An Overview of Sports Supplements

  • Chris Lockwood


In this chapter, you will be provided an overview of some of the most frequently used sports nutrition and physique-augmenting dietary supplements. For quick reference, the supplements are presented in alphabetical order using their Common, or “street” Name. The information is further presented in a revised and abbreviated monograph format. Each monograph details the dietary supplement by, 1) COMMON NAME, 2) OTHER NAMES (including, if applicable, abbreviations, primary plant source, and commercially licensed trade name), 3) COMMON USES (as pertaining to sports nutrition and physique augmentation), 4) REVIEW (of the relevant clinical data), and 5) DOSE (as has either been recommended in the literature or could confidently be determined to be safe and elicit an efficacious response).

Note that because of inherent space limitations, supplements discussed in other chapters of this book, the scope of this chapter as it pertains to the context of the book’s overall scope and purpose, as well as continuous advances in new products and clinical data, the list of supplements presented herein is in no way intended or implied to be an exhaustive list of all ingredients used by persons around the world for the purposes of athletic and/or physical improvement. Rather, the following is offered to provide a summation of only a select number of frequently used and readily available dietary supplements to date. It is also outside of the scope of this text to review, in detail, all contraindications, precautions, and possible adverse reactions of the ingredients listed. Therefore, only the most relevant substantiation data as they pertain to healthy, active populations and the subsequent use of each supplement have been included in this review. Lastly, please note that the section within each supplement monograph, entitled COMMON USES, refers only to the most generally accepted uses of that supplement as is frequently propagated within the public; some uses, as you will soon find, are not substantiated by the available data nor are the common uses listed meant to serve as either a direct or implied recommendation for the use of a particular supplement.

Key Words

adaptogen antioxidant secretagogue standardized toxicity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Sauvaire Y, et al. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine: a novel amino acid potentiator of insulin secretion. Diabetes 1998;47(2):206–210.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Broca C, et al. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine: experimental evidence of its insulinotropic and antidiabetic properties. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 1999;277(40):E617–E623.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ruby B, et al. The addition of fenugreek extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum) to glucose feeding increases muscle glycogen resynthesis after exercise. Amino Acids 2005;28(1):71–76.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Broca C, et al. Insulinotropic agent ID-1101 (4-hydroxyisoleucine) activates insulin signaling in rat. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2004;287(3):E463–E471.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Caruso I, et al. Double-blind study of 5-hydroxytryptophan versus placebo in the treatment of primary fibromyalgia syndrome. J Int Med Res 1990;18(3):201–209.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Birdsall TC. 5-Hydroxytryptophan: a clinically-effective serotonin precursor. Altern Med Rev 1998;3(4):271–280.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cangiano C, et al. Effects of oral 5-hydroxy-tryptophan on energy intake and macronutrient selection in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998;22(7):648–654.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee MA, et al. Inhibitory effect of ritanserin on the 5-hydroxytryptophan-mediated cortisol, ACTH and prolactin secretion in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1991; 103(2):258–264.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lado-Abeal J, et al. L-5-hydroxytryptophan does not stimulate LH secretion directly from the pituitary in patients with gonadotrophin releasing hormone deficiency. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1998;49(2):203–207.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ryu JK, et al. Adenosine triphosphate induces proliferation of human neural stem cells: role of calcium and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase. J Neurosci Res 2003;72(3 ):352–362.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jordan AN, et al. Effects of oral ATP supplementation on anaerobic power and muscular strength. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004;36(6):983–990.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Williams BD, et al. Alanine and glutamine kinetics at rest and during exercise in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:1053–1058.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carlin JI, et al. The effects of post-exercise glucose and alanine ingestion on plasma carnitine and ketosis in humans. J Physiol 1987;390:295–303.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Koeslag JH, et al. Postexercise ketosis in post-prandial exercise: effect of glucose and alanine ingestion in humans. J Physiol 1985;358:395–403.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Koeslag JH, et al. The effects of alanine, glucose and starch ingestion on the ketosis produced by exercise and by starvation. J Physiol 1982; 325:363–376.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tipton KD, et al. Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from orally administered amino acids. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 1999;276:E628–E634.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Korach-André M, et al. Differential metabolic fate of the carbon skeleton and amino-N of 13C- and [15N]alanine ingested during prolonged exercise. J Appl Physiol 2002;93:499–504.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ceda GP, et al. Alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine administrations increases the GH responses to GHRH of young and elderly subjects. Horm Metab Res 1992;24(3):119–121.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lopez CM, et al. Effect of a new cognition enhancer, alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, on scopolamine-induced amnesia and brain acetylcholine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1991;39:835–840.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Frattola L, et al. Multicenter clinical comparison of the effects of choline alfoscerate and cytidine diphosphocholine in the treatment of multi-infarct dementia. Curr Ther Res 1991;49(4):683–693.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Abbati C, et al. Nootropic therapy of cerebral aging. Adv Ther 1991;8(6):268–276.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Blomqvist BI, et al. Glutamine and alpha-ketoglutarate prevent the decrease in muscle free glutamine concentration and influence protein synthesis after total hip replacement. Metabolism 1995;44(9):1215–1222.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Marconi C, et al. The effect of an alpha-ketoglutarate-pyridoxine complex on human maximal aerobic and anaerobic performance. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1982;49(3):307–317.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Barazzoni R, et al. Arterial KIC as marker of liver and muscle intracellular leucine pools in healthy and type I diabetic humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 1999;277(40):E238–E244.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Flakoll PJ, et al. Influence of α-ketoisocaproate on lamb growth, feed conversion, and carcass composition. J Anim Sci 1991;69:1461–1467.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gao Z, et al. Distinguishing features of leucine and α-ketoisocaproate sensing in pancreatic β-cells. Endocrinology 2003; 144:1949–1957.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bränström R, et al. Direct inhibition of the pancreatic β-cell ATP-regulated potassium channel by α-ketoisocaproate. J Biol Chem 1998;273(23):14113–14118.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lembert N, Idahl L. α-Ketoisocaproate is not a true substrate for ATP production by pancreatic β-cell mitochondria. Diabetes 1998;47:339–344.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jeevanandam M, et al. Nutritional and metabolic effects and significance of mild orotic aciduria during dietary supplementation with arginine or its organic salts after trauma injury in rats. Metabolism 1997;46(7):785–792.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jeevanandam M, et al. Relative nutritional efficacy of arginine and ornithine salts of alpha-ketoisocaproic acid in traumatized rats. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57(6):889–896.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Marangon K, et al. Comparison of the effect of alpha-lipoic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementation on measures of oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 1999;27(9–10): 1114–1121.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sen CK, Packer L. Thiol homeostasis and supplements in physical exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72(Suppl):653S–669S.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Burke DG, et al. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid combined with creatine monohydrate on human skeletal muscle creatine and phosphagen concentration. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2003;13(3):294–302.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hermann R, et al. Enantioselective pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of different racemic alpha-lipoic acid formulations in healthy volunteers. Eur J Phamaceut Sci 1996;4:167–174.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hermann R, et al. Gastric emptying in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and bioavailability of thioctic acid-enantiomers. Eur J Pharmaceut Sci 1998;6:27–37.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Numazawa M, et al. Mechanism for aromatase inactivation by a suicide substrate, androst-4-ene-3,6, 17-trione. The 4 beta, 5 beta-epoxy-19-oxo derivative as a reactive electrophile irreversibly binding to the active site. Biochem Pharmacol 1996;52(8):1253–1259.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shi H, et al. Effect of supplemental ornithine on wound healing. J Surg Res 2002; 106:299–302.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Appleton J. Arginine: clinical potential of a semi-essential amino acid. Altern Med Rev 2002;7(6):512–522.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Witte MB, Barbul A. Arginine physiology and its implication for wound healing. Wound Rep Reg 2003;11:419–423.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Besset A, et al. Increase in sleep related GH and Prl secretion after chronic arginine aspartate administration in men. Acta Endocrinol 1982;99:18–23.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Marcell TJ, et al. Oral arginine does not stimulate basal or augment exercise-induced GH secretion in either young or old adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1999;64:M395–M399.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wu G, Meininger CJ. Arginine nutrition and cardiovascular function. J Nutr 2000;130:2626–2629.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bronisław B, et al. L-Arginine supplementation prolongs duration of exercise in congestive heart failure. Kardiol Pol 2004;60(4):348–353.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Parnell MM, et al. In vivo and in vitro evidence for ACh-stimulated L-arginine uptake. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2004;287:H395–H400.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Marquezi ML, et al. Effect of aspartate and asparagine supplementation on fatigue determinants in intense exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2003;13(1):65–75.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stegink LD. Absorption, utilization, and safety of aspartic acid. J Toxicol Environ Health 1976;2(1):215–242.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Di Pasquale M. Amino Acids and Proteins for the Athlete: The Anabolic Edge. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1997.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dioguardi FS. Wasting and the substrate-to-energy controlled pathway: a role for insulin resistance and amino acids. Am J Cardiol 2004;93(8A):6A–12A.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gibala MJ. Regulation of skeletal muscle amino acid metabolism during exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exer Metab 2001;11:87–108.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Campistron G, et al. Pharmacokinetics of arginine and aspartic acid administered simultaneously in the rat: II. Tissue distribution. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 1982;7(4):315–322.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fukushima M, et al. Extraction and purification of a substance with luteinizing hormone releasing activity from the leaves of Avena sativa. Tohoku J Exp Med 1976;119(2):115–122.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Czerwinski J, et al. Oat (Avena sativa L.) and amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) meals positively affect plasma lipid profile in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets. J Nutr Biochem 2004;15(10):622–629.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Emmons CL, et al. Antioxidant capacity of oat (Avena sativa L.) extracts. 2. In vitro antioxidant activity and contents of phenolic and tocol antioxidants. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47(12):4894–4898.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Handelman GJ, et al. Antioxidant capacity of oat (Avena sativa L.) extracts. I. Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation and oxygen radical absorbance capacity. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47(12):4888–4893.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Li SS, Claeson P. Cys/Gly-rich proteins with a putative single chitin-binding domain from oat (Avena sativa) seeds. Phytochemistry 2003;63(3):249–255.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kakuda T, et al. Hypoglycemic effect of extracts from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. leaves in genetically diabetic KK-AY mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60:204–208.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Suzuki Y, et al. Antiobesity activity of extracts from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. leaves on female KK-AY mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 1999;45:791–795.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Liu F, et al. An extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. has insulin-like glucose uptake-stimulatory and adipocyte differentiation-inhibitory activities in 3T3-L1 cells. J Nutr 2001;131:2242–2247.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Judy WV, et al. Antidiabetic activity of a standardized extract (Glucosol) from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves in Type II diabetics. A dose-dependence study. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;87(1):115–117.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Miura T, et al. Corosolic acid induces GLUT4 translocation in genetically Type 2 diabetic mice. Bioi Pharm Bull 2004;27(7):1103–1105.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hattori K, et al. Activation of insulin receptors by lagerstroemin. J Pharmacol Sci 2003;93:69–73.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Unno T, et al. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;93(2–3):391–395.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hosoyama H, et al. Isolation and quantitative analysis of the alpha-amylase inhibitor in Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (Banaba). Yakugaku Zasshi 2003;123(7):599–605.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Campos MG, et al. Age-induced diminution of free radical scavenging capacity in bee pollens and the contribution of constituent flavonoids. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51(3):742–745.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ozcan M, et al. Inhibitory effect of pollen and propolis extracts. Nahrung 2004;48(3):188–194.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Xie Y, et al. Effect of bee pollen on maternal nutrition and fetal growth. Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 1994;25(4):434–437.Google Scholar
  67. 66a.
