Children of Parents With Mental Illness

Outcomes and Interventions
  • Mary F. Brunette
  • Teresa Jacobsen
Part of the Current Clinical Practice book series (CCP)


Many psychiatrically ill women bear and raise children. An extensive literature has documented the potential effects on children resulting from exposure to parental mental illness. Negative outcomes may also result from children’s genetic vulnerabilities, exposure to environmental stressors, and maladaptive parenting styles. Parents’ psychiatric symptoms can affect their parenting behavior and interfere with their awareness of their children’s needs. This chapter reviews the effects of parental mental illness on children and discusses various interventions that can help minimize adverse outcomes. It also addresses ethical and legal issues that arise when working with mentally ill parents.

Key Words

Parenting children infants mental illness development 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Narrow, W.E., Rae, D.S., Robins, L. N. and Regier, D. A. (2002) Revised prevalence estimates of mental disorders in the United States.Using a clinical significance criterion to reconcile 2 surveys estimates. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 59, 115–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nicholson J., Biebel, K., Katz-Leavy, J. and Williams, V.F. (2002) The prevalence of parenthood in adults with mental illness: implications for state and federal policy makers, programs, and providers. In: Manderscheid, R.W. and Henderson, M.J., eds. Mental Health, United States, 2002. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Caton, C., Cournos, F., and Dominguez, B. (1999) Parenting and adjustment in schizophrenia. Psychiatr. Serv. 50, 239–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brunette, M., Mercer, C., Rosenberg, S., and Carlson, K. (2000) HIV risk in persons with severe mental illness: practice in New Hampshire community mental health. J. Behav. Health Serv. Res. 27, 347–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    McEvoy, J. P., Hatcher, A., Appelbaum, P. S., and Abernethy, V. (1983) Chronic schizophrenic women’s attitudes toward sex, pregnancy, birth control, and childrearing. Hosp. Commun. Psychiatry 34, 536–539.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Weinberg M. K. and Tronick, E. Z. (1998) The impact of maternal psychiatric illness on infant development. J. Clin. Psychiatry 59(2), 53–61.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Belsky, J. (1984) The determinants of parenting: aprocess model. Child Development 55, 83–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goodman S. H. and Gotlib, I. H. (1999) Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: a developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Psychol. Rev. 106, 458–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Masten, A. S. and Coatsworth J. D. (1998) The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments: lessons from research on successful children. Am. Psychol. 53, 205–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Seifer, R. and Dickstein, S. (1993) Parental mental illness and infant development. In: Zeanah, C. H., Jr., ed. Handbook of Infant Mental Health. New York: The Guilford Press, pp. 120–142.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wyman P. A., Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., and Parker, G. R. (1999) Caregiving and developmental factors differentiating young at-risk urban children showing resilient versus stress-affected outcomes: a replication and extension. Child Development 70, 645–659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kendler, K. S. (1996) Parenting: a genetic-epidemiologic perspective. Am. J. Psychiatry 153, 11–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Solantaus-Simula, T., Punamaki, R., and Beardslee, W. R. (2002) Children’s responses to lowparentalmood.II: associations with family perceptions of parenting styles and child distress. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 41, 287–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rutter M. and Plomin, R. (1997) Opportunities for psychiatry from genetic findings. Br. J. Psychiatry 171, 209–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kendler, K. S., Prescott, C. A., Myers, J., and Neale, M. C. (2003) The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for common psychiatric and substance use disorders in men and women. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 60, 929–937.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sullivan, P. F., Kendler, K. S., and Neale, M. C. (2003) Schizophrenia as a complex trait: evidence from ameta-analysis of twin studies. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 60, 1187–1192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Faroane, S. V., Taylor, L., and Tsuang, M. T. (2002) The molecular genetics of schizophrenia: an emerging consensus. In: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Waterworth, D. M., Bassett A. S., and Brzustowicz, L. M. (2002) Recent advances in the genetics of schizophrenia. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 59, 331–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., Heath, A. C., and Eaves, L. J. (1993) A longitudinal twin study of personality and major depression in women. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 50, 853–862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sullivan, P. F., Neale, M. C., and Kendler, K. S. (2000) Genetic epidemiology of majordepression: review andmeta-analysis. Am. J. Psychiatry 157(10), 1552–1562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Craddock, N. and Jones, I. (1999) Genetics of bipolar disorder. J. Med. Genet. 36, 585–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lieb, R., Isensee, B., Hsfler, M., Pfister, H. and Wittchen, H. (2002) Parental major depression and the risk of depression and othermental disorders in offspring. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 59, 365–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Warner, V., Weissman, M. M., Mufson, L., and Wickramaratne, P. (1999) Grandparents, parents, and grandchildren at high risk for depression: a three generation study. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 38, 289–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goodman, S. H. and Emery, E. K. (1992) Perinatal complications in births to low socioeconomic statues schizophrenia and depressed women. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 101, 225–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kumar, R., Marks, M., Platz, C., and Yoshida, K. (1995) Clinical survey of a psychiatric mother and baby unit: characteristics of 100 consecutive admissions. J. Affect. Disord. 33, 11–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Campbell, S.B., Pierce, E.W., March, C.L.,and Ewing, L. J. (1991) Noncompliant behavior, overactivity, and family stress as predictors of negative maternal control with preschool children. Dev. Psychopathol. 3, 175–190.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hipwell, A. E., Goossens, F. A., Melhuish, E. C., and Kumar, R. (2000) Severe maternal psychopathology and infant-mother attachment. Dev. Psychopathol. 12, 157–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Murray, L. and Cooper, P. (1997) Postpartum depression and child development. Psychol. Med. 27, 253–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    de Bellis, M. D., Broussard, E. R., Herring, D. J., Wexler, S., Moritz, G., and Benitez, J. G. (2001) Psychiatric co-morbidity in caregivers and children involved in maltreatment: a pilot research study with policy implications. Child Abuse Negl. 25, 923–944.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    DaSilva, L. and Johnstone, E. C. (1981) A follow-up study of severe puerperal psychiatric illness. Br. J. Psychiatry 139, 346–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Davidson, J. and Robertson, E. (1985) A follow-up study of post partum illness, 1946-1978. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 71, 451–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jacobsen, T. and Miller, L. J. (1998) Mentally ill mothers who have killed: three cases addressing the issue of future parenting capability. Psychiatr. Serv. 49, 650–657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sidebotham, P., Golding, J., and Team, T. A. S. (2001) Child maltreatment in the &quote;children of the nineties.&quote; Child Abuse Negl. 25, 1177–1200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rohde, A. and Marneros, A. (1993) Postpartum psychoses: onset and long-term course. Psychopathology 26, 203–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wisner, K. L., Peindl, K. S., Gigliott, T., and Hanusa, B. H. (1999) Obsessions and compulsions in women with postpartum depression. J. Clin. Psychiatry 60, 176–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mullick, M., Miller, L. J., and Jacobsen, T. (2001) Insight into mental illness and child maltreatment risk among mothers withmajorpsychiatric disorders. Psychiatr. Serv. 52, 488–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Beckwith, L., Rozga, A., and Sigman, M. (2002) Maternal sensitivity and attachment in atypical groups. Adv. Child Dev. Behav. 30, 231–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brennan, P. A., Brocque, R. L., and Hammen, C. (2003) Maternal depression, parent-child relationships, and resilient outcomes in adolescence. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 42, 1469–1477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., and Bates, J. E. (1994) Socialization mediators of the relation between socioeconomic status and child conduct problems. Child Development 65, 649–655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fox, R. A., Platz, D. L., and Bentley, K. S. (1995) Maternal factors related to parenting practices, developmental expectations, and perceptions of child behavior problems. J. Genet. Psychol. 156, 431–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gara, M. A., Allen, L. A., Herzog, E. P., and Woolfolk, R. L. (2000) The abused child as parent: the structure and content of physically abused mothers’ perceptions of their babies. Child Abuse Negl. 24, 627–639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Newcomb, M.D. and Locke, T. F. (2001)Intergenerational cycle of maltreatment: a popular concept obscured by methodological limitations. Child Abuse Negl. 25, 1219–1240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Brunette, M. F. and Drake, R. E. (1997) Gender differences in patients with schizophrenia and substance abuse. Compr. Psychiatry 38, 109–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Goodman, L. A., Dutton, M.S., and Harris, M.(1995) Episodially homeless women with serious mental illness: prevalence of physical and sexual assault. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 65, 468–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bugental, D. B. and Happaney, K. (2004) Predicting infant maltreatment in low-income families: the interactive effects of maternal attributions and child status at birth. Dev. Psychol. 40, 234–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Buist, A. and Janson, H. (2001) Childhood sexual abuse, parenting and postpartum depression —a 3-year follow-up study. Child Abuse Negl. 25, 909–921.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Leon, K., Jacobvitz, D. B., and Hazen, N. L. (2004) Maternal resolution of loss and abuse: associations with adjustment to the transition to parenthood. Infant Ment. Health J. 25, 130–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ruscio, A.M. (2001) Predicting the child-rearing practices of mothers sexually abused in childhood. Child Abuse Negl. 25, 369–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lyons-Ruth, K. (1996) Attachment relationships among children with aggressive behavior problems: The role of disorganized early attachment patterns. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 64, 64–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Egeland, B., Bosquet, M., and Levy-Chung, A. (2002) Continuities and discontinuities in the intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment: implications for breaking the cycle of abuse. Child Development 73, 528–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Campbell, S.B., Cohn, J.F., and Meyers, T. (1995) Depression in first-time mothers: mother-infant interaction and depression chronicity. Dev. Psychol. 