Abstract

Coffee is a medium-size tree of RUBIACEAE family. The plants can live up to 25 years and grows to a height of 6–15 m; commercially are kept to the height of 175–185 cm. The leaf is developed from the axil and arranged in pairs. The leaves on the main trunk develop in pairs and spirally, whereas leaves from the branch develop in a fan-like manner. The size of the mature leaf of Liberica coffee is approx 15–30 cm × 5–15 cm, with 7–10 veins. The dorsal surface is smooth and shiny. The mature leaf of the Robusta coffee is about the same size, except that it has 8–13 veins, whereas the dorsal surface is shiny and wavy. The tree starts flowering at the age of 18–36 months. The flowers develop from the axil of the leaves in the form of several in a bunch. Coffee berries are green when immature and turn yellow and red at maturity and ripening.

Keywords

Chlorogenic Acid Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Coffee Consumption Coffee Bean Coffee Drinking 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. CA001.
    Dagla, M., R. Tarsi, A. Papetti, P. Grisoli, C. Daccaro, C. Pruzzo, and G. Gazzani. Antiadhesive effect of green and roasted coffee on Streptococcus mutans’ adhesive properties on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads. J Agr Food Chem 2002; 50(5): 1225–1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. CA002.
    Silva-Vergara, M. L., R. Martinez, A. Chadu, M. Madeira, G. Freitas-Silva, and C. M. Leite-Maffei. Isolatioon of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strain from the soil of a coffee plantation in Ibia, State of Minas Gerais, Brasil. Med Mycol 1998; 36(1): 37–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. CA003.
    Obatomi, D. K. and P. H. Bach. Biochemistry and toxicology of the diterpenoid glycoside atractyloside. Food Chem Toxicol 1998; 36(3): 35–46.Google Scholar
  4. CA004.
    Kanhal, M. A. Lipid analysis of Coffea arabica Linn. beans and their possible hypercholesterolemic effects. J Food Sci Nutr 1997; 48(2): 135–139.Google Scholar
  5. CA005.
    Mensink, R. P., W. J. Lebink, I. E. Lobbezoo, M. P. Weusten-Van der Wouw, P. L. Zock, and M. B. Katan. Diterpene composition of oils from Arabica and Robusta coffee beans and their effects on serum lipids in man. J Int Med 1995; 237(6): 543–550.Google Scholar
  6. CA006.
    Becker, C. G., N. Van Hamont, and M. Wagner. Tobacco, cocoa, coffee and ragweed: cross-reacting allergens that activate factor-XII-dependent pathways. Blood 1981; 58(5): 861–867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. CA007.
    Daglia, M., A. Papetti, C. Gregotti, F. Berte, and G. Gazzani. In vitro antioxidant and ex vivo protective activities of green and roasted coffee. J Agr Food Chem 2000; 48(5): 1449–1454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. CA008.
    Ponepal, V., U. Spielberger, G. Riedel-Caspari and F. W. Schmidt. Use of Coffea arabica tosta extract for the prevention and therapy of polyfactorial infectious diseases in newborn calves. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 1996; 103(10): 390–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. CA009.
    Boekema, P. J., M. Samsom, G. P. van Berge Henegouven, and A. J. Smout. Coffee, and gastrointestinal function: facts, and fiction. A review. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 1999; 230: 35–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. CA010.
    Ratnayake, W. M., G. Pelletier, R. Hollywood, S. Malcolm, and B. Stavric. Investigations of the effect of coffee lipids on serum cholesterol in hamsers. Food Chem Toxicol 1995; 33(3): 195–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. CA011.
    Albertini, S., U. Friederich, C. Schlatter, and F. E. Wurgler. The influence of roasting procedure on the formation of mutagenic compounds in coffee. Food Chem Toxicol 1985; 23(6): 593–597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CA012.
    Terry, P., J. Lagergren, A. Wolk, and O. Nyren. Reflux-inducing dietary factors, and risk of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, and gastric cardia. Nutr Cancer 2000; 38(2): 186–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. CA013.
    Zuskin, E., J. Mustajbegovic, E. N. Schachter, J. Kern, D. Ivankovic, and S. Heimer. Respiratory function in female workers occupationally exposed to organic dusts in food processing industries. Acta Med Croat 2000; 54(4–5): 183–191.Google Scholar
  14. CA014.
    Medra, S. M., E. A. Janowska, and E. Rogucka. The effect of smoking tobacco, and drinking of alcohol, and coffee on bone mineral density of healthy men 40 years of age. Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej 2000; 103(3–4): 187–193.Google Scholar
  15. CA015.
    Garsetti, M., N. Pellegrini, C. Baggio, and F. Brighenti. Antioxidant activity in human faeces. Br J Nutr 2000; 84(5): 705–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. CA016.
    Tanskanene, A., J. Tuomilehto, H. Viinamaki, E. Vartiainen, J. Lehtonen, and P. Puska. Joint heavy use of alcohol, cigarettes, and coffee, and the risk of suicide. Addiction 2000; 95(11): 1699–1704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. CA017.
    Mori, H., K. Kawabata, K. Matsunaga, et al. Chemopreventive effects of coffee bean, and rice constituents on colorectal carcinogenesis. Biofactors 2000; 12(1–4): 101–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. CA018.
    Sala, M., S. Cordier, J. Chang-Claude, et al. Coffee consumption, and bladder cancer in nonsmokers: a poled analysis of case-control studies in European countries. Cancer Causes Control 2000; 11(10): 925–931.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. CA019.
    Kash, K. M., J. C. Holland, W. Breitbart, et al. Stress, and burnout in oncology. Oncology (Huntington) 2000; 14(11): 1621–1633.Google Scholar
  20. CA020.
    Torfs, C. P. and R. E. Christianson. Effect of maternal smoking, and coffee consumption on the risk of having a recognized Down syndrome pregnancy. Am J Epidem 2000; 152(12): 1185–1191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. CA021.
    Cnatingius, S., L. B. Signorello, G. Anneren, et al. Caffeine intake and the risk of first-trimester spontaneous abortion. N Engl J Med 2000; 343(25): 1839–1845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. CA022.
    Ruhl, C. E., and J. E. Everhart. Association of coffee consumption with gallbladder disease. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 152(11): 1034–1038.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. CA023.
    Kleemola, P., P. Jousilahti, P. Pietinen, E. Vartiainen, and J. Tuomilehto. Coffee consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease, and death. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160(22): 3393–3400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. CA024.
    Benedetti, M. D., J. H. Bower, D. M. Maraganore, S. K. MacDonnell, B. J. Peterson, J. E. Ahlskog, D. J. Schaid, and W. A. Rocca. Smoking, alcohol, and coffee consumption preceding Parkinson’s disease: a case-control study. Neurology 2000; 55(9): 1350–1358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. CA025.
    Conlisk, A. J., and D. A. Galuska. Is caffeine associated with bone mineral density in young adult women? Prevent Med 2000; 31(5): 562–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. CA026.
    Rasmussen, L. B., L. Ovesen, I. Bulow, N. Knudsen, P. Laurberg, and H. Perrild. Folate intake, lifestyle factors, and homocysteine concentrations in younger, and older women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72(5): 1156–1163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. CA027.
    Urgert, R., T. van Vliet, P. L. Zock, and M. B. Katan. Heavy coffee consumption, and plasma homocysteine: a randomised controlled trial in healthy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72(5): 1107–1110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. CA028.
    Frentzel-Beyme, R. and U. Helmert. Association between malignant tumors of the thyroid gland and exposure to environmental protectiveand risk factors. Rev Environm Health 2000; 15(3): 337–358.Google Scholar
  29. CA029.
    Kuper, H., L. Titus-Ernstoff, B. L. Harlow, and D. W. Cramer. Population based study of coffee, alcohol and tobacco use and risk of ovarian cancer. Int J Canc 2000; 88(2): 313–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. CA030.
    Nakanishi, N., K. Nakamura, K. Nakajima, K. Suzuki, and K. Tatara. Coffee consumption and decreased serum gamma-glutamyltransferase: a study of middle-aged Japanese men. Eur J Epidemiol 2000; 16(5): 419–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. CA031.
    Carillo, J. A. and J. Benitez. Clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary caffeine and medications. Clin Pharmacokinetics 2000; 39(2): 127–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. CA032.
    De Roos, B., A. Van Tol, R. Urgenr, et al. Consumption of French-press coffee raises cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity levels before LDL cholesterol in normolipidemic subjects. J Intern Med 2000; 248(3): 211–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. CA033.
    Grubben, M. J., C. C. Van Den Braak, R. Broekhuizen, et al. The effect of un-filtered coffee on potential biomarkers for colonic cancer risk in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial. Alim PharmTherap 2000; 14(9): 1181–1190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. CA034.
    Heliovaara, M., K. Alio, P. Knekt, O. Impivaara, A. Reunanen, and A. Aromaa. Coffee consumption, rheumatoid factor and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2000; 59(8): 631–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. CA035.
    Quinlan, P. T., J. Lane, K. L. Moore, J. Aspen, J. A. Rycroft, and D. C. O’Brien. The acute physiological and mood effects of tea and coffee: the role of caffeine level. Pharm Biochem Behav 2000; 66(1): 19–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. CA036.