    Stout JR, et al. Effects of twenty-eight days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the physical working capacity at neuromuscular fatigue threshold. J Strength Cond Res 2006;20(4):928–932.Google Scholar
  68. 66b.
    Hill et al. (Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(Suppl):S348.Google Scholar
  69. 66c.
    Derave W, et al. Beta-alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters. J Appl Physiol 2007;103(5):1736–1743.Google Scholar
  70. 66d.
    Hill CA, et al. Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Amino Acids 2007;32(2):225–233.Google Scholar
  71. 67.
    Harris RC, et al. Effect of combined beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on exercise performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2003;35(Suppl.):S218.Google Scholar
  72. 68.
    Harris RC, et al. The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids. 2006;30(3):279–289.Google Scholar
  73. 70.
    Mori M, et al. β-Alanine and taurine as endogenous agonists at glycine receptors in rat hippocampus in vitro. J Physiol 2002;539(1):191–200.Google Scholar
  74. 71.
    Abebe W, Mozaffari MS. Taurine depletion alters vascular reactivity in rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2003;81(9):903–909.Google Scholar
  75. 72.
    Zeisel SH, et al. Concentrations of choline-containing compounds and betaine in common foods. J Nutr 2003;133:1302–1307.Google Scholar
  76. 73.
    Monograph: betaine. Altern Med Rev 2003;8(2):193–196.Google Scholar
  77. 74.
    Craig S. Betaine in human nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:539–549.Google Scholar
  78. 75.
    Olthof MR, et al. Low dose betaine supplementation leads to immediate and long term lowering of plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women. J Nutr 2003;133(12):4135–4138.Google Scholar
  79. 76.
    Schwab U, et al. Betaine supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations but does not affect body weight, body composition, or resting energy expenditure in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:961–967.Google Scholar
  80. 77.
    Roti MW, et al. Homocysteine, lipid and glucose responses to betaine supplementation during running in the heat [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35:S271.Google Scholar
  81. 78.
    Armstrong LE, et al. Rehydration with fluids containing betaine: running performance and metabolism in a 31C environment [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35:S311.Google Scholar
  82. 79.
    Nissen SL, Sharp RL. Effect of dietary supplements on lean mass and strength gains with resistance exercise: a meta-analysis. J Appl Physiol 2003;94:651–659.Google Scholar
  83. 80.
    Jowko E, et al. Creatine and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) additively increase lean body mass and muscle strength during a weight-training program. Nutrition 2001;17(7–8):558–566.Google Scholar
  84. 81.
    Smith HJ, et al. Mechanism of the attenuation of proteolysis-inducing factor stimulated protein degradation in muscle by beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate. Cancer Res 2004;64(23):8731–8735.Google Scholar
  85. 82.
    Nissen S, et al. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in humans is safe and may decrease cardiovascular risk factors. J Nutr 2000;130:1937–1945.Google Scholar
  86. 83.
    Slater GJ, Jenkins D. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation and the promotion of muscle growth and strength. Sports Med 2000;30(2):105–116.Google Scholar
  87. 84.
    Thomson JS. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation of resistance trained men. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2004;13(Suppl):S59.Google Scholar
  88. 85.
    Kreider RB, et al. Effects of calcium beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation during resistance-training on markers of catabolism, body composition and strength. Int J Sports Med 1999;20(8):503–509.Google Scholar
  89. 86.
    Shimomura Y, et al. Exercise promotes BCAA catabolism: effects of BCAA supplementation on skeletal muscle during exercise. J Nutr 2004;134(6 Suppl):1583S–1587S.Google Scholar
  90. 87.
    Karlsson HK, et al. Branched-chain amino acids increase p70S6k phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle after resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2004;287(1):E1–E7.Google Scholar
  91. 88.
    Blomstrand E, Bengt S. BCAA intake affects protein metabolism in muscle after but not during exercise in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001;281:E365–E374.Google Scholar
  92. 89.
    Fryburg DA, et al. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I enhance human skeletal muscle protein anabolism during hyperaminoacidemia by different mechanisms. J Clin Invest 1995;96(4):1722–1729.Google Scholar
  93. 90.
    Ahlborg G, et al. Substrate turnover during prolonged exercise in man. , Clin Invest 1974;53:1080–1090.Google Scholar
  94. 91.
    Eiduson S, et al. The effect of pyridoxine deficiency on L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase and tyrosine aminotransferase in developing brain. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol 1972;4:63–80.Google Scholar
  95. 92.
    Abe H. Role of histidine-related compounds as intracellular proton buffering constituents in vertebrate muscle. Biochemistry (Moscow) 2000;65(7):757–765.Google Scholar
  96. 93.
    Suzuki Y, et al. High level of skeletal muscle carnosine contributes to the latter half of exercise performance during 30-s maximal cycle ergometer sprinting. Jpn J Physiol 2002;52(2):199–205.Google Scholar
  97. 94.
    Quinn PJ, et al. Carnosine: its properties, functions and potential therapeutic applications. Molec Aspects Med 1992;13:379–444.Google Scholar
  98. 95.
    Wu H, et al. Antioxidant activities of carnosine, anserine, some free amino acids and their combination. J Food Drug Anal 2003;11(2):148–153.Google Scholar
  99. 96.
    Decker EA, et al. A re-evaluation of the antioxidant activity of purified carnosine. Biochemistry (Moscow) 2000;65(7):766–770.Google Scholar
  100. 97.
    Boldyrev AA, Severin SE. The histidine-containing dipeptides, carnosine and anserine: distribution, properties and biological significance. Adv Enzyme Regul (Moscow). 1990;30:175–194.Google Scholar
  101. 98.
    Zeisel SH. Choline: needed for normal development of memory. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19(5):528S–531S.Google Scholar
  102. 99.
    Wurtman RJ, et al. Precursor control of neurotransmitter synthesis. Pharmacol Rev 1980;32(4):315–335.Google Scholar
  103. 100.
    Babb SM, et al. Oral choline increases choline metabolites in human brain. Psychiatry Res 2004;130(1):1–9.Google Scholar
  104. 101.
    Spector SA, et al. Effect of choline supplementation on fatigue in trained cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995;27(5):668–673.Google Scholar
  105. 102.
    Buchman AL, et al. The effect of lecithin supplementation on plasma choline concentrations during a marathon. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19(6):768–770.Google Scholar
  106. 103.
    Warber JP, et al. The effects of choline supplementation on physical performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2000;10(2):170–181.Google Scholar
  107. 104.
    Sauerland K, et al. The sulfation pattern of chondroitin sulfate from articular cartilage explants in response to mechanical loading. Biochim Biophys Acta 2003;1638(3):241–248.Google Scholar
  108. 105.
    Uebelhart D, et al. Intermittent treatment of knee osteoarthritis with oral chondroitin sulfate: a one-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study versus placebo. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004;12(4):269–276.Google Scholar
  109. 106.
    Parcell S. Sulfur in human nutrition and applications in medicine. Altern Med Rev 2002; 7(1):22–44.Google Scholar
  110. 107.
    Lippiello L, et al. In vivo chondroprotection and metabolic synergy of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. Clin Orthop 2000;381:229–240.Google Scholar
  111. 108.
    Leffler CT, et al. Glucosamine, chondroitin, and manganese ascorbate for degenerative joint disease of the knee or low back: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Mil Med 1999;164(2):85–91.Google Scholar
  112. 109.
    Han D, et al. Relationship between estrogen receptor-binding and estrogenic activities of environmental estrogens and suppression by £lavonoids. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2002;66(7):1479–1487.Google Scholar
  113. 110.
    Jeong HJ, et al. Inhibition of aromatase activity by flavonoids. Arch Pharm Res 1999;22(3 ):309–312.Google Scholar
  114. 111.
    Gambelunghe C, et al. Effects of chrysin on urinary testosterone levels in human males. J Med Food 2003;6(4):387–390.Google Scholar
  115. 112.
    Saarinen N, et al. No evidence for the in vivo activity of aromatase-inhibiting flavonoids. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2001;78(3):231–239.Google Scholar
  116. 113.
    Briand J, et al. Use of a microbial model for the determination of drug effects on cell metabolism and energetics: study of citrulline-malate. Biopharm Drug Dispos 1992; 13(1):1–22.Google Scholar
  117. 114.
    Callis A, et al. Activity of citrulline malate on acid-base balance and blood ammonia and amino acid levels. Study in the animal and in man. Arzneimittelforschung 1991;41(6):660–663.Google Scholar
  118. 115.
    Bendahan D, et al. Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. Br J Sports Med 2002;36:282–289.Google Scholar
  119. 116.
    Oknin Vlu, et al. Use of citrulline malate (stimol) in patients with autonomic dystonia associated with arterial hypotension. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 1999;99(1):30–33.Google Scholar
  120. 117.
    Rosenfeldt F, et al. Systematic review of effect of coenzyme Q10 in physical exercise, hypertension and heart failure. Biofactors 2003;18(1–4):91–100.Google Scholar
  121. 118.
    Monograph: Coenzyme Q10. Altern Med Rev 1998;3(1):58–61.Google Scholar
  122. 119.
    Linnane AW, et al. Cellular redox activity of coenzyme Q10: effect of CoQ10 supplementation on human skeletal muscle. Free Radic Res 2002;36(4):445–453.Google Scholar
  123. 120.
    Pariza MW. The biologically active isomers of conjugated linoleic acid. Prog Lipid Res 2001;40(4):283–298.Google Scholar
  124. 121.
    Kelly GS. Conjugated linoleic acid: a review. Altern Med Rev 2001;6(4):367–382.Google Scholar
  125. 122.
    Riserus U, et al. Treatment with dietary trans 10cis 12 conjugated linoleic acid causes isomer-specific insulin resistance in obese men with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2000;25:1516–1521.Google Scholar
  126. 123.
    Terpstra AHM. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body composition and plasma lipids in humans: an overview of the literature. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79:352–361.Google Scholar
  127. 124.
    Kelley DS, Erickson KL. Modulation of body composition and immune cell functions by conjugated linoleic acid in humans and animal models: benefits vs. risks. Lipids 2003;38(4):377–386.Google Scholar
  128. 125.
    Noone EJ, et al. The effect of dietary supplementation using isomeric blends of conjugated linoleic acid on lipid metabolism in healthy human subjects. Br J Nutr 2002;88(3):243–251.Google Scholar
  129. 126.
    Tricon S, et al. Opposing effects of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on blood lipids in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(3):614–620.Google Scholar
  130. 127.
    Hsu C, et al. Regulatory mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis. FEBS Lett 2003;543:140–143.Google Scholar
  131. 128.
    Koh JH, et al. Antifatigue and antistress effect of the hot-water fraction from mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol Pharm Bull 2003;26(5):691–694.Google Scholar
  132. 129.
    Yoo HS, et al. Effects of Cordyceps militaris extract on angiogenesis and tumor growth. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2004;25(5):657–665.Google Scholar
  133. 130.
