Mechanisms of Aqueous Humor Formation

Cellular Model of Aqueous Inflow
  • Chi-wai Do
  • Chi-wing Kong
  • Chu-yan Chan
  • Mortimer M. Civan
  • Chi-ho To
Part of the Ophthalmology Research book series (OPHRES)


Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world (1). Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma and its onset, as well as progression, is often insidious, leading to significant visual loss before being clinically diagnosed. POAG is frequently associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye. It is incurable at present, although its progression can be retarded by lowering the IOP by medication and/or surgery. If pharmacological agents fail to attain a targeted hypotensive response within the framework of the clinical characteristics and course, surgery will be indicated.

The IOP is physiologically maintained within a relatively narrow range bracketing a mean of approximately 15 mmHg. The level of IOP reflects a dynamic balance between secretion (inflow) and drainage (outflow) of aqueous humor. The aqueous humor is a transparent fluid that is formed by the ciliary processes (epithelium) of the eye. After its...


Carbonic Anhydrase Aqueous Humor Ciliary Body Ciliary Epithelium Posterior Chamber 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chi-wai Do
    • 1
  • Chi-wing Kong
    • 1
  • Chu-yan Chan
    • 1
  • Mortimer M. Civan
    • 2
  • Chi-ho To
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of Experimental Optometry, School of OptometryThe Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityHong KongPR China
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

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