Advertisement

Oil Water Separation

  • Puangrat Kajitvichyanukul
  • Yung-Tse Hung
  • Lawrence K. Wang
Part of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering book series (HEE, volume 4)

Abstract

Oil and grease (O&G) is a common pollutant frequently found in the effluent of a wide range of industries. Oil and grease concentrations in wastewater, as recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency, are not determine as the presence of specific compounds but are measured by their extractability using a particular solvent. Hexane and Freon are primary solvents used to extract oily compounds from wastewaters. Therefore, the term “oil and grease” contains a wide range of contaminants, which may include but are not limited to fatty acids, surfactants, petroleum hydrocarbons, phenolic compounds, animal and vegetable oils, etc. Many industries such as steel, aluminum, food, textile, leather, petrochemical, and metal finishing were reported as sources of high concentrations of oil and grease in their wastewaters as shown in Table 1.

Keywords

Droplet Size Oily Wastewater Ater Separation Grease Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J. W. Patterson. Industrial Wastewater Treatment Technology. 2nd eds., Butterworth Publishers, Stoneham, MA, 1985.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. F. Guerin, Heavy equipment maintenance wastes and environmental management in the mining industry. J. Environ. Manage. 66, 185–199 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Gilbert, G. T. Telleza, N. Nirmalakhandanb, and J. L. Gardea-Torresdey, Performance evaluation of an activated sludge system for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oilfield produced water. Adv. Environ. Res. 6, 455–470 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. P., Fillo, S. M., Koraido, and J. M. Evans, Sources, Characteristics, and Management of Produced Water from Natural Gas Production and Storage Operations, Plenum Press, New York, 1992.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    F. H. Chapelle, Ground-Water Microbiology and Geochemistry, Wiley, New York, 1993.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. T. Stephenson, Components of Produced Water: A Compilation of Results From Several Industry Studies, pp. 25–38, 1991.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. L. Ahmad, S. Ismail, and S. Bhatia, Water Recycling from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using membrane technology. Desalination 157, 87–95 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Cheryan and N. Rajagopalan, Membrane processing of oily streams. Wastewater treatment and waste reduction. J. Membr. Sci. 151, 13–28 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. H. Rhee, P. C. Martyn, and J. G. Kremer, Removal of oil and grease in the hydrocarbon processing industry, in: Proceedings of the 42nd Purdue Industrial Waste Conference, West Lafayette, IN, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, 1987, pp. 143.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. B Tabakin, R. Trattner, and P. N. Cheremisinoff, Oil/water separation: the options available. Part 1 and Part 2. Water Sew. Works, 74–77 (1978).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Lewis, I. Singsaas, B. O. Johannesen, and A. B. Nordvik, Key Factors that Control the Efficiency of Oil Spill Mechanical Recovery Method, MSRC Technical Report Series 95038, Marine Spill Response Corporation, Washington, DC, 1995.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Bobra, A Study of Water-in-Oil Emulsification, Report EE-132, Environment Canada, Environment Protection Directorate, Ottawa, Canada, 1992.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. Lee, Isolation and Identification of Compounds and Mixtures which Promote and Stabilize Water-in-Oil Emulsions, MSRC Technical Report Series 95-002, Marine Spill Response Corporation, Washington, DC, 1995.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. B. Nordvik, J. L. Simmons, K. R. Bitting, A. Lewis, and T. Storm-Kristiansen, Oil and water separation in marine oil spill clean-up operations. Spill Sci. Technol. Bull. 3, 107–122 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    National Academic of Sciences, Spill of Nonfloating, Risk and Response, National Academic Press, Washington, DC, 2004.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. Fleischer, Separation of Oily Wastewaters—the State-of-the-Art, paper presented at the Annual Technical conference Canadian Institute of Marine Engineers. MARI-TECH 84, Ottawa, May 25, 1984.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    V. C. Gopalratnam, G. F. Bennett, and R. W. Peters, The simultaneous removal of oil and heavy metals from industrial wastewater by joint precipitation and air floatation. Environ. Prog. 7, 84–92 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. J. Goudappel, J. P. Duynhoven, and M. M. Mooren, Measurement of oil droplet size distributions in food oil/water emulsions by time domain pulsed field gradient NMR, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 239(2), 535–542 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. B. Nordvik, The technology windows-of-opportunity for marine oil spill response as related to oil weathering and operations. Spill Sci. Technol. Bull. 21, 17–46 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    F. Romano, Oil and Water Don’t Mix: the Application of Oil-Water Separation Technologies in Stormwater Quality Management, Office of Water Quality, Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle, Seattle, WA, 1990.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    API, Design and Operation of Oil-Water Separators, American Petroleum Institute (API), Washington, DC, 1990.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Deng, R. Bai, J. P. Chen, et al., Produced water from polymer flooding process in crude oil extraction: characterization and treatment by a novel crossflow oil-water separator. Sep. Purif. Technol. 29, 207–216 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. E. Roberts, Water Quality Control Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2000.