Advertisement

Fine Pore Aeration of Water and Wastewater

  • Nazih K. Shammas
Part of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering book series (HEE, volume 5)

Abstract

The supply of oxygen for aeration is the single largest energy consumer at activated sludge wastewater treatment plants, representing 50–90% of total plant energy requirements (1,2). Replacement of less-efficient aeration systems with fine pore aeration devices can save up to 50% of aeration energy costs and has resulted in typical simple payback periods of 2–6 yr (3). As a result of these very impressive cost savings, a very large number, 1000–2000 municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities in the United States and Canada now use fine pore aeration.

Keywords

Airflow Rate Oxygen Transfer Process Water Head Loss Fine Pore 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    K. Carns, Bringing energy efficiency to the water and wastewater industry: how do we getthere? Water and Wastewater Energy Roadmap Workshop, Washington, DC, July 29, 2004.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. M. Wesner, L. J. Ewing, T. S. Jr. Lineck, and D. J. Hinrichs, Energy Conservation inMunicipal Wastewater Treatment, EPA-430/9-77-011, National Technical Information Service(NTIS) No. PB81-165391, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 1977.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    US EPA, Design Manual: Fine Pore Aeration Systems, EPA/625/1-89/023, Center forEnvironmental Research Information, US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, 1989.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE Standard: Measurement of Oxygen Transferin Clean Water, ISBN 0-87262-430-7, New York, NY, July, 1984.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. A. Mueller and W. C. Boyle, Oxygen transfer under Process conditions, J. Water Pollut.Control Fed. 60(3), 341–342 (1988).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. J. Martin, The Activated Sludge Process, MacDonald and Evans, London, England, 1927.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    FSIWA, Air Diffusion in Sewage Work, Manual of Practice 5, Federation of Sewage andIndustrial Wastes Associations, Champaign, IL, 1952.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. S. Busheeand and S. I. Zach, Tests on pressure loss in activated sludge plants, Engineering News Record, 93, 21 (1924).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    WPC, Aeration in Wastewater Treatment, Manual of Practice 5. Water Pollution ControlFederation, Washington, DC, 1971.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. E. Anderson, Tests and studies on air diffusers for activated sludge, Sewage andIndustrial Wastes, 22, 461 (1950).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    P.R. Morgan, Maintenance of Fine Bubble Diffusion, J. San. Eng. Dlv. ASCE, 84(SA2), 1609 (1958).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    US EPA, Fine Bubble Aeration Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet, EPA 832-F-99-065, USEnvironmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC, September, 1999.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    NSFC, Fine Bubble Aeration, National Small Flows Clearing House, Fact Sheet WWF-SOM23, Environmental Technology Initiative, West Virginia University, Morgantown,WV, 1998Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    US EPA, Summary Report: Fine Pore (Fine Bubble) Aeration Systems. EPA/625/8-85/010, Water Engineering Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, 1985.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    W. W. Jr. Eckenfelder, Water Quality Engineering for Practicing Engineers, ProfessionalEngineering Career Development Series, Barnes &Noble, New York, NY, 1970.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. J. Schmidt-Holthausen and B. C. Bievers, 50 years of experience in Europe with finebubble aeration, 53rd Annual Conference of the Water Pollut. Control Fed. Las Vegas, NV, October, 1980.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Filtros, Product information bulletin, Ferro Corporation, Refractories Division, EastRochester, NY, May, 1984.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. Hosokawa, Characterization of various diffusers and its application. In: Proceedings of the11th United States/Japan Conference on Sewage Treatment Technology, EPA-600/9-88,010,NTIS No. PB88-214986, US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, April, 1988.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. R. King, Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 27, 10, August (1955).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. L. Bartholomew, Type of aeration devices. In: Aeration of Activated Sludge in SewageTreatment, D. L. Gibbon, (ed.), Pergamon Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Carborundum Company, Carborundum Aloxite Porous Products for Filtration, Aeration,and Diffusion, Product information bulletin, Bonded Abrasives Division, Niagara Falls, NY, May, 1970.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oy AB Airam, Porex Porous Plastic Materials, Product information bulletin, Helsinki, Finland, 1988.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nokia Metal Products, Nopol Aeration Systems, Product information bulletin, Vantaa, Finland (undated).