Advertisement

Panax ginseng

  • Timothy S. Tracy
Part of the Forensic Science and Medicine book series (FSM)

Abstract

Ginseng is commonly used for a variety of conditions where it is purported to have positive effects on mental, physical, and sexual performance. There are some data to suggest it may have some small positive effects on mental and sexual activities, but the data remain conflicting. Ginseng also can reduce glycemic concentrations after glucose challenge. It should be used with caution in patients receiving anticoagulants as reports have suggested it may reduce the effect of warfarin.

Key Words

Hyperglycemia adaptogen cognition coagulation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Leung A, ed. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1980.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tyler VE, Brady LR, Robbers JE, eds. Pharmacognosy, 8th edition. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1981.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chong S, Oberholzer V. Ginseng — is there ause in clinical medicine? Postgrad Med J 1988;64:841–846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Awang DVC. The anti-stress potential of North American ginseng. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 1998;6:87–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anonymous. Ginseng. In: Lawrence Review of Natural Products. St. Louis: Facts and Comparisons, 1990.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tyler V, ed. The Honest Herbal, 3rd edition. Binghamton: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Muller J, Clauson K. Top herbal products encountered in drug information requests (part 1). Drug Benefit Trends 1998;10:43–50.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Awang DVS. Maternal use of ginseng and neonatal androgenization [letter]. JAMA 1991;265:1828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Blumenthal M, ed. Popular Herbs in the U.S. Market. Austin: American Botanical Council, 1997.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kennedy B. Herb of the month: ginseng. Total Health 1995;17:48.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schiedermayer D. Little evidence for ginseng as treatment for menopausal symptoms. Altern Med Alert 1998; 1:77–78.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Anonymous. Ginsana: Tonic or dud? Consum Rep Health 1998;10(7):2.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Janetzky K, Morreale A. Probable interaction between warfarin and ginseng. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1997;54:692–693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cui J, Garle M, Bjorkhem I, Eneroth P. Determination of aglycones of ginsenosides in ginseng preparations sold in Sweden and in urine samples from Swedish Athletes. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1996;56:151–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tyler V. Ginseng: king of zing? Prevention 1997;49:69.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yokozawa T, Seno H, Oura H. Effect of ginseng extract on lipid and sugar metabolism. Chem Pharmacol Bull 1975;23:3095–3100.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Oshima Y, Konno C, Hikino H. Isolation and hypoglycemic activity of panaxans I, J, K, and L, glycans of panax ginseng roots. J Ethnopharmacol 1985; 14:255–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sotaniemi E, Haapakoski E, Rautio A. Ginseng therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1995;18:1373–1375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Koo VYY, et al. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160:1009–1013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vuksan V, Stavro MP, Sievenpiper JL, et al. Similar postprandial glycemic reduction with escalation of dose and administration time of American ginseng in Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1221–1226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vuksan V, Stavro P, Sievenpiper JL, et al. American ginseng improves glycemia in individuals with normal glucose tolerance: effect of dose and time escalation. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;6:738–744.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Wong J, et al. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) attenuates postprandial glycemia in a time-dependent but not dose-dependent manner in healthy individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:753–758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sievenpiper JL, Arnason JT, Leiter LA, Vuksan V. Variable effects of American ginseng: a batch of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) with a depressed ginsenoside profile does not affect postprandial glycemia. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003;57:243–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sievenpiper JL, Arnason JT, Leiter LA, Vuksan V. Decreasing, null and increasing effects of eight popular types of ginseng on acute postprandial glycemic indices in healthy humans: the role of ginsenosides. J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23(3):248–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kaku T, Miyata T, Uruno T, Sako I, Kinoshita A. Chemico-pharmacological studies on saponins of panax ginseng. Arzneim Forsch 1975;25:539–547.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hartz AJ, Bentler S, Noyes R, et al. Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue. Psychol Med 2004;34:51–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hsu CC, Ho MC, Lin LC, Su B, Hsu MC. American ginseng supplementation attenuates creatine kinase level induced by submaximal exercise in human beings. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11(34):5327–5331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Eschbach LC, Webster MJ, Boyd JC, McArthur PD, Evetovich TK. The effect of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus Senticosus) on substrate utilization and performance during prolonged cycling. J Sports Nutr Exer Metab 2000;10:444–451.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hiai S, Yokoyama H, Oura H. Features of ginseng saponin-induced corticosterone secretion. Endocrinol Jpn 1979;26:737–740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fulder S. Ginseng and the hypothalamic-pituitary control of stress. Am J Chin Med 1981;9:112–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Caso Maraso A, Vargas Ruiz R, Salas Villagomez A, Begona Infante C. Doubleblind study of a multivitamin complex supplemented with ginseng extract. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1996;22:323–329.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pearce PT, Zois I, Wynne KN, Funder JW. Panax ginseng and Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts — in vitro studies on binding to steroid receptors. Endocrinol Jpn 1982;29:567–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sun J. Morning/evening menopausal formula relieves menopausal symptoms. A pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2003;9:403–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Siegel R. Ginseng abuse syndrome. Problems with the panacea. JAMA 1979;241:1614–1615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Takagi K, Saito H, Nabata H. Pharmacological studies of panax ginseng root: estimation of pharmacological actions of panax ginseng root. Jpn J Pharmacol 1972;22:245–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Li J, Zhang X, Zhang J. Study of the anti-apoptotic mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 in cultured neurons. Acta Pharmacol Sin 1997;32:406–410.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wesnes KA, Ward T, McGinty A, Petrini O. The memory enhancing effects of a Ginko biloba/Panax ginseng combination in healthy middle-aged volunteers. Psychopharmacology 2000;152:353–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. Modulation of cognition and mood following administration of single doses of Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, and a ginkgo/ginseng combination to healthy young adults. Physiol Behav 2002;75(5):739–751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Scholey AB, Kennedy DO. Acute, dose-dependent cognitive effects of Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng and their combination in healthy young volunteers: differential interactions with cognitive demand. Hum Psychopharmacol Clin Exp 2002; 17:35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB. Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guardna (paullinia cupana) extract: comparsion and interaction with panax ginseng. Parmacol Biochem Behav 2004;79:401–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hartley DE, Elsabagh S, File SE. Gincosan (a combination of ginkgo biloba and panax ginseng): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks treatment in post-menopausal women. Nutr Neurosci 2004;7(5–6):325–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cardinal BJ, Engels HJ. Ginseng does not enhance psychological well-being in healthy, young adults: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. J Am Diet Assoc 2001;101:655–660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Persson J, Bringlov E, Nilsson LG, Nyberg L. The memory-enhancing effects of ginseng and ginkgo biloba in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology 2004; 172:430–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lyon MR, Cline JC, Totosy de Zepetnek J, Shan JJ, Pang P, Benishin C. Effect of the herbal extract combination Panax quinquefolium and ginko biloba on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2001:26(3):221–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Han KH, Choe SC, Kim HS, et al. Effect of red ginseng on blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension and white coat hypertension. Am J Chin Med 1998;26:199–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ding DZ, Shen TK, Cui YZ. [Effects of red ginseng on the congestive heart failure and its mechanism]. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho TsaChih 1995;15:325–327.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Stavro 2005Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kim HJ, Woo DS, Lee G, Kim JJ. The relaxation effects of ginseng saponin in rabbit corporal smooth muscle: is it a nitric oxide donor? Br J Urol 1998;82:744–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Choi HK, Seong DH, Rha KH. Clinical efficacy of Korean red ginseng for erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res 1995;7:181–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yamamoto M, Uemura T, Nakama S, Uemiya M, Kumagai A. Serum HDL-cholesterol-increasing and fatty liver-improving actions of panax ginseng in high cholesterol diet-fed rats with clinical effect on hyperlipidemia in man. Am J Chin Med 1983;11:96–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Park H, Rheem M, Park K, Nam K, Park KH. Effect of nonsaponin fraction from panax ginseng on cGMP and thromboxane A2 in human platelet aggregation. J Ethnopharmacol 1995;49:157–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Toda S, Kimura M, Ohnishi M. Induction of neutrophil accumulation by red ginseng. J Ethnopharmacol 1990;30:315–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Scaglione F, Ferra F, Dugnan S, Falchi M, Santoro G, Fraschi F. Immunomodulatory effects of two extracts of panax ginseng. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1990;16:537–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Singh V, Agarwal S, Gupta B. Immunomodulatory activity of panax ginseng extract. Planta Med 1984;50:462–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Predy GN, Goel V, Lovlin R, Donner A, Stitt L, Tapan KB. Efficacy of an extract of North American ginseng containing poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides for preventing upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ 2005;173(9):1043–1048.