    Koh J, et al. Hypocholesterolemic effect of hot-water extract from mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol Pharm Bull 2003;26(1):84–87.Google Scholar
  134. 131.
    Manabe N, et al. Effects of the mycelial extract of cultured Cordyceps sinensis on in vivo hepatic energy metabolism and blood flow in dietary hypoferric anaemic mice. Br J Nutr 2000;83:197–204.Google Scholar
  135. 132.
    Shin KH, et al. Anti-tumour and immuno-stimulating activities of the fruiting bodies of Paecilomyces japonica, a new type of Cordyceps spp. Phytother Res 2003; 17(7):830–833.Google Scholar
  136. 133.
    Ikumoto T, et al. Physiologically active compounds in the extracts from tochukaso and cultured mycelia of Cordyceps and Isaria. Yakugaku Zasshi 1991;111(9):504–509.Google Scholar
  137. 134.
    Kuo YC, et al. Growth inhibitors against tumor cells in Cordyceps sinensis other than cordycepin and polysaccharides. Cancer Invest 1994;12(6):611–615.Google Scholar
  138. 135.
    Yu KW, et al. Pharmacological activities of stromata of Cordyceps scarabaecola. Phytother Res 2003;17(3):244–249.Google Scholar
  139. 136.
    Sun YJ, et al. Nucleoside from Cordyceps kyushuensis and the distribution of two active components in its different parts. Yao Xue Xue Bao 2003;38(9):690–694.Google Scholar
  140. 137.
    Gong YX, et al. Simultaneous determination of six main nucleosides and bases in natural and cultured Cordyceps by capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A 2004; 1055(1–2):215–221.Google Scholar
  141. 138.
    Parcell AC, et al. Cordyceps sinensis (CordyMax Cs-4) supplementation does not improve endurance exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2004;14(2):236–242.Google Scholar
  142. 139.
    Xio Y, et al. Increased aerobic capacity in healthy elderly humans given a fermentation product of Cordyceps Cs-4. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:S174.Google Scholar
  143. 140.
    Talbott SM, et al. CordyMax Cs-4 enhances endurance in sedentary individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 75:401S.Google Scholar
  144. 141.
    Nicodemus KJ, et al. Supplementation with Cordyceps Cs-4 fermentation product promotes fat metabolism during prolonged exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:S164.Google Scholar
  145. 142.
    Fukagawa NK, et al. Plasma methionine and cysteine kinetics in response to an intravenous glutathione infusion in adult humans. Am J Physiol 1996;270(2 Pt 1):E209–E214.Google Scholar
  146. 143.
    Pinheiro DF, et al. Effect of early feed restriction and enzyme supplementation on digestive enzyme activities in broilers. Poult Sci 2004;83(9):1544–1550.Google Scholar
  147. 144.
    Bruno MJ, et al. Placebo controlled trial of enteric coated pancreatin microsphere treatment in patients with unresectable cancer of the pancreatic head region. Gut 1998;42:92–96.Google Scholar
  148. 145.
    Walker AF, et al. Bromelain reduces mild acute knee pain and improves well-being in a dose-dependent fashion in an open study of otherwise healthy adults. Phytomedicine 2002;9(8):681–686.Google Scholar
  149. 146.
    Klein G, Kullich W. Reducing pain by oral enzyme therapy in rheumatic diseases. Wien Med Wochenschr 1999;149(21–22):577–580.Google Scholar
  150. 147.
    Blumenthal M, et al. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council. 1998:94–95.Google Scholar
  151. 148.
    Griffiths DW. The inhibition of digestive enzymes by polyphenolic compounds. Adv Exp Med Biol 1986;199:509–516.Google Scholar
  152. 149.
    Kandra L, et al. Inhibitory effects of tannin on human salivary alpha-amylase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004;319(4):1265–1271.Google Scholar
  153. 150.
    George J, et al. Double blind controlled trial of deanol in tardive dyskinesia. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 1981;15(1):68–71.Google Scholar
  154. 151.
    Lukoshko SO, et al. The effect of dimethylethanolamine on the summation capacity of the central nervous system and on the work capacity of animals in a chronic experiment. Fiziol Zh 1997;43(1–2):19–22.Google Scholar
  155. 152.
    Fisher MC, et al. Inhibitors of choline uptake and metabolism cause developmental abnormalities in neurulating mouse embryos. Teratology 2001;64(2):114–122.Google Scholar
  156. 153.
    Lohr J, Acara M. Effect of dimethylaminoethanol, an inhibitor of betaine production, on the disposition of choline in the rat kidney. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1990;252(1):154–158.Google Scholar
  157. 154.
    Kiss Z, Crilly KS. Ethanolamine analogues stimulate DNA synthesis by a mechanism not involving phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis. FEBS Lett 1996;381(1–2):67–70.Google Scholar
  158. 155.
    Fonteles MC, et al. Antihyperglycemic effects of 3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inosito1 and D-chiro-inositol associated with manganese in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Horm Metab Res 2000;32(4):129–132.Google Scholar
  159. 156.
    Bates SH, et al. Insulin-like effect of pinitol. Br J Pharmacol 2000;130(8):1944–1948.Google Scholar
  160. 157.
    Davis A, et al. Effect of pinitol treatment on insulin action in subjects with insulin resistance. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1000–1005.Google Scholar
  161. 158.
    Iuorno MJ, et al. Effects of d-chiro-inositol in lean women with the polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocr Pract 2002;8(6):417–423.Google Scholar
  162. 159.
    Taylor MJ, et al. Inositol for depressive disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;(2):CD004049.Google Scholar
  163. 160.
    Adler JH, Grebenok RJ. Biosynthesis and distribution of insect-molting hormones in plants: a review. Lipids 1995;30(3):257–262.Google Scholar
  164. 161.
    Harmatha J, Dinan L. Biological activity of natural and synthetic ecdysteroids in the BII bioassay. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 1997;35(1–2):219–225.Google Scholar
  165. 162.
    Syrov VN, Kurmukov AG. Anabolic activity of phytoecdysone-ecdysterone isolated from Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd.) Iljin Farmakol Toksikol 1976;39(6):690–693.Google Scholar
  166. 163.
    Slama K, et al. Insect hormones in vertebrates: anabolic effects of 20-hydroxyecdysone in Japanese quail. Experientia 1996;52(7):702–706.Google Scholar
  167. 164.
    Prete PE. Growth effects of Phaenicia sericata larval extracts on fibroblasts: mechanism for wound healing by maggot therapy. Life Sci 1997;60(8):505–510.Google Scholar
  168. 165.
    Gadzhieva RM, et al. A comparative study of the anabolic action of ecdysten, leveton and Prime Plus, preparations of plant origin. Eksp Klin Farmakol 1995;58(5):46–48.Google Scholar
  169. 166.
    Syrov VN, et al. The results of experimental study of phytoecdysteroids as erythropoiesis stimulators in laboratory animals. Eksp Klin Farmakol 1997;60(3):41–44.Google Scholar
  170. 167.
    Mirzaev IuR, et al. Effect of ecdysterone on parameters of the sexual function under experimental and clinical conditions. Eksp Klin Farmakol 2000;63(4):35–37.Google Scholar
  171. 168.
    Mosharrof AH. Effects of extract from Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd) Iljin (Leuzea) on learning and memory in rats. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg 1987;13(3):37–42.Google Scholar
  172. 169.
    Trenin DS, Volodin VV. 20-Hydroxyecdysone as a human lymphocyte and neutrophil modulator: in vitro evaluation. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 1999;41(3):156–161.Google Scholar
  173. 170.
    Cai YJ, et al. Antioxidative and free radical scavenging effects of ecdysteroids from Serratula strangulata. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2002;80(12):1187–1194.Google Scholar
  174. 171.
    Kokoska L, et al. Screening of some Siberian medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;82(1):51–53.Google Scholar
  175. 172.
    Zhao Y, et al. Effects of icariin on the differentiation of HL-60 cells. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 1997;19(1):53–55.Google Scholar
  176. 173.
    Xin ZC, et al. Effects of icariin on cGMP-specifie PDE5 and cAMP-specific PDE4 activities. Asian J Androl 2003;(5):15–18.Google Scholar
  177. 174.
    Oh MH, et al. Screening of Korean herbal medicines used to improve cognitive function for anti-cholinesterase activity. Phytomedicine 2004;11(6):544–548.Google Scholar
  178. 175.
    Tian L, et al. Effects of icariin on the erectile function and expression of nitrogen oxide synthase isoforms in corpus cavernosum of arteriogenic erectile dysfunction rat model. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2004;84(11):954–957.Google Scholar
  179. 176.
    Tian L, et al. Effects of icariin on intracavernosal pressure and systematic arterial blood pressure of rat. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2004;84(2):142–145.Google Scholar
  180. 177.
    Mao H, et al. Experimental studies of icariin on anticancer mechanism. Zhong Yao Cai 2000:23(9):554–556.Google Scholar
  181. 178.
    Iinuma M, et al. Phagocytic activity of leaves of Epimedium species on mouse reticuloendothelial system. Yakugaku Zasshi 1990; 110(3): 179–185.Google Scholar
  182. 179.
    Cai D, et al. Clinical and experimental research of Epimedium brevicornum in relieving neuroendocrino-immunological effect inhibited by exogenous glucocorticoid. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1998;18(1):4–7.Google Scholar
  183. 180.
    Liu ZQ, et al. The antioxidative effect of icariin in human erythrocytes against free-radical-induced haemolysis. J Pharm Pharmacol 2004;56(12):1557–1562.Google Scholar
  184. 181.
    Kuang AK, et al. Effects of yang-restoring herb medicines on the levels of plasma corticosterone, testosterone and triiodothyronine. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1989;9(12):737–738.Google Scholar
  185. 182.
    Wang ZQ, Lou YJ. Proliferation-stimulating effects of icaritin and desmethylicaritin in MCF-7 cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2004;504(3):147–153.Google Scholar
  186. 183.
    Chiba K, et al. Neuritogenesis of herbal (+)- and (−)-syringaresinols separated by chiral HPLC in PC12h and Neuro2a Cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2002;25(6):791–793.Google Scholar
  187. 184.
    Guo BL, Xiao PG. Comment on main species of herba epimedii. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2003;28(4):303–307.Google Scholar
  188. 185.
    Guo B, Xiao P. Determination of flavonoids in different parts of five epimedium plants. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 1996;21(9):523–525.Google Scholar
  189. 186.
    Wolfe RR. Effects of amino acid intake on anabolic processes. Can J Appl Physiol 2001;26(Suppl):S220–S227.Google Scholar
  190. 187.
    Tipton KD, et al. Acute response of net muscle protein balance reflects 24-h balance after exercise and amino acid ingestion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002;284:E76–E89.Google Scholar
  191. 188.
    Borsheim E, et al. Essential amino acids and muscle protein recovery from resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endrocrinol Metab 2002;283:E648–E657.Google Scholar
  192. 189.
    Levenhagen DK, et al. Postexercise nutrient intake timing in humans is critical to recovery of leg glucose and protein homeostasis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001;280:E982–E993.Google Scholar
  193. 190.
    Miller SL, et al. Independent and combined effects of amino acids and glucose ingestion on muscle protein metabolism following resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35(3):449–455.Google Scholar
  194. 191.