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Donohue & Assoc., Inc., Fine Pore Diffuser System Evaluation for the Green BayMetropolitan Sewerage District, Study conducted under Cooperative AgreementCR812167, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, US Environmental ProtectionAgency, Cincinnati, OH, 1990.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. K. Stenstrorn and G. Masutani, Fine Bubble Diffuser Fouling: The Los Angeles Studies. Study conducted under Cooperative Agreement CR8121 67, Risk Reduction EngineeringLaboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, 1990.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Aeration Technologies, Inc., AERMAX TPD High Efficiency Product Bulletin, NorthAndover, MA (undated).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    ASTM, 1988 Annual Book ofASTM Standards, Sections 8 and 9, Volumes 8.04 and 14.02, American Society of Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 1988.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. A. Harper (Editor-in-chief), Handbook of Plastics and Elastomers, WestinghouseElectric Corporation, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 1975.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Aerostrip Corp., Aerostrip Membrane Diffusers, Fine Bubble Aeration, Old Saybrook, CT, Web Site: http://www.enquip.com/Aerostripp.html (2006).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Koch/Infinity, Microporous Diffusion Membrane, Fine Bubble Aeration System Specifications, http://www.koch-water.com/aeration.html (2006).
  31. 31.
    Sanitaire, Flexible Membrane Tube Diffusers, Product information bulletin, Sanitaire-Water Pollution Control Corp., Milwaukee, WI, 1987.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sanitaire, Flexible Membrane Disc Diffusers, Product information bulletin, Sanitaire-Water Pollution Control Corp., Milwaukee, WI, 1987.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Eimco, Eimco Elastox-T Non Clog Fine Bubble Rubber Diffuser, Product Bulletin1335.2T, Eimco Process Equipment Co., Salt Lake City, UT, 1986.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Eimco, Eimco Elastox-D Non Clog Fine Bubble Rubber Diffuser, Product Bulletin 1335.1, Eimco Process Equipment Co., Salt Lake City, UT, 1985.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Roediger Pittsburgh, Roeflex Diaphram Diffuser, Product Bulletin RDD 100/5M, Roediger Pittsburgh, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, 1986.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Envirex, Fine Bubble Membrane Diffusers for Non-Clogging Energy Efficient Aeration,Product Bulletin No. 315-14C1, Envirex Inc., Waukesha, WI, 1986.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Waterworks/Alpac, Airmax Fine Pore High Efficiency Diffusers, http://www.wate works.ca/airmax.html (2005).
  38. 38.
    L. A. Ernest, Case History Report on Milwaukee Ceramic Plate Aeration Facilities, StudyConducted Under Cooperative Agreement CR812167, Risk Reduction EngineeringLaboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, 1990Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    C. Lue-Hing, D. R. Zenz, and B. Sawyer, Case history: aeration system design, operation,control, and maintenance at the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago, Aeration Systems Operations, Control and Testing Conference, Georgia Water PollutionControl Association, Atlanta, GA, March, 1984.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Environmental Dynamics, Reef Aeration Mixing Systems, Product information bulletin, Environmental Dynamics, Inc., Columbia, MD (undated).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sanitaire, Fine Bubble Tube Diffuser, Product Bulletin TD 4/85, Sanitaire—Water PollutionControl Corp., Milwaukee, WI, 1985.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Parkson, WYSS Flex-A-Tube Diffuser, Product Bulletin WD800, Parkson Corp., Ft.Lauderdale, FL (undated).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Endurex, Engineering Data-Endurex Airline Diffusers, Product Bulletin 5M835, EndurexCorp., Loveland, OH (undated).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Envirex, REX Fine Bubble Tube Diffusers, Product Bulletin 315-14A3, Envirex Inc., Waukesha, WI, 1982.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    FMC, Pearlcomb Air Diffusers, Product Bulletin 7824, FMC Corporation, Chicago, IL, 1973.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    D. H. Houck and A. G. Boon, Survey and Evaluation of Fine Bubble Dome DiffuserAeration Equipment, EPA-600/2-81-222, NTIS No. PB82-105578, US EnvironmentalProtection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, September, 1981.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    D. H. Houck, Survey and Evaluation of Fine Bubble Dome and Disc Diffuser AerationSystems in North America, EPA-600/2-88/001, NTIS No. PB88-243886, US EnvironmentalProtection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, August, 1988.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    EPCO, Fine Bubble Air Diffusers, Product Bulletin 106, EPCO International, Victoria,Australia (undated).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Norton, Dome Diffuser Aeration System, Product information bulletin, Norton IndustrialCeramics Division, Worcester, MA (undated).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Parkson, Diffused Aeration Products: Fine Air Ceramic Diffuser, Product Bulletin FA1001, Parkson Corp., Ft. Lauderdale, FL (undated).