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Rubio, M. L. Souza, and R. W. Smith, Overview of floatation as a wastewater treatment technique. Miner. Eng. 15, 139–155 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. A. Solari, and R. J. Gochin, Fundamental aspects of microbubbles floatation. Colloid Chemistry in Mineral Processing Development in Mineral Processing, Volume 12, J. Ralston and J. S. Laskowski, (eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1992, pp. 395–418.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. J. Casey, Unit Treatment Processes in Water and Wastewater Engineering, Wiley, West Sussex, England, 1997.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. B. Lee, Y. Aurelle, and H. Roques, Concentration polarization, membrane fouling and cleaning in ultrafiltration of soluble oil. J. Membrane Sci. 19(1), 23–38 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Lindau, and A. S. Jonsson, Cleaning of ultrafiltration membranes after treatment of oily waste water. J. Membrane Sci. 87, 71–78 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Cheryan, Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration Handbook; Technomic, Lancaster, PA, 1998.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. Kong and K. Li, Oil removal from oil-in-water emulsions using PVDF membranes. Sep. Purif. Technol. 16, 83–93 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. S. Eow and M. Ghadiri, Electrostatic enhancement of coalescence of water droplets in oil: a review of the technology. Chem. Eng. J. 85, 357–368 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    P. J. Bailes and M. Watson, Electrostatic and Centrifugal Separation of Liquid Dispersions, UK Patent 2,249, 741A, 1992.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    K. L. Sublette, Method and Apparatus for Separating Oilfield Emulsions, US Patent 4,581, 120, 1986.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    G. Rios, C. Pazos, and J. Coca, Destabilization of cutting oil emulsions using inorganic salts as coagulants. Colloids Surf. A 138, 383–389 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    N. M. Mostefa, and M. Tir, Coupling flocculation with electroflotation for waste oil/water emulsion treatment. Optimization of the operating conditions, Desalination 161, 115–121 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    T. Zabel, Floatation in water treatment, Innovations in Flotation Technology, P. Mavros and K. A. Matis (eds.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1992.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    A. I. Zouboulis, K. A. Kydros, and K. A. Matis, Adsorbing flotation of copper hydroxoprecipitates by pyrite fines. Sep. Sci. Technol. 27, 2143–2155 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    X. Xu and X. Zhu, Treatment of refectory oily wastewater by electro-coagulation process, Chemosphere 56, 889–894 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    R. J. Watts, Hazardous Wastes: Sources, Pathways, Receptors, Wiley, New York, (1997).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    M. Krofta and L. K. Wang, Flotation and Related Adsorptive Bubble Separation Processes. 4th ed. Lenox Institute of Water Technology, Lenox, MA. Technical Manual No. Lenox 725-1999/348, 1999.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    M. Krofta and L. K. Wang, Flotation Engineering. 1st ed. Lenox Institute of Water Technology, Lenox, MA. Technical Manual No. Lenox 1-06-2000/368, January, 2000.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    L. K. Wang, L. Kurylko, and M. H. S. Wang, Sequencing Batch Liquid Treatment, US Patent No. 5,354,458, US Patent & Trademark Office, Washington, DC, USA 1996.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    H. J. Kiuru, Development of dissolved air flotation technology from the 1st generation to the newest or 3rd one (very thick microbubbles) with high flow-rates (DAF in turbulent flow conditions). Water Sci. Technol. 8, 1–8 (2001).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Metcalf and Eddy, Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal, and Reuse. 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1991.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Water Environment Federation, Pretreatment of Industrial Wastes, Manual of Practice No. FD-3, Alexandria, VA, 1994.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    M. Gryta, K. Karakulski, and A. W. Morawski, Purification of Oily Wastewater by Hybrid UF/MD, Water Res. 35(17), 3665–3669 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. Bodzek and K. Konieczny, The use of ultrafiltration membranes made of various polymers in the treatment of oil emulsion wastewaters. Waste Manage. 12, 75–84 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    K. Karakulski, A. Kozlowski, and A. W. Morawski, Purification of oily wastewater by ultrafiltration. Sep. Technol. 5, 197–205 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    J. Marchese, N. A. Ochoa, C. Pagliero, and C. Almandoz, Pilot-scale ultrafiltration of an emulsified oil wastewater, Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 2990–2996 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    M. K. Ko and J. J. Pellegrino, Determination of osmotic pressure and fouling resistance and their effects of performance of ultrafiltration membranes. J. Membr. Sci. 74, 141–157 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    W. L. McCabe, J. C. Smith, and P. Harriott, Unit Operation of Chemical Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    P. Pradanos, A. Hernandez, J. I. Calvo, and F. Tejerina, Mechanisms of protein fouling in cross-flow UF through an asymmetric inorganic membrane. J. Membr. Sci. 114, 115–126 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    G. Belfort, R. H. Davis, and A. L. Zydney, The behavior of suspensions and macromolecular solutions in crossflow microfiltration. J. Membr. Sci. 96, 1–58 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Puangrat Kajitvichyanukul
    • 1
  • Yung-Tse Hung
    • 2
  • Lawrence K. Wang
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringKing Mongkut’s University of TechnologyThonburi, BangkokThailand
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringCleveland State UniversityCleveland
  3. 3.Lenox Institute of Water TechnologyLenox

Personalised recommendations