    Rasmussen BB, et al. An oral essential amino acid-carbohydrate supplement enhances muscle protein anabolism after resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 2000;88:386–392.Google Scholar
  195. 192.
    Tipton KD, et al. Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from orally administered amino acids. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 1999;276:E628–E634.Google Scholar
  196. 193.
    Tipton KD, et al. Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001;281:E197–E206.Google Scholar
  197. 194.
    Husen R, et al. Screening for antihyperglycaemic activity in several local herbs of Malaysia. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;95(2–3):205–208.Google Scholar
  198. 195.
    Ang HH, et al. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) on the initiation of sexual performance of inexperienced castrated male rats. Exp Anim 2000;49(1):35–38.Google Scholar
  199. 196.
    Ang HH, et al. Eurycoma longifolia Jack enhances sexual motivation in middle-aged male mice. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2003;14(3):301–308.Google Scholar
  200. 197.
    Ang HH, Sim MK. Eurycoma longifolia JACK and orientation activities in sexually experienced male rats. Biol Pharm Bull 1998;21(2):153–155.Google Scholar
  201. 198.
    Bedir E, et al. Eurycomaoside: a new quassinoid-type glycoside from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia. Chem Pharm Bull 2003;51(11):1301–1303.Google Scholar
  202. 199.
    Haggerty W. Flax: ancient herb and modem medicine. HerbalGram 1999;45:51–56.Google Scholar
  203. 200.
    Caughey GE, et al. The effect on human tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1: production of diets enriched in n-3 fatty acids from vegetable oil and fish oil. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63(1):116–122.Google Scholar
  204. 201.
    Demark-Wahnefried W, et al. Pilot study of dietary fat restriction and flaxseed supplementation in men with prostate cancer before surgery: exploring the effects on hormonal levels, prostate-specific antigen, and histopathologic features. Urology 2001;58:47–52.Google Scholar
  205. 202.
    Demark-Wahnefried W, et al. Pilot study to explore effects of low-fat, flaxseed-supplemented diet on proliferation of benign prostatic epithelium and prostate-specific antigen. Urology 2004;63(5):900–904.Google Scholar
  206. 203.
    Ipatova OM, et al. Biological activity of linseed oil as the source of omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid. Biomed Khim 2004;50(1):25–43.Google Scholar
  207. 204.
    Cavagnini F, et al. Effect of acute and repeated administration of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in man. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1980;93(2):149–154.Google Scholar
  208. 205.
    Cavagnini F, et al. Effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in man: influence of pimozide and domperidone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1980;51(4):789–792.Google Scholar
  209. 206.
    Cavagnini F, et al. Effects of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and muscimol on endocrine pancreatic function in man. Metabolism 1982;31(1):73–77.Google Scholar
  210. 207.
    Spencer GS, et al. Neuroendocrine regulation of growth hormone secretion in sheep. VII. Effects of GABA. Regul Pept 1994;52(3):181–186.Google Scholar
  211. 208.
    Toffano G, et al. Synergistic effect of phosphatidylserine with gamma-aminobutyric acid in antagonizing the isoniazid-induced convulsions in mice. Neurochem Res 1984;9(8):1065–1073.Google Scholar
  212. 209.
    Benassi E, et al. Evaluation of the mechanisms by which gamma-amino-butyric acid in association with phosphatidylserine exerts an antiepileptic effect in the rat. Neurochem Res 1992;17(12):1229–1233.Google Scholar
  213. 210.
    Inoue K, et al. Blood-pressure-lowering effect of a novel fermented milk containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mild hypertensives. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003;57(3):490–495.Google Scholar
  214. 211.
    Hayakawa K, et al. Mechanism underlying gamma-aminobutyric acid-induced antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2002;438(1–2):107–113.Google Scholar
  215. 212.
    Hayakawa K, et al. Effect of a gamma-aminobutyric acid-enriched dairy product on the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wi star-Kyoto rats. Br J Nutr 2004;92(3):411–417.Google Scholar
  216. 213.
    Aoki H, et al. Effect of γ-aminobutyric acid-enriched tempeh-like fermented soybean (GABA-Tempeh) on the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2003;67(8):1806–1808.Google Scholar
  217. 214.
    Micklefield GH, et al. Effects of ginger on gastroduodenal motility. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999;37(7):341–346.Google Scholar
  218. 215.
    Hashimoto K, et al. Component of Zingiber officinale that improves the enhancement of small intestinal transport. Planta Med 2002;68(10):936–939.Google Scholar
  219. 216.
    Gonlachanvit S, et al. Ginger reduces hyperglycemia-evoked gastric dysrhythmias in healthy humans: possible role of endogenous prostaglandins. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003;307(3):1098–1103.Google Scholar
  220. 217.
    Nurtjahja-Tjendraputra E, et al. Effective anti-platelet and COX-1 enzyme inhibitors from pungent constituents of ginger. Thromb Res 2003;111(4–5):259–265.Google Scholar
  221. 218.
    Tjendraputra E, et al. Effect of ginger constituents and synthetic analogues on cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme in intact cells. Bioorg Chern 2001;29(3):156–163.Google Scholar
  222. 219.
    Murakami A, et al. Zerumbone, a Southeast Asian ginger sesquiterpene, markedly suppresses free radical generation, proinflammatory protein production, and cancer cell proliferation accompanied by apoptosis: the alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl group is a prerequisite. Carcinogenesis 2002;23(5):795–802.Google Scholar
  223. 220.
    Sievenpiper JL, et al. A systematic quantitative analysis of the literature of the high variability in ginseng (Panax spp.): should ginseng be trusted in diabetes? Diabetes Care 2004;27(3):839–840.Google Scholar
  224. 221.
    Bucci LR, et al. Nutritional Ergogenic Aids. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2004:379–410.Google Scholar
  225. 222.
    Vuksan V, et al. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) attenuates postprandial glycemia in a time-dependent but not dose-dependent manner in healthy individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:753–758.Google Scholar
  226. 223.
    Vuksan V, et al. American ginseng reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic and diabetic individuals. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:1009–1013.Google Scholar
  227. 224.
    Sievenpiper JL, et al. Decreasing, null and increasing effects of eight popular types of ginseng on acute postprandial glycemic indices in healthy humans: the role of ginsenosides. J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23(3):248–258.Google Scholar
  228. 225.
    Kelly GS. The role of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfates in the treatment of degenerative joint disease. Altern Med Rev 1998;3(1):27–39.Google Scholar
  229. 226.
    Christgau S, et al. Osteoarthritic patients with high cartilage turnover show increased responsiveness to the cartilage protecting effects of glucosamine sulphate. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2004;22(1):36–42.Google Scholar
  230. 227.
    Pavelka K, et al. Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis: a 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162(18):2113–2123.Google Scholar
  231. 228.
    Richy F, et al. Structural and symptomatic efficacy of glucosamine and chondroitin in knee osteoarthritis: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2003;163(13): 1514–1522.Google Scholar
  232. 229.
    Ruane R, Griffiths P. Glucosamine therapy compared to ibuprofen for joint pain. Br J Community Nurs 2002;7(3):148–152.Google Scholar
  233. 230.
    Parcell S. Sulfur in human nutrition and applications in medicine. Altern Med Rev 2002; 7(1):22–44.Google Scholar
  234. 231.
    Hoffer LJ, et al. Sulfate could mediate the therapeutic effect of glucosamine sulfate. Metabolism 2001;50(7):767–770.Google Scholar
  235. 232.
    Anderson JW, et al. Glucosamine effects in humans: a review of effects on glucose metabolism, side effects, safety considerations and efficacy. Food Chern Toxicol 2005;43(2):187–201.Google Scholar
  236. 233.
    Garattini S. Glutamic acid, twenty years later. J Nutr 2000;130:901S–909S.Google Scholar
  237. 234.
    Brosnan JT. Glutamate, at the interface between amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. J Nutr 2000;130:988S–990S.Google Scholar
  238. 235.
    Graham TE, et al. Glutamate ingestion: the plasma and muscle free amino acid pools of resting humans. Am J Physiol Enodcrinol Metab 2000;278:E83–E89.Google Scholar
  239. 236.
    Mourtzakis M, Graham TE. Glutamate ingestion and its effects at rest and during exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 2002;93:1251–1259.Google Scholar
  240. 237.
    Agostoni C, et al. Free glutamine and glutamic acid increase in human milk through a three-month lactation period. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2000;31(5):508–512.Google Scholar
  241. 238.
    Kumar D, et al. Improved high altitude hypoxic tolerance and amelioration of anorexia and hypophagia in rats on oral glutamate supplementation. Aviat Space Environ Med 1999;70(5):475–479.Google Scholar
  242. 239.
    Hasebe M, et al. Glutamate in enteral nutrition: can glutamate replace glutamine in supplementation to enteral nutrition in burned rats? J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1999;23(5 Suppl):S78–S82.Google Scholar
  243. 240.
    de Souza CT, et al. Insulin secretion in monosodium glutamate (MSG) obese rats submitted to aerobic exercise training. Physiol Chem Phys Med NMR 2003;35(1):43–53.Google Scholar
  244. 241.
    Candow DG, et al. Effect of glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. Eur J Appl Physiol 2001;86(2):142–149.Google Scholar
  245. 242.
    Antonio J, et al. The effects of high-dose glutamine ingestion on weight lifting performance. J Strength Cond Res 2002;16(1):157–160.Google Scholar
  246. 243.
    Haub MD, et al. Acute 1-glutamine ingestion does not improve maximal effort exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1998;38(3):240–244.Google Scholar
  247. 244.
    Rennie MJ, et al. Interaction between glutamine availability and metabolism of glycogen, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and glutathione. J Nutr 2001;131 :2488S–2490S.Google Scholar
  248. 245.
    Bruce M, et al. Glutamine supplementation promotes anaplerosis but not oxidative energy delivery in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001;280:E669–E675.Google Scholar
  249. 246.
    Bowtell JL, et al. Effect of oral glutamine on whole body carbohydrate storage during recovery from exhaustive exercise. J Appl Physiol 1999;86: 1770–1777.Google Scholar
  250. 247.
    Buchman AL. Glutamine: commercially essential or conditionally essential? A critical appraisal of the human data. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:25–32.Google Scholar
  251. 248.
    Novak F, et al. Glutamine supplementation in serious illness: a systematic review of the evidence. Crit Care Med 2002;30(9):2022–2029.Google Scholar
  252. 249.
    Garcia-de-Lorenzo A, et al. Critical evidence for enteral nutritional support with glutamine: a systematic review. Nutrition 2003;19(9):805–811.Google Scholar
  253. 250.
    Castell L, et al. Glutamine supplementation in vitro and in vivo, in exercise and in immunodepression. Sports Med 2003;33(5):323–345.Google Scholar
  254. 251.
    Trimmer JK, et al. Autoregulation of glucose production in men with a glycerol load during rest and exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001;280:E657–E668.Google Scholar
  255. 252.
    Burelle Y, et al. Oxidation of [C]glycerol ingested along with glucose during prolonged exercise. J Appl Physiol 2001;90:1685–1690.Google Scholar
  256. 253.
    Latzka WA, Sawka MN. Hyperhydration and glycerol: thermoregulatory effects during exercise in hot climates. Can J Appl Physiol 2000;25(6):536–545.Google Scholar
  257. 254.
    Anderson MJ, et al. Effect of glycerol-induced hyperhydration on thermoregulation and metabolism during exercise in heat. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2001;11(3):315–333.Google Scholar
  258. 255.
