Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movements
Restless legs syndrome (RLS), a common sensory-motor disorder is characterized by uncomfortable sensations in the limbs, especially at rest and at bedtime (1). This paresthesia usually involves an irresistible urge to move the limbs, which provides temporary relief. The symptoms occur most often in the legs but can involve the arms or, in severe cases, the whole body. Although RLS occurs while the individual is awake, difficulty falling asleep, and sleep disruption as a result of periodic limb movements occurs (2). The pathophysiology of RLS is not well-understood; however, iron and central dopaminergic systems have been implicated (3).
KeywordsDopamine Agonist Sleep Medicine Periodic Limb Movement Periodic Limb Movement Disorder Periodic Limb Movement Disorder
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Allen RP, Picchietti D, Hening WA, et al. (2003) Restless legs syndrome: diagnostic criteria, special considerations, and epidemiology; a report from the restless legs syndrome diagnosis and epidemiol-ogy workshop at the National Institutes of Health. Sleep Med 4:101–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 2.Hening W, Allen R, Walters AS, et al. (2003) Prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and impact of symptoms on the quality of life of sufferers [abstract SC 338]. Eur J Neurol 10(Suppl 1):43.Google Scholar
- 31.Allen R, Hening W, Montplaisir J, et al. (2003) Diagnosis, treatment and referral of patients with symptoms for restless legs syndrome (RLS): the RLS epidemiology, symptoms and treatment (REST) primary care study [abstract SC 339]. Eur J Neurol 10(Suppl 1):43.Google Scholar
- 33.Cornelia CL (2002) Restless legs syndrome: treatment with dopaminergic agents. Neurology 58(Suppl 1):S87–S92.Google Scholar
- 40.Partinen M, Hirvonen K, Alakuijala A, et al. (2004) Pramipexole is safe and efficacious in the treatment of idiopathic restless legs syndrome: results of a large randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study [abstract 657]. Sleep 27(Abstract Suppl):A293–A294.Google Scholar
- 41.Adler CH, Hauser R, Sethi K, et al. (2003) Ropinirole is beneficial for restless legs syndrome: a placebo-controlled crossover trial [abstract]. Neurology 60(Suppl 1):A439.Google Scholar
- 42.Allen RP, Becker P, Bogan R, et al. (2003) Restless legs syndrome: the efficacy of ropinirole in the treatment of RLS patients suffering from periodic leg movements of sleep [abstract]. Sleep 26(Abstract Suppl):A341.Google Scholar
- 45.Walters AS, Ondo W, Sethi K, et al. (2003) Ropinirole versus placebo in the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS): a 12-week multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study in 6 countries [abstract 0866.N]. Sleep 26(Abstract Suppl):A344.Google Scholar
- 47.Oertel WH, Benes H, Geisler P, et al. (2005) Rotigotine patch efficacy and safety in the treatment of moderate to severe idiopathic restless legs syndrome: results from a multi-national double-blind placebo-controlled multi-center dose-finding study. 1st Congress World Association of Sleep Medicine (WASM): Advancing Sleep Health Worldwide. Berlin, Oct. 15-18, 2005. Sleep Med 6(suppl 2): 159.Google Scholar