31, 349–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cox, A. D., Puckering, C., Pound, A., and Mills, M. (1987) The impact of maternal depression in young children. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 28, 917–928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hops, H., Biglan, A., Sherman, L., Arthur, J., Friedman, L., and Osteen, V. (1987) Home observations of family interactions of depressed women. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 55(3), 341–346.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Righetti-Veltema, M., Bousquet, A., and Manzano, J. (2003) Impact of postpartum depressive symptoms on mother and her 18-month infant. Eur. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 12, 75–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cohler, B. J. and Musick, J. S. (1983) Psychopathology of parenthood: Implications for mental health of children. Infant Ment. Health J. 4, 140–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Klehr, K. B., Cohler, B. J., and Musick, J. S. (1983) Character and behavior in the mentally ill and well mother. Infant Ment. Health J. 4, 250–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lyons-Ruth, K., Connell, D. B., Grunegaum, H., and Botein, S. (1990) Infants at social risk: maternal depression and family support services as mediators of infant development and security of attachment. Child Development 61, 85–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Naslund, B., Persson-Blennow, I. McNeil, T. F., Kaij, L., and Malmquiest-Larsson, A. (1984) Deviations on exploration, attachment, and fear of strangers in high-risk and control infants at one year of age. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 54, 569–577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Persson-Blennow, I., Naslund, B., McNeil, T. F., and Kaig, L. (1986) Offspring of women with nonorganic psychosis: mother-infant interaction at one year of age. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 73, 207–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Naslund, B., Persson-Blennow, I., McNeil, T. F., and Kaij, L. (1985) Offspring of women with nonorganicpsychosis: mother-infant interaction at three and six weeks of age. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 71, 441–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Stein, A., Gath, D. H., Bucher, J., Bond, A., Day, A. and Cooper, P. J. (1991) The relationship between post-natal depression and mother-child interaction. Br. J. Psychiatry 158, 46–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Walker, E. and Emory, E. (1983) Infants at risk for psychopathology: offspring of schizophrenic parents. Child Development 54, 1269–1285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    White, C. and Barrowclough, C. (1998) Depressed and non depressed mothers with problematic preschoolers: attributions for child behaviours. Br. J. Clin. Psychol. 37, 385–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lovejoy, M. C., Graczyk, P. A., O’Hara, E., and Neuman, G. (2000) Maternal Depression and parenting behavior: a meta-analytic review. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 20, 561–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Beardslee, W. R., Versage, E. M., and Gladstone, T. R. G. (1998) Children of affectively ill parents: a review of the past 10 years. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 37, 1134–1141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Grace, S. L., Evindar, A., and Stewart, D. E. (2003) The effect of postpartum depression on child cognitive development and behavior: A review and critical analysis of the literature. Arch. Women’s Ment. Health 6, 263–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Park, R. J., Senior, R., and Stein, A. (2003) The offspring of mothers with eating disorders. Eur. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 12, 110–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., and Zax, M. (1982) Early development of children at risk for emotional disorder. Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Dev. 47, 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Uddenberg, N. and Engelsson, I. (1978) Prognosis of post partum mental disturbance: Aprospective study of primiparous women and their 41/2 year old children. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 48, 201–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Coverdale, J. H. and Aruffo, J.A. (1989) Family planning needs of female chronic psychiatric outpatients. Am. J. Psychiatry 146, 1489–1491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Miller, L. J. and Finnerty, M. (1996) Sexuality,pregnancy, andchildrearing among women with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Psychiatr. Serv. 4, 502–506.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Caton, C. I. M., Cournos, F., Felix, A., and Wyatt, R. J. (1998) Childhood experiences and current adjustment of offspring of indigent patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatr. Serv. 49, 86–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jacobsen, T. and Miller, L. J. (1999) The caregiving contexts of young children who have been removed from the care of a mentally ill mother: relations to mother-child attachment quality. In: Solomon, J. and George, C., eds. Attachment Disorganization. Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Dwyer, S. B., Nicholson, J. M., and Battistutta, D. (2003) Population level assessment of the family risk factors related to the onset or persistence of children’s mental health problems. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 44, 699–711.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Johnson, J.G., Cohen, P., Kasen, S., Smailes, E., and Brook, J. (2001) Association of maladaptive parental behavior with psychiatric disorder among parents and their offspring. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 58(5), 453–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mantymaa, M., Puura, K., Luoman, I., Salmelin, R. K., and Tamminen, T. (2004) Early mother-infant interaction, parental mental health and symptoms of behavioral and emotional problems in toddlers. Infant Behav. Dev. 27, 134–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Morrel, J. and Murray, L. (2001) Infant and maternal precursors of conduct disorder and hyperactive symptoms in childhood: aprospective longitudinal study from 2 months to 8 years. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 44, 489–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Murray, L., Woolgar, M., Cooper, P., and Hipwell, A. (2001) Cognitive vulnerability to depression in 5-year-old children of depressed mothers. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 42, 891–899.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Shaw, D., Owens, E., Vondra, J., Keenan, K., and Winslow, E. (1996) Early risk factors and pathways in the development of early disruptive behavior problems. Dev. Psychopathol. 8, 679–700.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hirshfeld, D. R., Biederman, J., Brody, L., Faroane, S. V., and Rosenbaum, J. F. (1997) Expressed emotion toward children with behavioral inhibition: associations with maternal anxiety disorder. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 36, 910–917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Nelson, D. R., Hammen, C., Brennan, P. A., and Ullman, J. B. (2003) The impact of maternal depression on adolescent adjustment: the role of expressed emotion. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 71(5), 935–944.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Milgrom, J., Westley, D. T., and Gemmill, A. W. (2004) The mediating role of maternal responsiveness in some longer term effects of postnatal depression on infant development. Infant Behav. Dev. 27(4), 443–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Chaffin, M., Bonner, B. L., and Hill, R. F. (2001) Family preservation and family support programs: child maltreatment outcomes across client risk levels and program types. Child Abuse Negl. 25, 1269–1289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    MacMillan, H. L. (2000) Child maltreatment: What we know in the year 2000. Can. J. Psychiatry 45, 702–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Parker, S., Greer, S., and Zuckerman, B. (1988) Double jeopardy: the impact of poverty on early child development. Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 35, 1227–1240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sullivan, P. M. and Knutson, J. F. (2000) Maltreatment and disabilities: a population-based epidemiologic study. Child Abuse Negl. 24(10), 1257–1273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Costello, E. J., Compton, S. N., Keeler, G., and Angold, A. (2003) Relationships between poverty and psychopathology A natural experiment. JAMA 290, 2023–2029.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Mason, C. A., Chapman, D. A., and Scott, K. G. (1999) The identification of early risk factors for severe emotional disturbances and emotional handicaps: an epide-miological approach. Am. J. Commun. Psychol. 27, 357–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Cogill, S. R., Caplan, H. L., Alexandra, H., Robson, K M., and Kumar, R. (1986) Impact of maternal postnatal depression on cognitive development of young children. Br. Med. J. 292, 1165–1167.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Du Rocher Schudlich, T. D. and Cummings, E. M. (2003) Parental dysphoria and children’s internalizing symptoms: marital conflict styles as mediators of risk. Child Development 74(6), 1663–1681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Keller, M. B., Beardless, W. R., Dorer, D. J., Lavori, P. W., Samuelson, H., and Klerman, G. R. (1986) Impact of severity and chronocity of parental affective illness on adaptive functioning and psychopathology in their children. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 43, 930–937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Murray, L. (1992) The impact of postnatal depression on infant development. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 33, 543–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Nomura, Y., Wickramaratne, P., Warner, V., Mufson, L., and Weissman, M. M. (2002) Family discord, parental depression, and psychopathology in offspring: ten year follow-up. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 41, 402–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Rumm, P. D., et al. (2000) Identified spouse abuse as a risk factor for child abuse. Child Abuse Negl. 24, 1375–1381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tajima, E. A. (2000) The relative importance of wife abuse as a risk factor for violence against children. Child Abuse Negl. 24, 1383–1398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kitzmann, K. M., Gaylord, N. K., Holt, A. R., and Kenny, E. D. (2003) Child witnesses to domestic violence: a meta-analytic review. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 71, 339–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Margolin, G. and Gordis, E. B. (2000) The effects of family and community violence on children. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 51, 445–479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P. Smailes E. M., Kasen, S., and Brook, J. S. (2002) Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Science. 295, 2468–2471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Connell, A. M. and Goodman, S. H. (2002) The association between psychopathology in fathers versus mothers and children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems: ameta-analysis. PsyB. 128, 746–773.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Edhborg, M., Lundh, W., Seimyr, L., and Widstrom, A. M. (2003) The parent-child relationship in the context of maternal depressive mood. Arch. Women’s Ment. Health. 