Pretreatment of Corn Stover by Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia
Soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) was investigated as a pretreatment method for corn stover. In this method, the feedstock was soaked in aqueous ammonia over an extended period (10–60 d) at room temperature. It was done without agitation at atmospheric pressure. SAA treatment removed 55–74% of the lignin, but retained nearly 100% of the glucan and 85% of the xylan. The xylan remaining in the corn stover after SAA treatment was hydrolyzed along with the glucan by xylanase present in the Spezyme CP enzyme. In the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) test of SAA-treated corn stover, using S. cerevisiae (D5A), an ethanol yield of 73% of theoretical maximum was obtained on the basis of the glucan content in the treated corn stover. The accumulation of xylose in the SSF appears to inhibit the cellulase activity on glucan hydrolysis, which limits the yield of ethanol. In the simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) test, using recombinant E. coli (KO11), both the glucan and xylose were effectively utilized, resulting in on overall ethanol yield of 77% based on the glucan and xylan content of the substrate. When the SSCF process is used, the fact that the xylan fraction is retained during pretreatment is a desirable feature since the overall bioconversion can be carried out in a single step without separate recovery of xylose from the pretreatment liquid.
Index EntriesCorn stover pretreatment soaking ammonia simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) SSCF
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