    Coutts A, et al. The effect of glycerol hyperhydration on Olympic distance triathlon performance in high ambient temperatures. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2002;12(1):105–119.Google Scholar
  259. 256.
    Petilli M, et al. Interactions between ipriflavone and the estrogen receptor. Calcif Tissue Int 1995;56:160–165.Google Scholar
  260. 257.
    Miyauchi A, et al. Novel ipriflavone receptors coupled to calcium influx regulate osteoclast differentiation and function. Endocrinology 1996;137:3544–3550.Google Scholar
  261. 258.
    Melis GB, et al. Lack of any estrogenic effect of ipriflavone in postmenopausal women. J Endocrin Invest 1992;15:755–761.Google Scholar
  262. 259.
    Yamazaki I, Kinoshita M. Calcitonin secreting property of ipriflavone in the presence of estrogen. Life Sci 1986;38:1535–1541.Google Scholar
  263. 260.
    Yamazaki I. Effect of ipri£lavone on the response of uterus and thyroid to estrogen. Life Sci 1986;38:757–764.Google Scholar
  264. 261.
    Messina MJ. Legumes and soybeans: overview of their nutritional profiles and health effects. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70(Suppl):439S–450S.Google Scholar
  265. 262.
    Agnusdei D, Bufalino L. Efficacy of ipriflavone in established osteoporosis and long-term safety. Calcif Tissue Int 1997;61(Suppl):S23–S27.Google Scholar
  266. 263.
    Reginster JY. Ipriflavone: pharmacological properties and usefulness in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Bone Miner 1993;23(3):223–232.Google Scholar
  267. 264.
    Somekawa Y, et al. Efficacy of ipriflavone in preventing adverse effects of leuprolide. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86(7):3202–3206.Google Scholar
  268. 265.
    Agnusdei D, et al. Prevention of early postmenopausal bone loss using low doses of conjugated estrogens and the non-hormonal, bone-active drug ipriflavone. Osteoporos Int 1995;5:462–466.Google Scholar
  269. 266.
    Melis GB, et al. Ipriflavone and low doses of estrogen in the prevention of bone mineral loss in climacterium. Bone Miner 1992; 19:S49–S56.Google Scholar
  270. 267.
    Evans BA, et al. Inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase in genital skin fibroblasts and prostate tissue by dietary lignans and isoflavonoids. J Endocrinol 1995;147(2):295–302.Google Scholar
  271. 268.
    Jarred RA, et al. Anti-androgenic action by red clover-derived dietary isoflavones reduces non-malignant prostate enlargement in aromatase knockout (ArKo) mice. Prostate 2003;56(1):54–64.Google Scholar
  272. 269.
    Morton MS, et al. Measurement and metabolism of isoflavonoids and lignans in human male. Cancer Lett 1997;114:145–151.Google Scholar
  273. 270.
    Yamazaki I. Effect of ipriflavone on accessory sexual organs and bone metabolism in male rats. Bone Miner 1987;2(4):271–280.Google Scholar
  274. 271.
    Head KA. Ipriflavone: an important bone-building isoflavone. Altern Med Rev 1999;4(1):10–22.Google Scholar
  275. 272.
    Notoya K, et al. Similarities and differences between the effects of ipriflavone and vitamin K on bone resorption and formation in vitro. Bone 1995;16:S349–S353.Google Scholar
  276. 273.
    Gambacciani M, et al. Effects of ipriflavone administration on bone mass and metabolism in ovariectomized women. J Endocrinol Invest 1993;16(5):333–337.Google Scholar
  277. 274.
    Seaver B, Smith JR. Inhibition of COX isoforms by nutraceuticals. J Herb Pharmacother 2004;4(2):11–18.Google Scholar
  278. 275.
    Kuzuna S, et al. Effects of ipriflavone (TC-80, an anti -osteoporotic drug) on acute and chronic pain. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 1986;88(1):9–17.Google Scholar
  279. 276.
    Nair KS, et al. Leucine as a regulator of whole body and skeletal muscle protein metabolism in humans. Am J Physiol 1992;263(5 Pt 1):E928–E934.Google Scholar
  280. 277.
    Mero A, et al. Leucine supplementation and serum amino acids, testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone in male power athletes during training. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1997;37(2):137–145.Google Scholar
  281. 278.
    Crozier SJ, et al. Oral leucine administration stimulates protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle. J Nutr 2005;135(3):376–382.Google Scholar
  282. 279.
    Koopman R, et al. Combined ingestion of protein and free leucine with carbohydrate increases postexercise muscle protein synthesis in vivo in male subjects. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2005;288(4):E645–E653.Google Scholar
  283. 280.
    Escobar J, et al. A physiological rise in plasma leucine stimulates muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs by enhancing translation initiation factor activation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2005;288(5):E914–E921.Google Scholar
  284. 281.
    Layman DK. Role of leucine in protein metabolism during exercise and recovery. Can J Appl Physiol 2002;27(6):646–663.Google Scholar
  285. 282.
    Layman DK. The role of leucine in weight loss diets and glucose homeostasis. J Nutr 2003;133:261S–267S.Google Scholar
  286. 283.
    Hinault C, et al. Amino acids and leucine allow insulin activation of the PKB/mTOR pathway in normal adipocytes treated with wortmannin and in adipocytes from db/db mice. FASEB J 2004;18(15):1894–1896.Google Scholar
  287. 284.
    Anthony JC, et al. Signaling pathways involved in translational control of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle by leucine. J Nutr 2001;131:856S–860S.Google Scholar
  288. 285.
    Xu G, et al. Metabolic regulation by leucine of translation initiation through the mTOR-signaling pathway by pancreatic β-cells. Diabetes 2001;50:353–360.Google Scholar
  289. 286.
    Yang J, et al. Leucine culture reveals that ATP synthase functions as a fuel sensor in pancreatic β-cells. J Biol Chem 2004;279(52):53915–53923.Google Scholar
  290. 287.
    Mero A, et al. Leucine supplementation and intensive training. Sports Med 1999;27(6):347–358.Google Scholar
  291. 288.
    Pitkanen HT, et al. Leucine supplementation does not enhance acute strength or running performance but affects serum amino acid concentrations. Amino Acids 2003;25(1):85–94.Google Scholar
  292. 289.
    Kelly GS. Clinical applications of N-acetylcysteine. Alt Med Rev 1998;3(2):114–127.Google Scholar
  293. 290.
    Patrick L. Nutrients and HIV. Part 3. n-Acetylcysteine, alpha-lipoic acid, 1-glutamine, and 1-carnitine. Altern Med Rev 2000;5(4):290–305.Google Scholar
  294. 291.
    Sen CK, Packer L. Thiol homeostasis and supplements in physical exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72(Suppl):653S–669S.Google Scholar
  295. 292.
    De Caro L, et al. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of oral acetylcysteine in healthy volunteers. Arzneim Forsch 1989;39:382–385.Google Scholar
  296. 293.
    Borgstrom L, et al. Pharmacokinetics of N-acetylcysteine in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1986;31:217–222.Google Scholar
  297. 294.
    Holdiness MR. Clinical pharmacokinetics of N-acetylcysteine. Clin Pharmacokinet 1991;20(2): 123–134.Google Scholar
  298. 295.
    Kinscherf R, et al. Low plasma glutamine in combination with high glutamate levels indicate risk of loss of body cell mass in healthy individuals: the effect of N-acetylcysteine. J Mol Med 1996;74(7):393–400.Google Scholar
  299. 296.
    Quadrilatero J, Hoffman-Goetz L. N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevents exercise-induced intestinal lymphocyte apoptosis by maintaining intracellular glutathione levels and reducing mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004;319(3):894–90l.Google Scholar
  300. 297.
    Quadrilatero J, Hoffman-Goetz L. N-acetyl-L-cysteine inhibits exercise-induced lymphocyte apoptotic protein alterations. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005;37(1):53–56.Google Scholar
  301. 298.
    Sen CK, et al. Oxidative stress after human exercise: effect of N-acetylcysteine supplementation. J Appl Physiol 1994; 76(6):2570–2577.Google Scholar
  302. 299.
    Mariotti F, et al. Acute ingestion of dietary proteins improves post-exercise liver glutathione in rats in a dose-dependent relationship with their cysteine content. J Nutr 2004;134(1):128–131.Google Scholar
  303. 300.
    Wessner B, et al. Effect of single and combined supply of glutamine, glycine, N-acetylcysteine, and R,S-alpha-lipoic acid on glutathione content of myelomonocytic cells. Clin Nutr 2003;22(6):515–522.Google Scholar
  304. 301.
    Medved I, et al. Effects of intravenous N-acetylcysteine infusion on time to fatigue and potassium regulation during prolonged cycling exercise. J Appl Physiol 2004;96:211–217.Google Scholar
  305. 302.
    Medved I, et al. N-acetylcysteine enhances muscle cysteine and glutathione availability and attenuates fatigue during prolonged exercise in endurance-trained individuals. J Appl Physiol 2004;97(4):1477–1485.Google Scholar
  306. 303.
    Medved I, et al. N-acetylcysteine infusion alters blood redox status but not time to fatigue during intense exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 2003;94:1572–1582.Google Scholar
  307. 304.
    Reid MB. N-acetylcysteine inhibits muscle fatigue in humans. J Clin Invest 1994;94:2468–2474.Google Scholar
  308. 305.
    Hauer K, et al. Improvement in muscular performance and decrease in tumor necrosis factor level in old age after antioxidant treatment. T Mol Med 2003;81(2):118–125.Google Scholar
  309. 306.
    Hildebrandt W, et al. Effect of N-acetyl-cysteine on the hypoxic ventilatory response and erythropoietin production: linkage between plasma thiol redox state and O2 chemosensitivity. Blood 2002;99(5):1552–1555.Google Scholar
  310. 307.
    De Flora S, et al. Mechanisms of N-acetylcysteine in the prevention of DNA damage and cancer, with special reference to smoking-related end-points. Carcinogenesis 2001;22(7):999–1013.Google Scholar
  311. 308.
    Alhamdan AA. The effects of dietary supplementation of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on glutathione concentration and lipid peroxidation in cigarette smoke-exposed rats fed a low-protein diet. Saudi Med J 2005;26(2):208–214.Google Scholar
  312. 309.
    MacNee W, et al. The effects of N-acetylcysteine and glutathione on smoke-induced changes in lung phagocytes and epithelial cells. Am J Med 1991;91(3C):60S–66S.Google Scholar
  313. 310.
    De Benedetto F, et al. Long-term oral n-acetylcysteine reduces exhaled hydrogen peroxide in stable COPD. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2005;18(1):41–47.Google Scholar
  314. 311.
    Grattagliano I, et al. Effect of dietary restriction and N-acetylcysteine supplementation on intestinal mucosa and liver mitochondrial redox status and function in aged rats. Exp Gerontol 2004;39(9):1323–1332.Google Scholar
  315. 312.
    Duong MH, et al. N-acetylcysteine prophylaxis significantly reduces the risk of radio contrast-induced nephropathy: comprehensive meta-analysis. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2005;64(4):471–479.Google Scholar
  316. 313.
    Girouard H, et al. N-acetylcysteine improves nitric oxide and alpha-adrenergic pathways in mesenteric beds of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Hypertens 2003;16(7):577–584.Google Scholar
  317. 314.
