Filtration Systems for Small Communities

  • Yung-Tse Hung
  • Ruth Yu-Li Yeh
  • Lawrence K. Wang
Part of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering book series (HEE, volume 5)


There are about 54,367 community water systems in the United States, which serve about 253 million people. Approximately 93% of community water systems are small water systems serving fewer than 10,000 persons and serve just about 20% of the population served by community water systems (1). Ownership type and system size are closely related. Most water systems serving 500 or less people are ancillary or privately owned systems, whereas most of the larger systems are publicly owned systems. This chapter discusses the operating characteristics of small water systems and the effect of Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) amendments implementation on small systems. The main focus of the chapter is on the filtration systems of small water systems, which serve communities less than 10,000 persons. The application of sand filters for treatment of wastewater treatment effluents from septic tanks and lagoons for small communities is also discussed in this chapter.


Diatomaceous Earth Septic Tank Water Treatment System Cartridge Filter Direct Filtration 
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Copyright information

© The Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yung-Tse Hung
    • 1
  • Ruth Yu-Li Yeh
    • 2
  • Lawrence K. Wang
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringCleveland State UniversityCleveland
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringMing Hsin University of Science and TechnologyHsin-ChuTaiwan
  3. 3.Lenox Institute of Water TechnologyLenox
  4. 4.Krofta Engineering CorporationLenox
  5. 5.Zorex CorporationNewtonville

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