RNA Processing and Translation
The information that codes for all proteins in a cell is found on specific segments within the DNA. When a cell requires the function of a particular protein, it must initiate the steps involved in the synthesis of this protein. The overall process is termed gene expression. Transcription is the process whereby the cell makes a copy of the genetic information required to build that particular protein. Transcription yields the copy of a particular gene termed the primary transcript, which undergoes several processing events to generate the mature messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA molecule is then transported to the cytoplasm where it associates with the ribosome. Here, the information within the transcript is decoded into a polypeptide chain of amino acids to give rise to a particular protein with a specific function. The details of RNA processing and translation are discussed in this chapter.
KeywordsRNA Processing Protein Translation Amino acids Genetic code Ribosome
- 14.Cavarelli J MD. Recognition of tRNAs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1993; 7:79–86.Google Scholar
- 17.Berk V ZW, Pai RD, Cate JH. Structural basis for mRNA and tRNA positioning on the ribosome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006; 103:15830–15834.Google Scholar
- 22.Kozak M. Initiation of translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Genes and Development 1999; 234:187–208.Google Scholar
- 23.Kozak M. Regulation of translation via mRNA structure in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Genes and Development 2005; 361:13–37.Google Scholar
- 29.van der Velden AW TA. The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 1999; 31:87–106.Google Scholar