    Song F, et al. Chronic N-acetylcysteine prevents fructose-induced insulin resistance and hypertension in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2005;508(1–3):205–210.Google Scholar
  318. 315.
    Schaser KD, et al. Acute effects of N-acetylcysteine on skeletal muscle microcirculation following closed soft tissue trauma in rats. J Orthop Res 2005;23(1):231–241.Google Scholar
  319. 316.
    Cynober L, et al. Kinetics and metabolic effects of orally administered ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate in healthy subjects fed with a standardized regimen. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;39(4):514–519.Google Scholar
  320. 317.
    Jeevanandam M, Petersen SR. Substrate fuel kinetics in enterally fed trauma patients supplemented with ornithine alpha ketoglutarate. Clin Nutr 1999;18(4):209–217.Google Scholar
  321. 318.
    Cynober L. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate as a potent precursor of arginine and nitric oxide: a new job for an old friend. J Nutr 2004;134(10 Suppl):2858S–2862S.Google Scholar
  322. 319.
    Schneid C, et al. Effects of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate on insulin secretion in rat pancreatic islets: implication of nitric oxide synthase and glutamine synthetase pathways. Br T Nutr 2003;89(2):249–257.Google Scholar
  323. 320.
    Moinard C, et al. Involvement of glutamine, arginine, and polyamines in the action of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate on macrophage functions in stressed rats. J Leukoc Biol 2000;67(6):834–840.Google Scholar
  324. 321.
    Coudray-Lucas C, et al. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate improves wound healing in severe burn patients: a prospective randomized double-blind trial versus isonitrogenous controls. Crit Care Med 2000;28(6):1772–1776.Google Scholar
  325. 322.
    Schneid C, et al. In vivo induction of insulin secretion by ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate: involvement of nitric oxide and glutamine. Metabolism 2003;52(3):344–350.Google Scholar
  326. 323.
    Pernet P, et al. Dose dependency of the effect of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate on tissue glutamine concentrations and hypercatabolic response in endotoxaemic rats. Br J Nutr 2004;92(4):627–634.Google Scholar
  327. 324.
    Bruce M, et al. Glutamine supplementation promotes anaplerosis but not oxidative energy delivery in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001;280:E669–E675.Google Scholar
  328. 325.
    Bowtell JL, Bruce M. Glutamine: an anaplerotic precursor. Nutrition 2002;18(3):222–224.Google Scholar
  329. 326.
    Vaubourdolle M, et al. Action of ornithine alpha ketoglutarate on DNA synthesis by human fibroblasts. In Vitro Cell Dev Bioi 1990;26(2):187–192.Google Scholar
  330. 327.
    Vaubourdolle M, et al. Fate of enterally administered ornithine in healthy animals: interactions with alpha-ketoglutarate. Nutrition 1989;5(3):183–187.Google Scholar
  331. 328.
    De Bandt JP, et al. Metabolism of ornithine, alpha-ketoglutarate and arginine in isolated perfused rat liver. Br J Nutr 1995;73(2):227–239.Google Scholar
  332. 329.
    Cynober L, et al. Action of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate, ornithine hydrochloride, and calcium alpha-ketoglutarate on plasma amino acid and hormonal patterns in healthy subjects. J Am Coll Nutr 1990;9(1):2–12.Google Scholar
  333. 330.
    Jeevanandam M, et al. Ornithine-alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) supplementation is more effective than its component salts in traumatized rats. J Nutr 1996;126(9):2141–2150.Google Scholar
  334. 331.
    Le Boucher J, et al. Enteral administration of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate or arginine alpha-ketoglutarate: a comparative study of their effects on glutamine pools in burn-injured rats. Crit Care Med 1997;25(2):293–298.Google Scholar
  335. 332.
    De Bandt JP, et al. A randomized controlled trial of the influence of the mode of enteral ornithine α-ketoglutarate administration in burn patients. J Nutr 1998;128:S63–S69.Google Scholar
  336. 333.
    Cynober LA. The use of alpha-ketoglutarate salts in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1999;2(1):33–37.Google Scholar
  337. 334.
    Toffano G, et al. Synergistic effect of phosphatidylserine with gamma-aminobutyric acid in antagonizing the isoniazid-induced convulsions in mice. Neurochem Res 1984;9(8):1065–1073.Google Scholar
  338. 335.
    Benassi E, et al. Evaluation of the mechanisms by which gamma-amino-butyric acid in association with phosphatidylserine exerts an antiepileptic effect in the rat. Neurochem Res 1992;17(12):1229–1233.Google Scholar
  339. 336.
    Kuypers FA, de Jong K. The role of phosphatidylserine in recognition and removal of erythrocytes. Cell Mol Bioi (Noisy-le-grand)2004;50(2):147–158.Google Scholar
  340. 337.
    Vance JE, Shiao YJ. Intracellular trafficking of phospholipids: import of phosphatidylserine into mitochondria. Anticancer Res 1996;16(3B):1333–1339.Google Scholar
  341. 338.
    Vance JE. Molecular and cell biology of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine metabolism. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol 2003;75:69–111.Google Scholar
  342. 339.
    Bruni A, et al. Pharmacological effects of phosphatidylserine liposomes. Nature 1976;260(5549):331–333.Google Scholar
  343. 340.
    Suzuki S, et al. Oral administration of soybean lecithin transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine improves memory impairment in aged rats. J Nutr 2001;131:2951–2956.Google Scholar
  344. 341.
    Cenacchi T, et al. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging Clin Exp Res 1993;5:123–133.Google Scholar
  345. 342.
    Monteleone P, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans. Neuroendocrinology 1990;52(3):243–248.Google Scholar
  346. 343.
    Monteleone P, et al. Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992;42(4):385–388.Google Scholar
  347. 344.
    Brekhman II, Dardymov IV. New substances of plant origin which increase non-specific resistance. Ann Rev Pharmacol 1968;(9):419–430.Google Scholar
  348. 345.
    Brown RP, et al. Rhodiola rosea: a phytomedicinal overview. HerbalGram 2002;56:40–52.Google Scholar
  349. 346.
    Kelly GS. Rhodiola rosea: a possible plant adaptogen. Altern Med Rev 2001;6(3):293–302.Google Scholar
  350. 347.
    Monograph: Rhodiola rosea. Altern Med Rev 2002;7(5):421–423.Google Scholar
  351. 348.
    Shevtsov VA, et al. A randomized trial of the two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomedicine 2003; 10(2–3):95–105.Google Scholar
  352. 349.
    Maslova LV, et al. The cardioprotective and antiadrenergic activity of an extract of Rhodiola rosea in stress. Exsp Klin Farmakol 1994;57(6):61–63.Google Scholar
  353. 350.
    Abidov M, et al. Extract of Rhodiola rosea radix reduces the level of C-reactive protein and creatinine kinase in the blood. Bull Exp Biol Med 2004;138(1):63–64.Google Scholar
  354. 351.
    Pogorelyi VE, Makarova LM. Rhodiola rosea extract for prophylaxis of ischemic cerebral circulation disorder. Eksp Klin Farmakol 2002;65(4): 19–22.Google Scholar
  355. 352.
    De Sanctis R, et al. In vitro protective effect of Rhodiola rosea extract against hypochlorous acid-induced oxidative damage in human erythrocytes. Biofactors 2004;20(3): 147–159.Google Scholar
  356. 353.
    De Bock K, et al. Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2004;14(3):298–307.Google Scholar
  357. 354.
    Furmanowa M, et al. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Rhodiola rosea L. Herba Polonica. 1999;95(2):108–113.Google Scholar
  358. 355.
    Tolonen A, et al. Phenylpropanoid glycosides from Rhodiola rosea. Chern Pharm Bull 2003;51(4):467–470.Google Scholar
  359. 356.
    Ganzera M, et al. Analysis of the marker compounds of Rhodiola rosea L. (Golden Root) by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Chem Pharm Bull 2001;49(4):465–467.Google Scholar
  360. 357.
    Abidov M, et al. Effect of extracts from Rhodiola rosea and Rhodiola crenulata (Crassulaceae) roots on ATP content in mitochondria of skeletal muscles. Bull Exp Bioi Med 2003;136(6):585–587.Google Scholar
  361. 358.
    Wing SL, et al. Lack of effect of Rhodiola or oxygenated water supplementation on hypoxemia and oxidative stress. Wilderness Environ Med 2003; 14(1):9–16.Google Scholar
  362. 359.
    Ha Z, et al. The effect of rhodiola and acetazolamide on the sleep architecture and blood oxygen saturation in men living at high altitude. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2002;25(9):527–530.Google Scholar
  363. 360.
    Ruan X, et al. Analysis on the trace elements and amino acid content in xinjiang 6 series Rhodiola L. plant. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi 2001;21(4):542–544.Google Scholar
  364. 361.
    Zarzeczny R, et al. Influence of ribose on adenine salvage after intense muscle contractions. J Appl Physiol 2001;91:1775–1781.Google Scholar
  365. 362.
    Hellsten L, et al. Effect of ribose supplementation on resynthesis of adenine nucleotides after intense intermittent training in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2004;286:R182–R188.Google Scholar
  366. 363.
    Berardi JM, Ziegenfuss TN. Effects of ribose supplementation on repeated sprint performance in men. J Strength Cond Res 2003;17(1):47–52.Google Scholar
  367. 364.
    Kreider RB, et al. Effects of oral D-ribose supplementation on anaerobic capacity and selected metabolic markers in healthy males. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2003;13(1):76–86.Google Scholar
  368. 365.
    Op’t Eijnde B, et al. No effects of oral ribose supplementation on repeated maximal exercise and de novo ATP resynthesis. J Appl Physiol 2001;91:2275–2281.Google Scholar
  369. 366.
    Pliml W, et al. Effects of ribose on exercise-induced ischaemia in stable coronary artery disease. Lancet 1992;340(8818):507–510.Google Scholar
  370. 367.
    Omran H, et al. D-Ribose improves diastolic function and quality of life in congestive heart failure patients: a prospective feasibility study. Eur J Heart Fail 2003;5(5):615–619.Google Scholar
  371. 368.
    Kooman JP, et al. The influence of bicarbonate supplementation on plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids in haemodialysis patients with metabolic acidosis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1997;12:2397–2401.Google Scholar
  372. 369.
    Matson LG, Tran ZV. Effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on anaerobic performance: a meta-analytic review. Int J Sport Nutr 1993;3(1):2–28.Google Scholar
  373. 370.
    Requena B, et al. Sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate: ergogenic aids? J Strength Cond Res 2005;19(1):213–224.Google Scholar
  374. 371.
    Tiryaki GR, Atterbom HA. The effects of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate on 600m running time of trained females. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1995;35(3):194–198.Google Scholar
  375. 372.
    Bird SR, et al. The effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on 1500-m racing time. J Sports Sci 1995;13(5):399–403.Google Scholar
  376. 373.
    Price M, et al. Effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on prolonged intermittent exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35(8):1303–1308.Google Scholar
  377. 374.
    Kolkhorst FW, et al. Effects of sodium bicarbonate on VO2 kinetics during heavy exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004;36(11):1895–1899.Google Scholar
  378. 375.