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    J. D. Wren, Diffused Aeration Types and Applications. In: Proceedings of Seminar Workshopon Aeration System Design, Testing, Operation, and Control, EPA-600/9-85-005, NTIS No.PB85-173896, US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, January, 1985.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    L. Ewing and D. T. Redmon, US Patent No. 4,261,933, April 14, 1981.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    W. C. Boyle and D. T. Redmon, Biological fouling of fine bubble diffusers: state-of-art. J. Env. Eng. Div. ASCE, 109(EE5) 991–1005, October, 1983.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Renton Plant Gets Into the Swing of Conservation, Monitor, January (1986).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    A. G. Boon and B. Chambers, Design protocol for aeration systems-UK perspective. In:Proceedings of Seminar/Workshop on Aeration System Design, Testing, Operation, andControl, EPA-600/9-85-005, NTIS No. PB85-173896, US Environmental ProtectionAgency, Cincinnati, OH, January, 1985.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    US EPA, Technological Assessment of Fine Pore Aerators, EPA-600/2-82-003, US Environmental Protection Agency, 1995.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    K. Egan-Benck, G. McCarty, and W. Winkler, Choosing diffusers, Water Environ. Technol. 5(2), 54–59 (1993).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    D. T. Redmon, Operation and maintenance! troubleshooting. In: Proceedings ofSeminar/Workshop on Aeration System Design, Testing, Operation, and Control, EPA-600/9-85-005,NTIS No. PB85-173896, US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati,OH, January, 1985.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE Standard: Measurement of Oxygen Transferin Clean Water, ISBN 0-87262-430-7, New York, NY, July, 1984.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    J. D. Wren, Transcript of Biofouling Seminar, New York Water Pollution ControlAssociation, New York, NY, January, 1985.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    C. R. Baillod and K. Hopkins, Fouling of fine pore diffused aerators: An InterplantComparison, Study conducted under Cooperative Agreement CR812167, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati,OH, 1990.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    W. W. Winkler, Fine bubble ceramic diffuser maintenance, Annual Meeting of the New England Water Pollution Control Association, Boston, MA, January 25, 1984.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    W. B. Danly, Biological Fouling of Fine Bubble Diffusers, MS Thesis, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 1984.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    M. G. Rieth and R. C. Polta, A test protocol for aeration retrofit to fine bubble diffusers, 60th Annual Conference of the Water Pollution Control Federation, Philadelphia, PA, October, 1987.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ewing Engineering Co., The Effect of Permeability on Oxygen Transfer Capabilities, FoulingTendencies, and Cleaning Amenability at Monroe, WI, Study conducted under CooperativeAgreement CR812167, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, US EnvironmentalProtection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, 1990.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    ASCE, Guidelines for Quality Assurance of Installed Fine-Pore Aeration Equipment,Standards No. 01-035, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, 2005.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Brother Wastewater Engineering, Features of Fine Bubble Diffuser, Brother Wastewater Engineering Co. http://www.allproducts.com/manufacture3/diso/02.html (2006).
  68. 68.
    C. R. Baillod, W. L. Paulson, J. J. McKeown, and H. J. Jr. Campbell, Accuracy and precisionof plant scale and shop clean water oxygen transfer tests. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 58(4), 290–299 (1986).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    T. C. Rooney and G. L. Huibregtse, Increasing oxygen transfer efficiency with coarse bubblediffusers, J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 52(9), 2315–2326 (1980).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    J. K. Bewtra and W. R. Nicholas, Oxygenation from Diffused Air in Aeration Tanks. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 36(10), 1195–1224(1964).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    K. Y. Maillacheruvu, Analysis of Oxygen Transfer Performance on Dome-Disc Fine PoreDiffuser Systems, MS Thesis, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University ofIowa, Iowa City, IA, July, 1987.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    G. L. Huibregtse, T. C. Rooney, and D. C. Rasmussen, Factors affecting fine bubble diffusedaeration, J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 5(8), 1057–1064 (1983).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    A. G. Gilbert and R. C. Sullivan, The significance of oxygen transfer variables in sizing domediffuser aeration equipment. In: Scale-up of Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Schmidtke, N. W. and D. W. Smith, (eds.) Ann Arbor Press, Ann Arbor, ML, 1983.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    K. A. Yaeger, The Effects of Tank Geometry on Performance of Fine Pore Diffusers,MS Thesis, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City,IA, May, 1986.