6, 211–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Reynolds, A. J., Temple, J. A., Robertson, D. L., and Mann, E. A. (2001) Long-term effects of an early childhood intervention on educational achievement and juvenile arrest. JAMA 285, 2339–2346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Reynolds, A. J., Ou, A., and Topitzes, J. W. (2004) Paths of effects of early childhood intervention on educational attainment and delinquency: a confirmatory analysis of the Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Child Development 75, 1299–1328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Brennan, P. A., Hammen, C., Katz, A. R., and LeBrocque, R. M. (2002) Maternal depression, paternal psychopathology, and adolescent diagnostic outcomes. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 70, 1075–1085.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., and Toth, S. L. (1998) Maternal depressive disorder and contextual risk: contributions to the development of attachment insecurity and behavior problems in toddlerhood. Dev. Psychopathol. 10, 283–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hammen, C., Shih, J., Altman, T., and Brennan, P. A. (2003) Interpersonal impairment and the prediction of depressive symptoms in adolescent children of depressed and nondepressed mothers. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 42, 571–577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Bowlby, J. (1988) A Secure Base: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Beidel, D. and Turner, S. (1997) At risk for anxiety: I. Psychopathology in the offspring of anxious parents. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 36, 918–924.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hammen, C., Adrian, C., Gordon, G., Burge, D., and Jaenicke, C. (1987) Children of depressed mothers: maternal strain and symptom predictors of dysfunction. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 96, 190–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kurstjens, S. and Wolke, D. (2001) Effects of maternal depression on cognitive development of children over the first 7 years of life. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 42, 623–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Yoshida, K., Marks, M. N., Craggs, M., Smith, G. D., and Kumar, R. (1999) Sensorimotor and cognitive development of infants of mothers with schizophrenia. Br. J. Psychiatry 175, 380–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Field, T. M. (1992) Infants of depressed mothers. Dev. Psychopathol. 4, 49–66.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Murray, L., Fiori-Cowly, A., Hooper, R., and Cooper, P. (1997) The impact of postnatal depression and associated adversity on early mother-infant interactions and later infant outcomes. Child Development 67, 251–256.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Murray, L., Hipwell, A., Hooper, R., Stein, A., and Cooper, P. (1996) The cognitive development of 5-year-old children of postnatally depressed mothers. Psychiatry 37, 927–935.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Marlow, N. (2004) Neurocognitive outcome after very preterm birth. Arch.Dis. Child. Fetal. Neonatal. 89, F224–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Field, T. M. (1098) Interactions of preterm and term infants with their lower and middle class teenage and adult mothers. In: Field, T. M., Goldberg, S., and Stern, D., eds. High Risk Infants and Children. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lyons-Ruth, K., Easterbrooks, M. A., and Cibelli, C. D. (1997) Infant attachment strategies, infant mental lag, and maternal depressive symptoms: predictors of internalizing and externalizing problems at age 7. Dev. Psychol. 33, 681–692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kandel, E., Mednick, S. A., Kirkegaard-Sorenson, L., et al. (1988) IQ as aprotective factor for subjects at high risk for antisocial behavior. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 56, 224–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Bugental, D. B., Blue, J., and Lewis, J. (1990) Caregiver beliefs and dysphoric affect directed to difficult children. Dev. Psychol. 26, 631–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Calkins, S. D., Hungerford, A., and Dedmon, S. E. (2004) Mother’s interactions with temperamentally frustrated infants. Infant Ment. Health J. 25, 219–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Mertesacker, B., Bade, U., Haverkock, A,. and Pauli-Pott, U. (2004) Predicting maternal reactivity/sensitivity: the role of infant emotionality, maternal depressiveness /anxiety, and social support. Infant Ment. Health J. 25, 47–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Werner, E. E. (1993) Risk, resilience, and recovery: perspectives from the Kaui longitudinal study. Dev. Psychopathol. 5, 503–515.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Wyman, P. A., Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., and Parker, G. R. (1991) Developmental and family milieu correlates of resilience in urban children who have experienced major life stress. Am. J. Commun. Psychol. 19, 405–426.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    DeMulder, E. K. and Radke-Yarrow, M. (1991) Attachment with affectively ill and well-mothers: concurrent behavioral correlates. Dev. Psychopathol. 3, 227–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., Goldger, S., Kroonenberg, P., and Frenkal, O. (1992) The relative effects of maternal and child problems on the quality of attachment: a meta-analysis of attachment in clinical samples. Child Development 63, 840–858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Barocas, R., Seifer, R., and Sameroff, A.J. (1985) Defining environmental risk: Multiple dimensions of psychological vulnerability. Am. J. Commun. Psychol. 13, 433–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Stott, F. M., Musick, J. S., Clark, R., and Cohler, B. (1983) Developmental patterns in the infants and young children of mentally ill mothers. Infant Ment. Health J. 4, 217–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Greenberg, M. T., Speltz, M. L., DeKlyen, M., and Endriga, M. C. (1991) Attachment security in preschoolers with and without externalizing problems: a replication. Dev. Psychopathol. 3, 413–430.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Lyons-Ruth, K., Alpern, L., and Repacholi, B. (1993) Disorganized infant attachment classification and maternal psychosocial problems as predictors of hostile-aggressive behavior in the preschool classroom. Child Development 64, 572–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Persson-Blennow, I., Binett, T. F., and McNeil, T. (1988) Offspring of women with nonorganic psychosis: antecedents of anxious attachment to the mother at one year of age. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 78, 66–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Galler, J. R., Harrison, R. H., Ramsey, F., Forde, V., and Butler S. C. (2000) Maternal depressive symptoms affect infant cognitive development in Barbados. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 41, 747–757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Gamer, E., Gallant, D., and Grunebaum, H. (1976) Children of psychotic mothers: an evaluation of 1-year-olds on a test of object permanence. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 33, 311–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Ramsy, F., Forde, V., and Butler, S.C. (2000) Maternal depressive symptoms affect infant cognitive development in Barbados. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 41, 747–757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Brennan, P. A., Hammen, C., Anderson, M. J., Bor, W., Najman, J. M., and Silliams, G. M. (2000) Chronicity, severity, and timing of maternal depressive symptoms: relationships with child outcomes at age 5. Dev. Psychol. 36, 759–766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hiscock, H. and Wake, M. (2001) Infant sleep problems and postnatal depression: a community-based study. Pediatrics 107, 1317–1322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Orvaschel, H., Walsh-Allis, G., and Ye, W. (1988) Psychopathology in children of parents with recurrent depression. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 16, 17–28.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Oyserman, D., Mowbray, C. T., Meares, P. A., and Firminger, K. B. (2000) Parenting among mothers with a serious mental illness. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 70, 296–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Teti, D.M. and Gelfand, D.M. (1991) Behavioral competence among mothers of infants in the first year: The mediational role of maternal self-efficacy. Child Development 62, 918–929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Weissman, M. M., Warner, V., Wickramaratne, P., Moreau, D., and Olfson, M. (1997) Offspring of depressed parents: 10 years later. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 54, 932–940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Zahn-Waxler, C., McKnew, D. H., Cummings, M., Davenport, U. B., and Radke-Yarrow, M. (1984) Problem behaviors and peer interactions of young children with a manic-depressive parent. Am. J. Psychiatry 141, 236–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Newman, D. L., and Silva, P. A. (1996) Behavioral observations at age 3 years predict adult psychiatric disorders: longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 53, 1033–1039.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Roza, S. J., Hofstra, M. B., vanderEnde, J., and Verhulst, F. (2003) Stable prediction of mood and anxiety disorders based on behavioral and emotional problems in childhood: a 14 year follow-up during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Am. J. Psychiatry 160, 2116–2121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Murray, L. and Cooper, P. J. (2004) The impact of postpartum depression on child development. In: Goodyer, I., ed. Aetiological Mechanisms in Developmental Psychopathology. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Bagedahl-Strindlund, M. and Ruppert, S. (1998) Parapartum mental illness: a long-term follow-up study. Psychopathology 31, 250–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Anderson, C. A. and Hammen, C. L. (1993) Psychosocial outcomes of children of unipolar depressed, bipolar, medically ill, and normal women: alongitudinal study. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 61, 448–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Hammen, C. and Brennan, P. A. (2001) Depressed adolescents of depressed and nondepressed mothers: tests of an interpersonal impairment hypothesis. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 69, 284–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Rutter, M. and Quinton, D. (1984) Parental psychiatric disorder: effects on children. Psychol. Med. 14, 853–880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Blanz, B., Schmidt, M. H., and Esser, G. (1991) Familial adversities and child psychiatric disorder. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 32, 939–950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Hammen, C., Burge, D., and Adrian, C. (1991) Timing of mother and child depression in a longitudinal study of children at risk. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 59(2), 341–345.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Sneddon, J., Kerry, R. J., and Bant, W. P. (1981) The psychiatric mother and baby unit. A three year study. Practitioner 225, 295–1300.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Lyons-Ruth, K., Connell, D. B., Zoll, D., and Stahl, J. (1987) Infants at social risk: Relations among infant maltreatment, maternal behavior, and infant attachment behavior. Dev. Psychol. 23, 223–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Radke-Yarrow, M., Zahn-Waxler, C., Susman, A., and Martinez, P. (1994) Caring behavior in children of clinically depressed and well mothers. Child Development 65, 1405–1414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Crittenden, P. M. and DiLalla, D. L. (1988) Compulsive compliance: the development of an inhibitory coping strategy in infancy. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 16, 585–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Jacobsen, T. and Miller, L. J. (1998) Compulsive compliance in a young maltreated child. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry37, 462–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Barnard, M. and Barlow, J. (2003) Discovering parental drug dependence: silence and disclosure. Children Soc. 17, 45–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Anthony, E. J. (1971) Folie a deux: a development failure in the process of separation-individuation. In: McDevitt, J. B. and Settlage, D. F., eds. Separation-Indi-viduation: Essays in Honor of Margaret S. Mahler. New York: International Universities Press, pp. 253–273.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Rutter, M. (1966) Children of sick parents: an environmental and psychiatric study. Institute of Psychiatry Maudsley Monographs 16. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Kumpfer, K. L. (1999) Outcome measures of interventions in the study of children of substance-abusing parents. Pediatrics 10(Suppl. 5), 1128–1144.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Jacobsen, T. (2004) Mentally ill mothers in the parenting role: clinical management and treatment. In: Goepfert, M., Webster, J., and Seeman, M. V., eds. Parental Psychiatric Disorder: Distressed Parents and Their Families. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 112–122.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Lieberman, A. F. (1989) What is culturally sensitive intervention? Early Child Dev. Care 40, 197–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Anonymous. (2000) Children of Parents with Mental Illness. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Clarke, G. N., Hornbrook, M., Lynch, F.,et al. (2001) Arandomized trial of a group cognitive intervention for preventing depression in adolescent offspring of depressed parents. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 58, 1127–1134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Kazdin, A. E. and Weisz, J. R. (1998) Identifying and developing empirically supported child and adolescent treatments. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 66, 19–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Dishion, T. J. and Andrews, D. W. (1995) Preventing escalation in problem behaviors with high-risk young adolescents: immediate and 1-year outcomes. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 63, 538–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Kendell, R. E., Chalmers, J. C., and Platz, C. (1987) Epidemiology of puerperal psychoses. Br. J. Psychiatry 150, 662–673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Kendell, R. E., Wainwright, S., Hailey, A., and Shannon, B. (1976) The influence of childbirth of psychiatric morbidity. Psychol. Med. 6, 297–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Beardslee, W. R., Salt, P., Versage, E. M., Gladstone, T. R. G., Wright E. J., and Rothberg, P. C. (1997) Sustaining change in parents receiving preventive interventions for families with depression. Am. J. Psychiatry 154, 510–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Barlow, J. and Parsons, J. (2002) Group-based parent-training programmes for improving emotional and behavioral adjustment in 0-3 year old children. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Webster-Stratton, C. and Hammond, M. (1997) Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: a comparison of child and parent training interventions. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 65, 93–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Weisz, J. R., Weiss, B., Han, S. S., Granger, D. A., and Morton, T. (1995) Effects of psychotherapy with children and adolescents revisited: ameta-analysis of treatment outcome studies. PsyB 117, 450–468.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Eckenrode, J., Ganzel, B., Henderson, C. R., et al. (2000) Preventing child abuse and neglect with a program of nurse home visitation. JAMA 284, 1385–1391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Kendrick, D., Elkan, R., Hewitt, M., et al. (2000) Does home visiting improve parenting and the quality of the home environment? A systematic review and meta analyses. Arch. Dis. Child. 82, 443–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Olds, D., Henderson, C., Cole, R., et al. (1998) Long-term effects of nurse home visitation on children’s criminal and antisocial behavior. JAMA 280(14), 1238–1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Olds, D. L., Henderson, C. R., and Kitzman, H. (1994) Does prenatal and infancy nurse home visitation have enduring effects on qualities of parental caregiving and child health at 25 and 50 months of life? Pediatrics 93, 89–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Olds, D., Robinson, J., Song, N., Little, C., and Hill, P. (1999) Reducing risks for mental disorders during the first five years of life: a review of preventive interventions. Center for Mental Health Services, pp. 1–63.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Roberts, I., Kramer, M. S., and Suissa, S. (1996) Does home visiting prevent childhood injury? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Br. Med. J. 312, 29–33.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Bentivolgio, P. (1998) The family specialist program. Network 5, 1–2.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Cohler, B. J. and Musick, J. S. (1984) Interventions among psychiatrically impaired parents and their young children. In: New Dir. Ment. Health Serv. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Lucas, L. E., Montgomery, S. H., Richardson, D. A., and Rivers, P. A. (1984) Impact project: reducing the risk of mental illness to children of distressed mothers. In: Cohler, B. J. and Musick, J. S., eds. Intervention Among Psychiatrically Impaired Parents and Their Young Children. Washington, DC: Jossey-Bass Inc., pp. 79–94.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    University of Illinois at Chicago Women’s Program. (1996) Comprehensive prenatal and postpartum psychiatric care of women with severe mental illness. Psychiatr. Serv. 47(10), 1108–1111.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Waldo, M C., Roath, M., Levine, W., and Freedman, R. (1987) A model program to teach parenting skills to schizophrenic mothers. Hosp. Commun. Psychiatry 38, 1110–1112.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Brunette, M. F., Richardson, F., White, L., et al. (2004) Integrated family treatment for parents with SMI. Psych. Rehab. J. 28, 177–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Speier, T. (1991) Final report of case management and transitional residential services for 18-40 year old dually diagnosed women with young children. In: Baton Rouge: Madre Louisiana Office of Human Services, pp. 51–53.