    Van Montfoort MC, et al. Effects of ingestion of bicarbonate, citrate, lactate, and chloride on sprint running. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004;36(7):1239–1243.Google Scholar
  379. 376.
    McNaughton L, Thompson D. Acute versus chronic sodium bicarbonate ingestion and anaerobic work and power output. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2001;41(4):456–462.Google Scholar
  380. 377.
    Verbitsky O, et al. Effect of ingested sodium bicarbonate on muscle force, fatigue, and recovery. J Appl Physiol 1997;83(2):333–337.Google Scholar
  381. 378.
    Kozak-Collins K, et al. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion does not improve performance in women cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994;26(12):1510–1515.Google Scholar
  382. 379.
    Heck KL, et al. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion does not attenuate the VO2 slow component during constant-load exercise. Int J Sports Nutr 1998;8(1):60–69.Google Scholar
  383. 380.
    McNaughton L, et al. Sodium bicarbonate can be used as an ergogenic aid in high-intensity, competitive cycle ergometry of 1h duration. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1999;80(1):64–69.Google Scholar
  384. 381.
    Stephens TJ, et al. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on muscle metabolism during intense endurance cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002;34(4):614–621.Google Scholar
  385. 382.
    Santalla A, et al. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion does not alter the slow component of oxygen uptake kinetics in professional cyclists. J Sports Sci 2003;21(1):39–47.Google Scholar
  386. 383.
    Waldman SD, et al. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on extracellular pH, matrix accumulation, and morphology of cultured articular chondrocytes. Tissue Eng 2004;10(11–12):1633–1640.Google Scholar
  387. 384.
    Rico H, et al. Effects of sodium bicarbonatc supplementation on axial and peripheral bone mass in rats on strenuous treadmill training exercise. J Bone Miner Metab 2001; 19(2):97–101.Google Scholar
  388. 385.
    Iwasaki Y, et al. Sodium bicarbonate infusion test: a new method for evaluating parathyroid function. Endocr J 2003;50(5):545–551.Google Scholar
  389. 386.
    Lemann J, et al. Potassium bicarbonate, but not sodium bicarbonate, reduces urinary calcium excretion and improves calcium balance in healthy men. Kidney Int 1989;35(2):688–695.Google Scholar
  390. 387.
    Gougeon-Reyburn R, et al. Effects of bicarbonate supplementation on urinary mineral excretion during very low energy diets. Am J Med Sci 1991;302(2):67–74.Google Scholar
  391. 388.
    Lindinger MI, et al. NaHCO3 and KHCO3 ingestion rapidly increases renal electrolyte excretion in humans. J Appl Physiol 2000;88:540–550.Google Scholar
  392. 389.
    Stipanuk MH. Role of the liver in regulation of body cysteine and taurine levels: a brief review. Neurochem Res 2004;29(1): 105–110.Google Scholar
  393. 390.
    Shin HK, Linkswiler HM. Tryptophan and methionine metabolism of adult females as affected by vitamin B6 deficiency. J Nutr 1974;104:1348–1355.Google Scholar
  394. 391.
    Waterfield CJ, et al. Effect of treatment with beta-agonists on tissue and urinary taurine levels in rats. Mechanism and implications for protection. Adv Exp Med Biol 1996;403:233–245.Google Scholar
  395. 392.
    Inoue M, Arias IM. Taurine transport across hepatocyte plasma membranes: analysis in isolated rat liver sinusoidal plasma membrane vesicles. J Biochem (Tokyo) 1988;104(1):155–158.Google Scholar
  396. 393.
    Boelens PG, et al. Plasma taurine concentrations increase after enteral glutamine supplementation in trauma patients and stressed rats. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:250–256.Google Scholar
  397. 394.
    Park SH, et al. Cortisol and IGF-1 synergistically up-regulate taurine transport by the rat skeletal muscle cell line, L6. Biofactors 2004;21(1–4):403–406.Google Scholar
  398. 395.
    Roos S, et al. Human placental taurine transporter in uncomplicated and IUGR pregnancies: cellular localization, protein expression, and regulation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2004;287(4):R886–R893.Google Scholar
  399. 396.
    Oja SS, Saransaari P. Modulation of taurine release by glutamate receptors and nitric oxide. Prog Neurobiol 2000;62(4):407–425.Google Scholar
  400. 397.
    Birdsall TC. Therapeutic applications of taurine. Alt Med Rev 1998;3(2):128–136.Google Scholar
  401. 398.
    Huxtable RJ. Physiological actions of taurine. Physiol Rev 1992;72:101–163.Google Scholar
  402. 399.
    Monograph: Taurine. Altern Med Rev 2001;6(1):78–82.Google Scholar
  403. 400.
    Petrosian AM, Haroutounian JE. Taurine as a universal carrier of lipid soluble vitamins: a hypothesis. Amino Acids 2000;19(2):409–421.Google Scholar
  404. 401.
    Messina SA, Dawson R Jr. Attenuation of oxidative damage to DNA by taurine and taurine analogs. Adv Exp Med Biol 2000;483:355–367.Google Scholar
  405. 402.
    Schaffer S, et al. Role of osmoregulation in the actions of taurine. Amino Acids 2000;19(3–4):527–546.Google Scholar
  406. 403.
    El Idrissi A, Trenkner E. Taurine as a modulator of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Neuorchem Res 2004;29(1):189–197.Google Scholar
  407. 404.
    Conte Camerino D, et al. Taurine and skeletal muscle disorders. Neurochem Res 2004;29( 1): 135–142.Google Scholar
  408. 405.
    El Idrissi A, Trenkner E. Taurine regulates mitochondrial calcium homeostasis. Adv Exp Med Biol 2003;526:527–536.Google Scholar
  409. 406.
    Aerts L, Van Assche FA. Taurine and taurine-deficiency in the perinatal period. J Perinat Med 2002;30(4):281–286.Google Scholar
  410. 407.
    Wharton BA, et al. Low plasma taurine and later neurodevelopment. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2004;89:F497–F498.Google Scholar
  411. 408.
    Arany E, et al. Taurine supplement in early life altered islet morphology, decreased insulitis and delayed the onset of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. Diabetologia 2004;47(10):1831–1837.Google Scholar
  412. 409.
    Franconi F, et al. Is taurine beneficial in reducing risk factors for diabetes mellitus? Neurochem Res 2004;29(1):143–150.Google Scholar
  413. 410.
    Zhang M, et al. Beneficial effects of taurine on serum lipids in overweight or obese non-diabetic subjects. Amino Acids 2004;26(3):267–271.Google Scholar
  414. 411.
    Schaffer SW, et al. Interaction between the actions of taurine and angiotensin II. Amino Acids 2000;18(4):305–318.Google Scholar
  415. 412.
    Militante JD, Lombardini JB. Treatment of hypertension with oral taurine: experimental and clinical studies. Amino Acids 2002;23(4):381–393.Google Scholar
  416. 413.
    Kingston R, et al. The therapeutic role of taurine in ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Curr Pharm Des 2004;10(19):2401–2410.Google Scholar
  417. 414.
    Yamori Y, et al. Fish and lifestyle-related disease prevention: experimental and epidemiological evidence for anti-atherogenic potential of taurine. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2004;31(Suppl 2):S20–S23.Google Scholar
  418. 415.
    El Idrissi A, et al. Prevention of epileptic seizures by taurine. Adv Exp Med Biol 2003;526:515–525.Google Scholar
  419. 416.
    Sener G, et al. Taurine treatment protects against chronic nicotine-induced oxidative changes. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2005;19(2):155–164.Google Scholar
  420. 417.
    Olive MF. Interactions between taurine and ethanol in the central nervous system. Amino Acids 2002;23(4):345–357.Google Scholar
  421. 418.
    Lee JY, et a1. Effect of taurine on biliary excretion and metabolism of acetaminophen in male hamsters. Biol Pharm Bull 2004;27(11):1792–1796.Google Scholar
  422. 419.
    Warskulat U, et al. Taurine transporter knockout depletes muscle taurine levels and results in severe skeletal muscle impairment but leaves cardiac function uncompromised. FASEB J 2004;18(3):577–579.Google Scholar
  423. 420.
    Matsuzaki Y, et al. Decreased taurine concentration in skeletal muscles after exercise for various durations. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002;34(5):793–797.Google Scholar
  424. 421.
    Dawson R Jr, et al. The cytoprotective role of taurine in exercise-induced muscle injury. Amino Acids 2002;22(4):309–324.Google Scholar
  425. 422.
    Yatabe Y, et al. Effects of taurine administration in rat skeletal muscles on exercise. J Orthop Sci 2003;8(3):415–419.Google Scholar
  426. 423.
    Zhang M, et al. Role of taurine supplementation to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy young men. Amino Acids 2004;26(2):203–207.Google Scholar
  427. 424.
    De Luca A, et al. Enhanced dystrophic progression in mdx mice by exercise and beneficial effects of taurine and insulin -like growth factor -1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003;304(1):453–463.Google Scholar
  428. 425.
    Bouchama A, et al. Alteration of taurine homeostasis in acute heatstroke. Crit Care Med 1993;21(4):551–554.Google Scholar
  429. 426.
    Miyazaki T, et al. Optimal and effective oral dose of taurine to prolong exercise performance in rat. Amino Acids 2004;27(3–4):291–298.Google Scholar
  430. 427.
    Kaplan B, et al. Effects of taurine in glucose and taurine administration. Amino Acids 2004;27(3–4):327–333.Google Scholar
  431. 428.
    Nandhini ATA, et al. Effect of taurine on biomarkers of oxidative stress in tissues of fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats. Singapore Med J 2005;46(2):82–87.Google Scholar
  432. 429.
    Manabe S, et al. Decreased blood levels of lactic acid and urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine after exercise by chronic taurine treatment in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol(Tokyo) 2003;49(6):375–380.Google Scholar
  433. 430.
    Harada N, et al. Taurine alters respiratory gas exchange and nutrient metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Obes Res 2004;12(7):1077–1084.Google Scholar
  434. 431.
    Han J, et al. Taurine increases glucose sensitivity of UCP2-overexpressing beta-cells by ameliorating mitochondrial metabolism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2004;287(5):E1008–E1018.Google Scholar
  435. 432.
    Sang-Hoon L, et al. Enhancing effect of taurine on glucose response in UCP2-overexpressing beta-cells. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2004;66(Suppl 1):S69–S74.Google Scholar
  436. 433.
    Brons C, et al. Effect of taurine treatment on insulin secretion and action, and on serum lipid levels in overweight men with a genetic predisposition for type II diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004;58(9):1239–1247.Google Scholar
  437. 434.
    Boujendar S, et al. Taurine supplementation of a low protein diet fed to rat dams normalizes the vascularization of the fetal endocrine pancreas. J Nutr 2003; 133:2820–2825.Google Scholar
  438. 435.
    Antonio J, et al. The effects of Tribulus terrestris on body composition and exercise performance in resistance-trained males. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2000;10(2):208–215.Google Scholar
  439. 436.
    Gauthaman K, et al. Sexual effects of puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) extract (Protodioscin): an evaluation using a rat model. J Altern Complement Med 2003;9(2):257–265.Google Scholar
  440. 437.
    Deng Y, et al. Effect of Tribulus terrestris L decoction of different concentrations on tyrosinase activity and the proliferation of melanocytes. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao 2002;22(11):1017–1019.Google Scholar
  441. 438.