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sanitaire, Oxygen Transfer-Ceramic Disc Diffuser System Reports, Sanitaire-WaterPollution Control Corp., Milwaukee, WI, 1976-1986.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    F. W. Yunt and T. O. Hancuff, Relative Number of Diffusers for the Norton and SanitaireAeration Systems to Achieve Equivalent Oxygen Transfer Performance, Internal report, Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts, Whittier, CA, December 14, 1979.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    G. L. Huibregtse, Evaluation of the IFU Fine Bubble Membrane Disc Diffuser, Internalproject reports, Envirex Inc., Waukesha, WI, January and April, 1987.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    H. J. Popel, Oxygen Feed Capacity and Oxygen Yield of the IFU Membrane Aerator,Report submitted to K. H. Schussler, Bad Homburg, Germany, November, 1986.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    F. W. Yunt and T. O. Hancuff, Aeration Equipment Evaluation: Phase 1-Clean Water TestResults, EPA-600/2-88/022, NTIS No. PB88-1 80351, US Environmental ProtectionAgency, Cincinnati, OH, March, 1988.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Eimco, Evaluation of the Oxygen Transfer Capabilities of the Eimco Elastox-D FineBubble Rubber Diffuser, Eimco Process Equipment Co., Salt Lake City, UT, August, 1986.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    L. K. Wang, Y. T. Hung, and N. N. K. Shammas, (eds.) Physicochemical TreatmentProcesses, The Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ, 2005.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    L. K. Wang, Y. T. Hung and N. K. Shammas (eds.), Advanced Physicochemical TreatmentProcesses, The Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ, 2006.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    L. K. Wang, N. C. Pereira, and Y. T. Hung (eds.), Biological Treatment Processes, The Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ, 2007.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    L. K Wang, N. K. Shammas, and Y. Y. T. Hung (eds.), Advanced Biological TreatmentProcesses, The Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ, 2007.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    R. Iranpour, Y. J. Shao, B. K. Ahring, and M. K. Stenstrom, Case study of aeration performanceunder changing process conditions, Environ. Eng. 128(6), 562–569, June (2002).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    M. Stenstrom and G. Gilbert, Effects of Alpha, Beta and theta factors on design of aerationsystems, Water Res. 15(6), 643 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    M. Doyle and W. C. Boyle, Translation of clean to dirty water oxygen transfer rates. In:Proceedings of Seminar/Workshop on Aeration System Design, Testing, Operation, andControl, EPA 600/9-85-005, NTIS No. PB85-173896, US Environmental ProtectionAgency, Cincinnati, OH, January, 1985.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    H. J. Huang and M. K. Stenstrom, Evaluation of fine bubble alpha factors in near full-scaleequipment. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 57(12), 1143–1151 (1985).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    V. Mahendraker, D. S. Mavinic, and K. J. Hall, Comparative evaluation of mass transfer ofoxygen in three activated sludge processes operating under uniform conditions, J. Environ.Eng. Sci. 4(2), 89–100, 1 March (2005).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    S. Cameron and A. Burgoyne, A Field Based Investigation into the Fouling of Fine BubbleAeration Diffusers in Activated Sludge, http://www.iwaponline.com/wio/2002/07/wio200207043.htm, Water Intelligence Online © IWA Publishing (2002).
  91. 91.
    ASCE Oxygen Transfer Standards Subcommittee. Development of Standard Proceduresfor Evaluating Oxygen Transfer Devices. EPA 600/2-83-102, NTIS No. PB84-147438, US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, October, 1983.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    WPCF, Aeration, Manual of Practice FD-13, Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC, 1988.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    R. Iranpour and M. K. Stenstrom, Relationship between oxygen transfer rate and airflowfor fine-pore aeration under process conditions, Water Environ. Res. 73(3), 266–275, May-Jun (2001).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    C. H. Hung and W. C. Boyle, The effect of acid cleaning on a fine pore ceramic diffuseraeration system, Water Sci. Technol. 44(2-3), 211 (2001).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    M. K. Stenstrom and W. C. Boyle, Aeration systems-responsibilities of manufacturer,designer and owner. Environ. Eng. May (1998).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    APCTT, Fine Pore Tubular Aeration Devices, Asian and Pacific Center for Transfer ofTechnology (APCTT), http://www.technology4sme.net/techofferDetail.aspx? offid=4586 (2006).
  97. 97.
    Eandix Equipment, Aerostrip Membrane Diffuses Fine Bubble Aeration, http://www.enquip.com(2006).
  98. 98.
    Munkguard Engineering, Fine Bubble Disk Diffusers, http://www.munk-eng.dk/dair.htm(2006).

Copyright information

© The Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nazih K. Shammas
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Lenox Institute of Water TechnologyLenox
  2. 2.Krofta Engineering CorporationLenox

Personalised recommendations