Pelvic Floor Ultrasound
- 1.5k Downloads
Pelvic ultrasound is increasingly used to evaluate pelvic floor disorders and has several advantages in contrast to other imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cystourethrography. Ultrasound is relatively inexpensive, widely available, and offers real-time, dynamic imaging of pelvic anatomy without radiation. Most urologists are trained in transrectal ultrasonography. However, those skills are easily translated to translabial pelvic ultrasonography. This chapter focuses on 2D ultrasound imaging and technique as it is the most widely available and familiar to urologists. However, the expanding prevalence of 3D and 4D ultrasound reconstructions of pelvic anatomy will likely advance the understanding of pelvic floor pathology and our appreciation and use of pelvic ultrasound.
KeywordsBladder Neck Valsalva Maneuver Urethral Stricture Urethral Diverticulum Pelvic Anatomy
The authors wish to thank Dr. Shlomo Raz, MD who has provided many of the images from his personal collection.
- 3.Dietz HP, Eldridge A, Grace M, Clarke B. Test-retest reliability of the ultrasound assessment of bladder neck mobility. Int Urogynecol J. 2003;14 Suppl 1:S57–8.Google Scholar
- 5.Oerno A, Dietz HP. Levator co-activation is an important confounder of pelvic organ descent on Valsalva. In: ICS annual scientific meeting (abstract), Christchurch; 2006.Google Scholar
- 9.Lekskulchai O, Dietz HP. Normal values for detrusor wall thickness in young Caucasian women. In: International continence society annual scientific meeting (abstract), Montreal; 2005.Google Scholar
- 17.Dietz HP. What’s “normal” pelvic organ descent, and what’s prolapse? In: ICS annual scientific meeting, Christchurch; 2006.Google Scholar
- 19.Halsaka M, Otcenasek M, Martam A, et al. Pelvic anatomy changes after TVT procedure assessed by MRI. Int Urogynecol J. 1999;10 Suppl 1:S87–8.Google Scholar
- 23.Shek K, Dietz HP, Rane A. Transobturator mesh anchoring for the repair of large or recurrent cystocele. In: ICS annual scientific meeting, Christchurch; 2006.Google Scholar
- 24.Achtari OA, O’Reilly B, Schierlitz L, et al. Mesh erosion following vaginal repair: is I avoidable? Int Urogynecol J. 2003;14 Suppl 1:S65.Google Scholar