    Cauthaman K, Adaikan PC. Effect of Tribulus terrestris on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase activity and androgen receptors in rat brain. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;96(1–2):127–132.Google Scholar
  442. 439.
    Gauthaman K, et al. Aphrodisiac properties of Tribulus terrestris extract (Protodioscin) in normal and castrated rats. Life Sci 2002;71(12):1385–1396.Google Scholar
  443. 440.
    Adaikan PG, et al. Proerectile pharmacological effects of Tribulus terrestris extract on the rabbit corpus cavernosum. Arm Acad Med Singapore 2000;29(1):22–26.Google Scholar
  444. 441.
    Li M, et al. Hypoglycemic effect of saponin from Tribulus terrestris. Zhong Yao Cai 2002;25(6):420–422.Google Scholar
  445. 442.
    Chu S, et al. Effect of saponin from Tribu1us terrestris on hyperlipidemia. Zhong Yao Cai 2003;26(5):341–344.Google Scholar
  446. 443.
    Squires PE, et al. The putative imidazoline receptor agonist, harmane, promotes intracellular calcium mobilization in pancreatic beta-cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2004;501(1–3):31–39.Google Scholar
  447. 444.
    Sangeeta D, et al. Effect of Tribulus terrestris on oxalate metabolism in rats. J Ethnopharmacol1994;44(2):61–66.Google Scholar
  448. 445.
    Wang B, et al. 406 cases of angina pectoris in coronary heart disease treated with saponin of Tribulus terrestris. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1990;10(2):85–87.Google Scholar
  449. 445a.
    Wang B, et al. 406 cases of angina pectoris in coronary heart disease treated with saponin of Tribulus terrestris. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1990;10(2):68.Google Scholar
  450. 446.
    Arcasoy HB, et al. Effect of Tribulus terrestris L. saponin mixture on some smooth muscle preparations: a preliminary study. Boll Chim Farm 1998;137(11):473–475.Google Scholar
  451. 447.
    Al-Ali M, et al. Tribulus terrestris: preliminary study of its diuretic and contractile effects and comparison with Zea mays. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;85(2–3):257–260.Google Scholar
  452. 448.
    Hong CH, et al. Evaluation of natural products on inhibition of inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cultured mouse macrophage cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;83(1–2):153–159.Google Scholar
  453. 449.
    Sharifi AM, et al. Study of antihypertensive mechanism of Tribulus terrestris in 2K1C hypertensive rats: role of tissue ACE activity. Life Sci 2003;73(23):2963–2971.Google Scholar
  454. 450.
    Ganzera M, et al. Determination of steroidal sapoinins in Tribulus terrestris by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection. J Pharm Sci 2001;90:1752–1758.Google Scholar
  455. 451.
    Stevenson JS, et al. Luteinizing hormone release and reproductive traits in anestrous, estrus-cycling, and ovariectomized cattle after tyrosine supplementation. J Anim Sci 1997; 75:2754–2761.Google Scholar
  456. 452.
    Zurek E, et al. Metabolic status and interval to first ovulation in postpartum dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 1995;78:1909–1920.Google Scholar
  457. 453.
    Sutton EE, et al. Ingestion of tyrosine: effects on endurance, muscle strength, and anaerobic performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2005;15:173–185.Google Scholar
  458. 454.
    Troy D, et al. Effects of L-tyrosine and carbohydrate ingestion on endurance exercise performance. J Appl Physiol 2002;93:1590–1597.Google Scholar
  459. 455.
    Benedict CR, et al. The influence of oral tyrosine and tryptophan feeding on plasma catecholamines in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38(3):429–435.Google Scholar
  460. 456.
    Alonso R, et al. Elevation of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites following tyrosine administration in humans. Biol Psychiatry 1982;17(7):781–790.Google Scholar
  461. 457.
    Agharanya JC, et al. Changes in catecholamine excretion after short-term tyrosine ingestion in normally fed human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34(1):82–87.Google Scholar
  462. 458.
    Gibson CJ. Increase in norepinephrine turnover after tyrosine or DL-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (DL-threo-DOPS). Life Sci 1988;42(1):95–102.Google Scholar
  463. 459.
    Acworth IN, et al. Tyrosine: effects on catecholamine release. Brain Res Bull 1988;21(3):473–477.Google Scholar
  464. 460.
    Magill RA, et al. Effects of tyrosine, phentermine, caffeine D-amphetamine, and placebo on cognitive and motor performance deficits during sleep deprivation. Nutr Neurosci 2003;6(4):237–246.Google Scholar
  465. 461.
    Neri DF, et al. The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Aviat Space Environ Med 1995;66(4):313–319.Google Scholar
  466. 462.
    Rauch TM, Lieberman HR. Tyrosine pretreatment reverses hypothermia-induced behavioral depression. Brain Res Bull 1990;24(1):147–150.Google Scholar
  467. 463.
    Lieberman HR, et al. Tyrosine prevents effects of hyperthermia on behavior and increases norepinephrine. Physiol Behav 2005;84(1):33–38 .Google Scholar
  468. 464.
    Avraham Y, et al. Tyrosine improves appetite, cognition, and exercise tolerance in activity anorexia. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33(12):2104–2110.Google Scholar
  469. 465.
    Avraham Y, et al. Diet restriction in mice causes a decrease in hippocampal choline uptake and muscarinic receptors that is restored by administration of tyrosine: interaction between cholinergic and adrenergic receptors influencing cognitive function. Nutr Neurosci 2001;4(2):153–167.Google Scholar
  470. 466.
    Hayashi Y, et al. Enhancement of in vivo tyrosine hydroxylation in the rat adrenal gland under hypoxic conditions. J Neurochem 1990;54(4):1115–2111.Google Scholar
  471. 467.
    Melamed E, et al. Tyrosine administration increases striatal dopamine release in rats with partial nigrostriatal lesions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1980;77(7):4305–4309.Google Scholar
  472. 468.
    Asbach S, et al. Effects of corticotrophin-releasing hormone on locus coeruleus neurons in vivo: a microdialysis study using a novel bilateral approach. Eur J Endocrinol 2001;145:359–363.Google Scholar
  473. 469.
    Agharanya JC, Wurtman RJ. Studies on the mechanism by which tyrosine raises urinary catecholamines. Biochem Pharmacol 1982;31 (22):3577–3580.Google Scholar
  474. 470.
    Jaskiw GE, et al. Tyrosine augments clozapine-induced dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat in vivo: effects of access to food. Neurosci Lett 2004;357(1):5–8.Google Scholar
  475. 471.
    Jaskiw GE, et al. Tyrosine augments acute clozapine- but not haloperidol-induced dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat: an in vivo microdialysis study. Neuropsychopharmacology 2001;25(1):149–156.Google Scholar
  476. 472.
    Martha M, et al. Tetrahydrobiopterin increases in adrenal medulla and cortex: a factor in the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1981;78(5):2703–2706.Google Scholar
  477. 473.
    Fernstrom MH, et al. In vivo inhibition of tyrosine uptake into rat retina by large neutral but not acidic amino acids. Am J Physiol 1986;251(4 Pt 1):E393–E399.Google Scholar
  478. 474.
    Oishi T, Szabo S. Effect of tyrosine administration on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1987;240(3):879–882.Google Scholar
  479. 475.
    Heyliger CE, et al. Effect of vanadate on elevated blood glucose and depressed cardiac performance of diabetic rats. Science 1985;227:1474–1477.Google Scholar
  480. 476.
    Verma S, et al. Nutritional factors that can favorably influence the glucose/insulin system: vanadium. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17(1):11–18.Google Scholar
  481. 477.
    Poucheret P, et al. Vanadium and diabetes. Mol Cell Biochem 1998;188(1–2):73–80.Google Scholar
  482. 478.
    Srivastava AK, Mehdi MZ. Insulino-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects of vanadium compounds. Diabet Med 2005;22(1):2–13.Google Scholar
  483. 479.
    Cam MC, et al. Concentration-dependent glucose lowering effects of vanadyl are maintained following treatment withdrawal in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Metabolism 1995;44:332–339.Google Scholar
  484. 480.
    Cohen N, et al. Oral vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1995;95:2501–2509.Google Scholar
  485. 481.
    Marzban L, et al. Mechanisms by which bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) normalizes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase expression in streptozotocin-diabetic rats in vivo. Endocrinology 2002;143(12):4636–4645.Google Scholar
  486. 482.
    Xie M, et al. A new orally active antidiabetic vanadyl complex—bis(alpha-furancar boxylato)oxovanadium(IV). J Inorg Biochem 2005;99(2):546–551.Google Scholar
  487. 483.
    Brownsey RW, Dong GW. Evidence for selective effects of vanadium on adipose cell metabolism involving actions on cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Mol Cell Biochem 1995;153(1–2): 131–137.Google Scholar
  488. 484.
    Rehder D, et al. In vitro study of the insulin-mimetic behavior of vanadium(IV, V) coordination compounds. J Biol Inorg Chern 2002;7(4–5):384–396.Google Scholar
  489. 485.
    Jentjens RL, Jeukendrup AE. Effect of acute and short-term administration of vanadyl sulphate on insulin sensitivity in healthy active humans. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2002;12(4):470–479.Google Scholar
  490. 486.
    Fawcett JP, et al. The effect of oral vanadyl sulfate on body composition and performance in weight-training athletes. Int J Sport Nutr 1996;6(4):382–390.Google Scholar
  491. 487.
    Fawcett JP, et al. Oral vanadyl sulphate does not affect blood cells, viscosity or biochemistry in humans. Pharmacol Toxicol 1997;80(4):202–206.Google Scholar
  492. 488.
    Marti L, et al. Tyramine and vanadate synergistically stimulate glucose transport in rat adipocytes by amine oxidase-dependent generation of hydrogen peroxide. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998;285(1):342–349.Google Scholar
  493. 489.
    Barbagallo M, et al. Insulin-mimetic action of vanadate: role of intracellular magnesium. Hypertension 2001 ;38(2):701–704.Google Scholar
  494. 490.
    McNeill TH, et al. Increased potency of vanadium using organic ligands. Mol Cell Biochem 1995;153(1–2):175–180.Google Scholar
  495. 491.
    Reul BA, et al. Effects of vanadium complexes with organic ligands on glucose metabolism: a comparison study in diabetic rats. Br J Pharmacol 1999;126:467–477.Google Scholar
  496. 492.
    Conconi MT, et al. Effects of some vanadyl coordinating compounds on the in vitro insulin release from rat pancreatic islets. Horm Metab Res 2003;35(7):402–406.Google Scholar
  497. 493.
    Elberg G, et al. Vanadium activates or inhibits receptor and non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases in cell-free experiments, depending on its oxidation state. J Biol Chem 1994;269(13):9521–9527.Google Scholar
  498. 494.
    Goldfine AB, et al. Metabolic effects of vanadyl sulfate in humans with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: in vivo and in vitro studies. Metabolism 2000; 49(3):400–410.Google Scholar
  499. 495.
    Fugono J, et al. Enteric-coating capsulation of insulinomimetic vanadyl sulfate enhances bioavailability of vanadyl species in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 2002;54(5):611–615.Google Scholar
  500. 496.
    Bone K. Standardized extracts: neither poison nor panacea. HerbalGram 2001;53:50–55.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press. a part of Spring Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chris Lockwood

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations