhousing.org/html/green_analysis.html, accessed 7/23/06.
  82. 82.
    US Green Building Council’s LEED for Homes, at http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CategoryID=19, accessed April 11, 2007.
  83. 83.
    National Association of Home Builders’ NAHB Green Home Building Guidelines, http://www.nahb.org/generic.aspx?sectionID=222&genericContentID=56077, accessed April 11, 2007.
  84. 84.
    Enterprise Community Partner’s Green Communities Criteria, http://www.greencommunitiesonline.org/., accessed April 11, 2007.
  85. 85.
    US Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy Home Page, http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfrn?c=home.index, accessed April 11, 2007.
  86. 86.
    American Lung Association’s Health House Builder Guidelines, http://www.healthhouse.org/consumer/Build.asp, accessed April 11, 2007.
  87. 87.
    New York City Department of Health. Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Disease Epidemiology. (2000), Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor Environments. New York, NY.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Storey, E., Dangman, I. K., Schenck, P., et al. (2004) Guidance for Clinicians on the Recognition and Management of Health Effects Related to Mold Exposure and Moisture indoors. Farmington, C. T.: University of Connecticut Health Center, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Center for Indoor Environments and Health.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Macher, J., ed. (1999) Bioaerosols: Assessment and Control. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Pertussis. (1997) In: Peter, G., ed. Red Book: 1997 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 24th ed., Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, p. 400.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Platts-Mills, T. A., Vaughan, J. W., Carter, M. C., and Woodfolk, J. A. (2000) The role of intervention in established allergy: avoidance of indoor allergens in the treatment of chronic allergic disease. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 106, 787–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tovey, E. and Marks, G. (1999) Methods and effectiveness of environmental control. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 103, 179–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Eggleston, P. A. and Bush, R. K. (2001) Environmental allergen avoidance: an overview. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 107(3 Suppl), S403–S405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Eggleston, P. A. (2005) Improving indoor environments: reducing allergen exposures. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 116(1), 122–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Platts-Mills, T. A. E. (2004) Allergen avoidance. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 113, 388–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Bush, R. K. and Portnoy, J. M. (2001) The role and abatement of fungal allergens in allergic diseases. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 107(suppl), S430–S440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    American Lung Association (1997) Residential air cleaning devices: Types, effectiveness, and health impacts. http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.asp?c=dvLUK90oE&b=39289, accessed April 25, 2007.
  98. 98.
    Code of Fed Regs., US Government Printing Office, rev July 2001. 40CFR 156.10, 40(20), 54–62.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Code of Fed Regs., US Government Printing Office, 2001. 16CFR1500.3, 2, 404–412.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Juniper, E. F., Svensson, K., Mork, A. C., et al. (2004) Measurement properties and interpretation of three shortened versions of the asthma control questionnaire. Respir. Med. 99, 553–558; EPUB 2004 Nov. 26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Rosen, G. (1958) A History of Public Health. MD Publications, New York, p. 225.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hyndman, S. (1998) Making connections between housing and health. Putting Health into Place. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, NY, pp. 191–207.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wood, R. A., Eggleston, P. A., Lind, P., et al. (1988) Antigenic analysis of household dust samples. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 137, 358–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gelber, L. E., Seltzer, L. H., Bouzoulkis, J. K., et al. (1993) Sensitization and exposure to dust mite allergens as risk factors for asthma among patients presenting to hospital. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 147, 573–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Robinson, T. and Russell, P. (1992) Healthy indoor environments for energy efficient housing. In: Health and Ecological Effects: Proceedings of the 9th World Clean Air Congress, August 30–September 4, 1992, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Pittsburgh, Pa: Air & WasteManagement Associates.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Zielenback, S. (2003) J. Afford. Hous. 13(2), 40–43.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Smith, R. E. (2002) Housing Choice for HOPE VI Relocatees. Final Report. Urban Institute, posted April, 2002. http://www.urban.org/publications/410592.html, accessed April 11, 2007.
  108. 108.
    Krieger, J. and Higgins, D. L. (2002) Housing and health: time again for public health action. Am. J. Public Health 92, 758–768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sandel, M., Phelan, K., Wright, R., Hynes, H. P., and Lanphear, B. P. (2004) The effects of housing interventions on child health. Pediatr. Ann. 33, 474–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • James W. Krieger
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tim K. Takaro
    • 3
  • Janice C. Rabkin
    • 4
  1. 1.Epidemiology Planning and Evaluation UnitPublic Health—Seattle and King CountyUSA
  2. 2.University of WashingtonSeattle
  3. 3.Faculty of Health SciencesSimon Fraser UniversityBurnaby
  4. 4.Public Health-Seattle & King County EpidemiologyPlanning & Evaluation UnitSeattle

Personalised recommendations