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Heinicke, C. M., Fineman, N.., Ruth, G., Recchia, S. L., Guthrie, D., and Rodning, C. (1999) Relationship-based intervention with at-risk mothers: outcome in the first year of life. Infant Ment. Health J. 20(4), 349–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Barnard, K.E., Magyary, D., Sumner, G., Booth, C.L., Mitchell, S.K., and Spieker, S. (1988) Prevention of parenting alterations for women with low social support. Psychiatry 51, 248–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Black, M. M., Prasanna, N., Kight, C., Wachtel, R., Roby, P., and Schuler, M. (1994) Parenting and early development among children of drug-abusing women: effects of home intervention. Pediatrics 94, 440–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Gelfand, D. M., Teti, D. M., Seiner, S. A., and Jameson, P. B. (1996) Helping mothers fight depression: evaluation of a home-based intervention program for depressed mothers and their infants. J. Clin. Child Psychol. 25, 406–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Wasik, B. H. and Bryant, D. M. (2001) Home Visiting. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    McNaughton, D. B. (2004) Nurse home visits to maternal-child clients: a review of intervention research. Public Health Nurs. 21, 207–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Sweet, M. A. and Appelbaum, M. I. (2004) Is home visiting an effective strategy? A meta-analytic review of home visiting programs for families with young children. Child Development 75, 1435–1456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Kitzman, H., Olds, D. L., Sidora, Henderson, C. R., Hanks, C., Cole., R., Luckey, D. W., Bondy, J., Cole, K., and Glazner, J. (2000) Enduring effects of nurse home visitation of maternal life course: a three year follow-up of a randomized trial. JAMA 283, 1983–1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Macleod, J. and Nelson, G. (2000) Programs for the promotion of family wellness and the prevention of child maltreatment: a meta-analytic review. Child Abuse Negl. 24, 1127–1149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Horowitz, J. A., Bell, M., Trybulski, M., Munro, B. H., Moser, D., Hartz, S. A., McCordic, L., and Sokol, E. S. (2001) Promoting responsiveness between mothers with depressive symptoms and their infants. J. Nurs. Scholarship 33, 323–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Fraser, J. A., Armstrong, K. L., Morris, J. P., and Dadds, M. R. (2000) Home visiting intervention for vulnerable families with newborns: follow-up results of a randomized controlled trial. Child Abuse Negl. 24, 1399–1429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Marcenko, M. O. and Spence, M. (1994) Home visitation services for at-risk pregnant and postpartum women: a randomized trial. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 64, 468–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Lyons-Ruth, K. and Melnick, S. (2004) Dose-response effect of mother-infant clinical home visiting on aggressive behavior problems in kindergarten. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 43, 699–707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Hinden, B., Biebel, K., Nicholson, J., et al. (2002) Steps toward evidence-based practice for parents with mental illness and their families. Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Straus, M. A. (1992) Children as witnesses to marital violence: a risk factor for lifelong problems among a nationally representative sample of American men and women. Report of the Twenty-Third Ross Roundtable, pp. 98–109.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Thompson-Cooper, I., Fugere, R., and Cormier, B. (1993) The child abuse reporting laws: an ethical dilemma for professionals. Can. J. Psychiatry 38, 557–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Weinstein, B., Levine, M., Kogan, N., Harkavy-Friedman J., and Miller, J. M. (2000) Mental health professionals experiences reporting suspected child abuse and maltreatment. Child Abuse Negl. 24, 1317–1328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Nicholson, J., Sweeney, E. M., and Geller, J. L. (1998) Mothers with mental illness: II. Family relationships and the context of parenting. Psychiatr. Serv. 49, 643–649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Herman, S. P. (1997) Practice parameters for child custody evaluation. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 36(10 Suppl.), 57s–68s.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Budd, K. S. and Holdsworth, M. J. (1996) Methodological issues in assembling minimal parenting competence. J. Clin.Child Psychol. 25, 2–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Jacobsen, T. and Hofmann, V. (1997) Children’s attachment representations: Longitudinal relations to behavior and competence in middle childhood and adolescence. Dev. Psychol. 33, 703–710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Rudolph, B., Larson, G. L., Sweeny, S., Hough, E. E. and Arorian, K. (1990) Hospitalized pregnant psychotic women: characteristics and treatment issues. Hosp. Commun. Psychiatry 41, 159–163.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Stewart, D. and Gangbar, R. (1984) Psychiatric assessment of competency to care for a new-born. Can. J. Psychiatry 29, 583–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Gruenbaum, L. and Gammeltoft, M. (1993) Young children of schizophrenic mothers: Difficulties of intervention. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 63, 16–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Simms, M. D. and Horwitz, S. M. (1996) Foster home environments: apreliminary report. Dev. Behav. Pediatr. 17, 170–175.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary F. Brunette
    • 1
  • Teresa Jacobsen
    • 2
  1. 1.Dartmouth Medical School and the New Hampshire Dartmouth Psychiatric Research CenterConcord
  2. 2.School of Social WorkUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbana

Personalised recommendations