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    McElhaney JE, Gravenstein S, Cole SK, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of a proprietary extract of North American ginseng (CVT-E002) to prevent acute respiratory illness in institutionalized older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004;52:13–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Xiaoguang C, Hongyan L, Xiaohong L, et al. Cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic activities of red ginseng. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;60:71–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ahn YO. Diet and stomach cancer in Korea. Int J Cancer 1997;Suppl 10:7–9.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Yun TK. Experimental and epidemiological evidence of the cancer-preventive effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Nutr Rev 1996;54(11 Pt2):S71–S81.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Suh SO, Kroh M, Kim NR, Joh YG, Cho MY. Effects of red ginseng upon postoperative immunity and survival in patients with stage III gastric cancer. Am J Chinese Med 2002;30(4):483–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hammond TG, Whitworth JA. Adverse reactions to ginseng [letter]. Med J Aust 1981;1:492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dega H, Laporte J, Frances C, Herson S, Chosidow O. Ginseng as a cause for Stevens-Johnson syndrome? Lancet 1996;347:1344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Palmer BV, Montgomery ACV, Monteiro JCMP. Gin Seng and mastalgia. Br Med J 1978;1:1284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Greenspan EM. Ginseng and vaginal bleeding. JAMA 1983;249:2018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Punnonen R, Lukola A. Oestrogen-like effect of gingseng. Br Med J 1980;281:1110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hopkins MP, Androff L, Benninghoff AS. Ginseng face cream and unexplained vaginal bleeding. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 159:1121–1122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Koren G, Randor S, Martin S, Danneman D. Maternal use of ginseng and neonatal androgenization [letter]. JAMA 1990;264:2866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Waller DP, Martin AM, Farnsworth NR, Awang DVC. Lack of androgenicity of Siberian ginseng. JAMA 1992;267:692–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Awang DVS. Maternal use of ginseng and neonatal androgenization [letter]. JAMA 1991;266:363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Yuan CS, Wei G, Dey L, et al. Brief communication: American ginseng reduces warfarious effect in healthy patients: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2004;141:23–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jiang X, Williams KM, Liauw WS, et al. Effect of St. John’s wort and ginseng on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004;57(5):592–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA, et al. Cytochrome P450 phenotypic ratios for predicting herb-drug interactions in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;72:276–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Donovan JL, DeVane CL, Chavin KD, Taylor RM, Markowitz JS. Siberian ginseng (Eleutheroccus senticosus) effects on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity in normal volunteers. Drug Metab Dispos 2003;31(5):519–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jones B, Runikis A. Interaction of ginseng with phenelzine. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1987;7:201–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mendon PJ, Ferguson PW, Watson CF. Effects of Eleutherococcus senticus extracts on hexobarbital metabolism in vivo and in vitro. J Ethnopharmacol 1984;10:235–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    McRae S. Elevated serum digoxin levels in a pateint taking digoxin and Siberian ginseng. Can Med Assoc J 1996;155:293–295.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Dasgupta A, Reyes MA. Effect of Brazilian, Indian, Siberian, Asian, and North American ginseng on serum digoxin measurement by immunoassays and binding of digoxin-like immunoreactive components of ginseng with Fab fragment of antidigoxin antibody (Digibind). Am J Clin Pathol 2005;124:229–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Phillipson JD, Anderson LA. Ginseng-quality, safety and efficacy? Pharm J 1984;232:161–165.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Schon N, Engelhardt P. Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen zur frage der resorption von b-sitosterin. Arzneim Forsch 1960;10:491–496.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Liu C, Xiao P. Recent advances on ginseng research in China. J Ethnopharmacol 1992;36:27–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Odani T, Tanizawa H, Takino Y. Studies on the absorption, distribution, excretion, and metabolism of ginseng saponins. II. The absorption, distribution, excretion of ginsenoside-Rgl in the rat. Chem Pharamcol Bull 1983;31:292–298.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Odani T, Tanizawa H, Takino Y. Studies on the absorption, distribution, excretion, and metabolism of ginseng saponins. III. The absorption, distribution, excretion of ginsenoside-Rb 1 in the rat. Chem Pharamcol Bull 1983;31:1059–1066.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Blumenthal M, ed. Ginseng root. In: The complete German Commission E monographs. Austin: American Botanical Council, 1998.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timothy S. Tracy

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations