The Pathophysiology of Spinal Metastases

  • Daisuke Togawa
  • Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski
Part of the Current Clinical Oncology book series (CCO)


The American Cancer Society estimated that more Americans than ever, 1.33 million, were diagnosed with cancer in 2003 (1). Reportedly, metastases develops in two-thirds of cancer patients (2). After the lung and liver, the skeletal system is the third most common site of cancer metastasis (3). These cancer metastases are also the most common skeletal tumors seen by orthopaedists, and the ratio of metastatic lesions to primary bone tumors is 25:1 (4,5). Delamarter et al. (6) reported that only 29 (1.5%) cases had primary neoplasms of the lumbar spine in their study of 1971 patients with neoplastic disease. The prevalence of metastases increases with age. Patients who are 50 yr or older are at greatest risk for the development of metastatic disease. The gender ratio varies for each type of malignancy. However, when all neoplasms with the potential to metastasize are considered, men and women are equally at risk for metastatic lesions.


Vertebral Body Spinal Cord Compression Skeletal Metastasis Spinal Metastasis Vertebral Vein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daisuke Togawa
    • 1
  • Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski
    • 2
  1. 1.The Cleveland Clinic Spine Institute and the Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryThe Cleveland Clinic FoundationCleveland
  2. 2.The Cleveland Clinic Spine InstituteThe Cleveland Clinic FoundationCleveland

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