    Hindmarch, I., U. Rigney, N. Stanley, P. Quinlan, J. Rycroft, and J. Lane. A naturalistic investigation of the effects of day-long consumption of tea, coffee and water on alertness, sleep onsetand sleep quality. Psychopharmacology 2000; 149(3): 203–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. CA037.
    Ross, G. W., R. D. Abbott, H. Petrovitch, et al. Association of coffee and caffeine intake with the risk of Parkinson disease. JAMA 2000; 283(20): 2674–2679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. CA038.
    Koren, G. Caffeine during pregnancy? In moderation. Can Family Phys 2000; 46(4): 801–803Google Scholar
  39. CA039.
    Villneuve, P. J., K. C. Johnson, A. J. Hanley, and Y. Mao. Alcohol, tobacco and coffee consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer: results from Canadian Enhanced Surveillance System case-control project. Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group. Eur J Cancer Prev 2000; 9(1): 49–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. CA040.
    Long, L. H. and B. Halliwell. Coffee drinking increases levels of urinary hydrogen peroxide detected in healthy human volunteers. Free Radical Res 2000; 32(5): 463–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. CA041.
    Nakanishi, N., K. Nakamura, K. Suzuki, and K. Tatara. Effects of coffee consumption against the development of liver dysfunction: a 4-year follow up study of middle-aged Japanese male office workers. Industrial Health 2000; 38(1): 99–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. CA042.
    Perod, A. L., A. E. Roberts, and W. M. McKinney. Caffeine can affect velocity in the middle cerebral artery during hyperventilation, hypo ventilation, and thinking: a transcranial Doppler study. J Neuroimaging 2000; 10(1): 33–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. CA043.
    Liguori, A., J. A. Grass, and J. R. Hughes. Subjective effects of caffeine among introverts and extraverts in the morning and evening. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 1999; 7(3): 244–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. CA044.
    Smith, A. P., R. Clark, and J. Gallagher. Breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee: effects on working memory, attention, mood and cardiovascular function. Phys Behav 1000; 67(1): 9–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. CA045.
    Leitzmann, M. F., W. C. Willett, E. B. Rimm, et al. A prospective study of coffee consumption, and the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in men. JAMA 1999; 281(22): 2106–2112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. CA046.
    Eskenazi, B., A. L. Stapleton, M. Kharazzi, and W. Y. Chee. Association between maternal decaffeinated and caffeinated coffee consumption and fetal growth and gestational duration. Epidemiology 1999; 10(3): 242–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. CA047.
    Rakic, V., V. Burke and L. J. Beilin. Effects of coffee on ambulatory blood pressure in older menand women: a randomized controlled trial. Hypertension 1999; 33(3): 869–893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. CA048.
    Stolzenberg-Solomon, R. Z., E. R. Miller 3rd, M. G. Maguire, J. Selhub, and L. J. Appel. Association of dietary protein intake and coffee consumption with serum homocysteine concentrations in an older population. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69(3): 467–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. CA049.
    Miyake, Y., S. Kono, M. Nishiwaki, et al. Relationship of coffee consumption with serum lipids and lipoproteinds in Japanese men. Ann Epidemiol 1999; 9(2): 121–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. CA050.
    Jee, S. H., P. K. Whelton, I. Suh, and M. J. Klag. The effect of chronic coffee drinking on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Hypertension 1999; 33(2): 647–652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. CA051.
    Dager, S. R., M. E. Layton, W. Strauss, et al. Human brain metabolic response to caffeine and the effects of tolerance. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156(2): 229–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. CA052.
    Kendler, K. S. and C. A. Prescott. Caffeine intake, tolerance, and withdrawal in women: a population-based twin study. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156(2): 223–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. CA053.
    Sesso, H. D., J. M. Gaziano, J. E. Buring, and C. H. Hennekens. Coffee and tea intake and the risk of myocardial infarction. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 149(2): 162–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. CA054.
    Honjo, S., S. Kono, M. P. Coleman, et al. Coffee drinking and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase: an extended study of Self-Defence Officials of Japan. Ann Epidemiol 1999; 9(5): 325–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. CA055.
    Mazurek, W. and M. Negrusz-Kawecka. Effect of coffee on blood pressure and activity rennin-angiotensin-aldoster-one system and catecholamines concentration in patients with essential hypertension. Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski 1999; 7(40): 159–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. CA056.
    Luo, Y., J. Wen, C. Luo, R. D. Cummings, and D. K. Cooper. Pig xenogeneic antigen modification with green coffee bean alpha-galactosidase. Xenotransplantation 1999; 6(4): 238–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. CA057.
    Porta, M., N. Malats, L. Guarner, et al. Association between coffee drinking and K-ras mutations in exocrine pancreatic cancer. PANKRAS II Study Group. J Epidemiol Comm Health 1999; 53(11): 702–709.Google Scholar
  58. CA058.
    Woodward, M., and H. Tunstall-Pedoe. Coffee and tea consumption in the Scottish Heart Health Study follow up: conflicting relations with coronary risk factors, coronary disease, and all cause mortality. J Epidemiol Comm Health 1999; 53(8): 481–487.Google Scholar
  59. CA059.
    De Roos, B., S. Meyboom, T. G. Kosmeijer-Schiul, and M. B. Katan. Absorption and urinary excretion of the coffee diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in healthy ileostomy volunteers. J Intern Med 1998; 244(6): 451–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. CA060.
    Fujii, W, M. Takaki, A. Yoshida, H. Ishidate, H. Ito, and H. Suga. Effects of intracoronary caffeine on left ventricular mechanoenergetics in Ca 2+ overload failing rat hearts. Japanese J Phys 1998; 48(5): 373–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. CA061.
    Larese, F., A. Fiorito, F. Casasola, et al. Sensitization to green coffee beans, and work-related allergic symptoms in coffee workers. Am J Indust Med 1998; 34(6): 623–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. CA062.
    Hauptmann, H., and J. Franca. Cafesterol. II. J Amer Chem Soc 1943; 65:81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. CA063.
    Stoffelsma, J., G. Sipma, D. K. Kettenes, and J. Pypker. New volatile components of roasted coffee. J Agr Food Chem 1968; 16(6): 1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. CA064.
    Sondheimer, E. On the distribution of caffeic acid and the chlorogenic acid isomers in plants. Arch Biochem Biophys 1958; 74: 131–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. CA065.
    Pettitt Jr, B. C. Identification of the diterpene esters in arabica and canephora coffees. J Agr Food Chem 1987; 35(4): 549–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. CA066.
    Speer, K. 16-O-methylcafestrol, a new diterpene in coffee. Food Chem Con-sum Proc Eur Conf Food Chem 5th 1989; 1989(1): 302–306.Google Scholar
  67. CA067.
    Obermann, H. and G. Spiteller. 16,17-dihydroxy-9-kauren-18-oic acid. A compound of roasted coffee. Chem Ber 1975; 108: 1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. CA068.
    Haggag, M. Y. A study of the lipid content of Coffea arabica seeds. Pharmazie 1975; 30: 409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. CA069.
    Vitzthum, O. G. and P. Werkhoff. Cycloalkapyrazines in coffee aroma. J Agr Food Chem 1975; 23(3): 510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. CA070.
    Wahlberg, I., C. R. Enzell, and J. W. Rowe. Ent-16-kauren-19-ol from coffee. Phytochemistry 1975; 14: 1677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. CA071.
    Correa, J. B. C., S. Adebrecht, and J. D. Fontana. Polysaccharides from the epicarp and mesocarp of coffee beans. II. Fractionation and partial acid hydrolysis of water-soluble pectin. An Acad Brasil Cienc 1974; 46: 349.Google Scholar
  72. CA072.
    Molina, M. R., G. De La Fuente, M. A. Batten, and R. Bressani. Decaffeination. A process to detoxify coffee pulp. J Agr Food Chem 1974; 22(6): 1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. CA073.
    Correa, J. B. C., E. O. Coelho, and J. D. Fontana. Polysaccharide from the epicarp and the mesocarp of coffee beans. III. Structural features of pectic acid. An Acad Brasil Cienc 1974; 46: 357.Google Scholar
  74. CA074.
    Buegin, E. Lowering the carboxylic acid-5-hydroxy-tryptamide content of unroasted coffee beans. Patent-Ger Offen-2,429,233 1975.Google Scholar
  75. CA075.
    Vitzthum, O. G. and P. Werkhoff. Oxazoles and thiazoles in coffee aroma. J Food Sci 1974; 39: 1210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. CA076.
    Vitzthum, O. G. and P. Werkhoff. Newly discovered nitrogen-containing heterocycles in coffee aroma. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 1974; 156:300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. CA077.
    Higuchi, K., T. Suzuki, and H. Ashihara. Pipecolic acid from the developing fruits (pericarp and seeds) of Coffea arabica and Camellia sinensis. Colloq Sci Int Café [C.R.] 1995; 16: 389–395.Google Scholar
  78. CA078.
    Andrade, P. B., R. Leitao, R. M. Seabra, M. B. Oliveira, and M. A. Ferreira. Development of an HPLC/ diode-array detector method for simultaneous determination of seven hydroxyl-cinnamic acids in green coffee. J Liq Chrom Rel Technol 1997; 20(13): 2023–2030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. CA079.
    Kolling-Speer, I. and K. Speer. Diterpenes in coffee leaves. Colloq Sci Int Café 1997; 17(15): 1–154.Google Scholar
  80. CA080.
    Hiramoto, K., X. G. Li, M. Makimoto, T. Kato, and K. Kikugawa. Identification of hydroxyhydroquinone in coffee as a generator of reactive oxygen species that break DNA single strands. Mutat Res 1998; 419(1/2/3): 43–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. CA081.
    Spiro, M. Coffee, tea and chemistry. Chem Rev 1997; 6(5): 11–15.Google Scholar
  82. CA082.
    Vitzthum, O. G. and P. Werkhoff. Steam volatile aroma constituents of roasted coffee-neutral fraction. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 1976; 160: 277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. CA083.
    Obermann, H. and G. Spiteller. The structures of the “coffee atractylosides”. Chem Ber 1976; 109: 3450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. CA084.
    Gal, S. and E. Jenny. Extraction of the irritating substances from crude coffee. Patent-Swiss-568,719 1975.Google Scholar
  85. CA085.
    Barboza, C. A., and J. R. Ramirez-Martinez. Anthocyanins in pulp of the coffee cultivar Bourbon Rojo. Colloq Sci Int Café [C.R.] 1992; 14:272–276.Google Scholar
  86. CA086.
    Waller, G. R., M. Jurzyste, T. K. B. Karns, and P. W. Geno. Isolation and characterization of ursolic acid from Coffea arabica L. (coffee) leaves. Colloq Sci Int Café [C.R.] 1991; 14: 245–247.Google Scholar
  87. CA087.
    Stalcup, A. M., K. H. Ekborg, M. P. Gasper, and D. W. Armstron. Enantiomeric separation of chiral components reported to be in coffee, tea or cocoa. J Agr Food Chem 1993; 41(10): 1684–1689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. CA088.
    Koge, K., Y. Orihara, and T. Furuya. Caffeine production by polyurethane foam-immobilized coffee (Coffea arabica L.) cells. Biochem Eng 2001 Proc Asia Pac Biochem Eng Conf 1992; 299–301.Google Scholar
  89. CA089.
    Tsuji, S., T. Shibata, K. Ohara, N. Okada, and Y. Ito. Factors affecting the formation of hydrogen peroxide in coffee. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 1991; 32(6): 504–512.Google Scholar
  90. CA090.
    Correia, A. M. N. G. Effect of roasting on the evolution of chlorogenic acids in coffee. Gov Rep Announce Index (US) 1991; 91(19): 309 pp.Google Scholar
  91. CA091.
    Savolainen, H. Tannin content of tea, and coffee. J Appl Toxicol 1992; 12(3): 191–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. CA092.
    Schulthess, B. H., P. Ruedi, and T. W. Baumann. 7-glucosyladenine, a new adenine metabolite in coffee cell suspension cultures. Colloq Sci Int Café [C.R.] 1993; 15(2): 770–772.Google Scholar
  93. CA093.
    Hertog, M. G. L., P. C. H. Hollman, and B. Van Der Putte. Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids of tea infusions, wines, and fruit juices. J Agr Food Chem 1993; 41(8): 1242–1246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. CA094.
    Miyake, T. and T. Shibamoto. Quantitative analysis of acetaldehyde in foods and beverages. J Agr Food Chem 1994; 41(11): 1968–1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. CA095.
    Nishina, A., F. Kajishima, M. Matsunaga, H. Tezuka, H. Inatomi, and T. Osawa. Antimicrobial substance, 3′, 4′-dihydroxyacetophenone, in coffee residue. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1994; 58(2): 293–296.Google Scholar
  96. CA096.
    Deisinger, P. J., T. S. Hills, and J. C. English. Human exposure to naturally occurring hydroquinone. J Toxicol Environ Health 1996; 47(1): 31–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. CA097.
    Ducruix, A., C. Pascard, M. Hammoniere, and J. Poisson. The crystal and molecular structure of mascaroside, a new bitter glycoside from coffee beans. Acta Crystallogr Ser B 1977; 33: 2846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. CA098.
    Richter, R., H. Obermann, and G. Spiteller. A new kauran-18-oic acid ester from green coffee beans. Chem Ber 1977;110:1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. CA099.
    Frischknecht, P. M., T. W. Baumann, and H. Wanner. Tissue culture of Coffea arabica-growthand caffeine formation. Planta Med 1977; 31: 344.Google Scholar
  100. CA100.
    Gonzalez, J., R. Noriega, and R. Sandoval. Contribution to the study of flavonoids of coffee tree (Coffea) leaves. Rev Colomb Quim 1975; 5:85.Google Scholar
  101. CA101.
    Tohda, C., N. Nakamura, K. Komatsu, and M. Hattori. Trigonelline-induced neurite outgrowth in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. Biol Pharm Bull 1999; 22(7): 679–682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. CA102.
    Tillack, B. and H. G. Maier. Reducing agents in roasted coffee. Lebens-mittelchemie 1999; 53(6): 159–160.Google Scholar
  103. CA103.
    Huang, C. T., C. F. Chen, and T. H. Tsai. Determination of the caffeine content in the tea and coffee. J Chin Med 1999; 10(2): 135–141.Google Scholar
  104. CA104.
    Trugo, L. C. and R. Macrae. Chlorogenic acid composition of instant coffees. Analyst (London) 1984; 109(3): 263–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. CA105.
    Scholze, A. and H. G. Maier. Acids of coffee. VIII. Glycolic and phosphoric acid. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 1984; 178(1): 5–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. CA106.
    Engelhardt, U., K. Peters, and H. G. Maier. Pyroglutamic acid in bean coffee. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 1984; 178(4): 288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. CA107.
    Duplatre, A., C. Tisse, and J. Estienne. Identification of Arabica and Robusta (coffee) species by studying the sterol fraction. Ann Falsif Expert Chim Toxicol 1984; 77(828): 259–270.Google Scholar
  108. CA108.
    Frischknecht, P. M. and T. W. Baumann. Stress induced formation of purine alkaloids in plant tissue culture of Coffea arabica. Phytochemistry 1985; 24(10): 2255–2257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. CA109.
    Hucke, J., and H. G. Maier. Quinic acid lactone in coffee. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 1985; 180(6): 479–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. CA110.
    Lam, L. K. T. and L. W. Wattenberg. Preparation of the palmitates of kahweol and cafestrol. Org Prep Proc Int 1985; 17(4/5):264–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. CA111.
    Suzuki, T. and G. R. Waller. Purine alkaloids of the fruits of Camellia sinensis L. and Coffea arabica L. during fruit development. Ann Bot (London) 1985; 56(4): 537–542.Google Scholar
  112. CA112.
    Okuda, T., T. Hatano, I. Agata, S. Nishibe, and K. Kimura. Tannins in Artemisia montana, A. princeps, and related species of plant. Yakugaku Zasshi 1986; 106(10): 894–899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. CA113.
    Kappeler, A. W., and T. W. Baumann. Purine alkaloid pattern in coffee beans. Colloq Sci Int Café [C.R.] 1985; 11: 273–279.Google Scholar
  114. CA114.
    Trugo, L. C., C. A. B. de Maria, and C. C. Werneck. Simultaneous determination of total chlorogenic acid and caffeine in coffee by high performance gel filtration chromatography. Food Chem 1991; 42(1): 81–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. CA115.
    Baumann, T. W., T. W. Koetz, and R. Morah. N-methyltransferase activities in suspension cultures of Coffea arabica. Plant Cell Rep 1983; 2(1): 33–35.Google Scholar
  116. CA116.
    Richter, H. and G. Spiteller. A new atractyligenin glycoside from green coffee beans. Chem Ber 1978; 111: 3506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. CA117.
    Maier, H. G. and H. Wewetzer. Determination of diterpene glycosides in coffee. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 1978; 167: 105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. CA118.
    Richter, H. and G. Spiteller. A new furokaurane glycoside from green coffee-bean. Chem Ber 1979; 112: 1088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. CA119.
    Waller, G. R. and M. F. Roberts. N-methyltransferases and 7-methyl-N-nucleoside hydrolase activity in vitro of Coffea arabica fruits, and the biosynthesis of caffeine:, and the in vivo metabolism of caffeine. Proc IUPAC 11th International Symp Chem Nat Prod 1978; 4(2): 55–71.Google Scholar
  120. CA120.
    Folstar, P., F. A. Schols, H. C. Van Der Plas, W. Pilnik, C. A. Landheer, and A. Van Veldhuizen. New tryptamine derivatives isolated from wax of green coffee beans. J Agr Food Chem 1980; 28(4): 872–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. CA121.
    Waller, G. R. and C. F. Cumberland. High production of caffeine by sterile tissue cultures of Coffea arabica. Colloq Sci Int Café [C.R.] 1980; 9: 611–618.Google Scholar
  122. CA122.
    Koenig, W. A., W. Rahn, and R. Vetter. Identify and quantify emetic active constituents in roast coffee. Colloq Sci Int Café [C.R.] 1980; 9: 145–149.Google Scholar
  123. CA123.
    Waller, G. R., T. Suzuki, and M. F. Roberts. Cell-free metabolism of caffeine in Coffea arabica. Colloq Sci Int Café [C.R.] 1980; 9: 627–635.Google Scholar
  124. CA124.
    Hirsbrunner, P. and R. Bertholet. Saponification treatment of spent coffee grounds. Patent-US-4,293,581 1981.Google Scholar
  125. CA125.
    Kampmann, B and H. G. Maier. Acids of coffee. I. Quinic acid. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 1982; 175(5): 333–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. CA126.
    Aeschach, R., A. Kusy, and H. G. Maier. Diterpenes of coffee. I. Atactyligenin. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 1982; 175(5): 337–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. CA127.
    Walkowski, A. and W. Meissner. Changes in the content of chlorogenic acids in row coffee beans during accelerated aging. Zesz Nauk Akad Ekon Poznaniu Ser 1981; 1(88): 94–97.Google Scholar
  128. CA128.
    Atal, C. K., J. B. Srivasava, B. K. Wali, R. B. Chakravarty, B. N. Bhawan, and R. P. Rastogi. Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part VIII. Indian J Exp Biol 1978; 16: 330–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. CA129.
    Neurath, G. B., M. Dunger, F. G. Pein, D. Ambrosius, and O. Schreiber. Primary and secondary amines in the human environment. Food Cosmet Toxicol 1977; 15: 275–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. CA130.
    Pezzuto, J. M., N. P. D. Nanayakkara, C. M. Compadre, et al. Characterization of bacterial mutagenicity mediated by 13-hydroxy-ent-kaurenoic acid (steviol) and several structurally related derivatives and evaluation of potential to induce glutathione-S-transferase in mice. Mutat Res 1986; 169: 93–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. CA131.
    Kasai, H., K. Kumeno, Z. Yamaizumi, et al. Mutagenicity of methylgyoxal in coffee. Jap J Cancer Res (Gann) 1982; 73: 681–683.Google Scholar
  132. CA132.
    Wettsten, A., H. Fritzsche, F. Hunziker, and K. Miescher. Steroids. XXXII. The constitution of cafesterol. Helv Chim Acta 1941; 24: 332E.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. CA133.
    De Paula, R. D. Investigation of coffee oil. Anais Assoc Brasil Quim 1943; 2: 57.Google Scholar
  134. CA134.
    Shiroya, M. and S. Hattori. Studies on the browning and blackening of plant tissues. III. Occurrence in the leaves of Dahlia and several other plants of chlorogenic acid as the principal browning agent. Physiol Plant 1955; 8: 358–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. CA135.
    Hoffman, E., D. Schlee, and H. Reinbothe. On the occurrence and distribution of allantoin in Boraginaceae. Flora Abt A Physiol Biochem (Jena) 1969; 159: 510–518.Google Scholar
  136. CA136.
    Slotta, K. H. and K. Neisser. On the chemistry of coffee. III. Determination of cafesterol and other compounds in coffee oil. Ber Deutsch Hem Ges 1938; 71: 19991–1994.Google Scholar
  137. CA137.
    Vincent, D., G. Segonzae, and R. Issandou-Carles. Action of purine alkaloids and caffeine-containing drugs on hyauronidase. C R Seances Soc Biol Ses Fil 1954; 148: 1075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. CA138.
    Hauptmann, H, J. Franca, and L. Bruck-Lacerda. Cafestol. III. The supposed estrogenic activity of cafestrol. J Amer Chem Soc 1943; 65: 993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. CA139.
    Bhakuni, D. S., M. L. Dhar, M. M. Dhar, B. N. Dhawan, B. Gupta, and R. Srimali. Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part III. Indian J Exp Biol 1971; 9: 91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. CA140.
    Stensvold, I., A. Tverdal, and B. K. Jacobsen. Cohort study of coffee intake and death from coronary heart disease over 12 years. Br Med J 1996; 544–545.Google Scholar
  141. CA141.
    Koley, J., B. N. Coley, and S. R. Maitra. Effect of drinking tea, coffee and caffeine on work performance. Indian J Physiol Allied Sci 1973; 27: 96.Google Scholar
  142. CA142.
    Keiser, I., E. J. Harris, D. H. Miyashita, M. Jacobson, and R. E. Perdue. Attraction of ethyl ether extracts of 232 botanicals to oriental fruit flies, melon flies, and Mediterranean fruit flies. Loydia 1975; 38(2): 141–152.Google Scholar
  143. CA143.
    Schwaireb, M. H., M. M. El-Mofty, A. M. Rizk, A. M. Abdel-Galil, and H. H. Hrasani. Effects of green coffee and green tea on induce mammary gland tumorigenesis in rats. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 1995; 3(4): 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. CA144.
    Urgert, R., M. P. M. E. W. Van Der Wouw, R. Hovenier, P. G. Lund-Larsen, and M. B. Katan. Chronic consumers of boiled coffee have elevated serum levels of lipoprotein (A). J Intern Med 1996; 240(6): 367–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. CA145.
    Abraham, S. K. Anti-genotoxic effects in mice after the interaction between coffee and dietary constituents. Food Chem Toxicol 1996; 3(1): 15–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. CA146.
    Urgert, R., M. P. M. E. Weusten-Van Der Wouw, R. Hovenier, S. Meyboom, A. C. Beynen, and M. B. Catan. Diterpenes from coffee beans decrease serum levels of lipoprotein (A) in humans: results from four randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr 1997; 51(7): 431–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. CA147.
    Tavani, A., A. Pregnolato, C. La Vecchia, E. Negri, R. Talamini, and S. Franceschi. Coffee and tea intake and risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: a study of 3,530 cases and 7,057 controls. Int J Cancer 1997; 73(2): 193–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. CA148.
    Kobayashi, T., M. Yasuda, K. Iijima, K. Toriizuka, J. C. Cyong, and H. Nagasawa. Effect of coffee cherry on the activation of splenic lymphocytes in mice. Anticancer Res 1997; 17(2A): 913–916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. CA149.
    Nagata, C., M. Kabuto, and H. Shimizu. Association of coffee, green tea, and caffeine intakes with serum concentrations of estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin in premenopausal Japanese women. Nutr Cancer 1998; 30(1): 21–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. CA150.
    Burr, M. L., E. S. Limb, P. M. Sweetnam, A. M. Fehily, L. Amarah, and A. Hutchings. Instant coffee, and cholesterol: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995; 49(10): 779–784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. CA151.
    Myazaki, H. and T. Yamada. Skin cosmetics containing coffee bean extracts. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-08 301,722 1996.Google Scholar
  152. CA152.
    Wiliams, M. A., R. R. Monson, M. B. Goldman, and R. Mittendorf. Coffee and delayed conception. Lancet 1990; 335(8705): 1603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. CA153.
    Glauser, T., A. Bircher, and B. Wuthrich. Allergic rhinoconjunctivis by handling green coffee beans. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1992; 122(35): 1279–1281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. CA154.
    Lina, B. A., A. A. Rutten, and R. A. Woutersen. Effect of coffee drinking on cell proliferation in rat urinary bladder epithelium. Food Chem Toxicol 1993; 31(12): 947–951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. CA155.
    Tse, S. Y. H. Coffee contains cholinomimetic compound distinct from caffeine. I: purification and chromatographic analysis. J Pharm Sci 1991; 80(7): 665–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. CA156.
    Anon. Coffee, tea, and mate. Lancet 1991; 338(8769): 752.Google Scholar
  157. CA157.
    Anon. Regular or decaf/ Coffee consumption and serum lipoproteins. Nutr Rev 1992; 50(6): 175–178.Google Scholar
  158. CA158.
    Hasegawa, R. and N. Ito. Liver medium-term bioassay in rats for screening of carcinogens and modifying factors in hepatocarcingenesis. Food Chem Toxicol 1992; 30(11): 979–992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. CA159.
    Zuskin, E., P. G. Duncan, and J. S. Douglas. Pharmacological characterization of extracts of coffee dusts. Br J Int Med 1983; 40: 193–198.Google Scholar
  160. CA160.
    Sanders, T. A. B., and S. Sandaradura. The cholesterol-raising effect of coffee in the Syrian hamster. Biol Reprod 1992; 68(2): 431–434.Google Scholar
  161. CA161.
    Ahola, I., M. Jauhiainen, and A. Aro. The hypercholesterolemic factor in boiled coffee is retained by a paper filter. J Intern Med 1991; 230(4): 293–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. CA162.
    Lindahl, B., I. Johansson, F. Huhtasaari, G Hallmanns, and K. Asplund. Coffee drinking and blood cholesterol. Effects of brewing method, food intake and life style. J Internal Med 1991; 230(4): 299–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. CA163.
    El Shabrawy, M., and F. M. Felimban. A study of the impact of Arabic coffee consumption on serum cholesterol. J Roy Soc J Health 1993; 113(6): 288–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. CA164.
    Van Den Brink, G., J. E. Brinkman, Y. L. Kan, H. S. Lau, and S. J. Troost. Influence of caffeine from coffee on heart rate and blood pressure of pharmacy students. Pharm Week Bull 1992; 127(12): 308–310.Google Scholar
  165. CA165.
    Aeschbachter, H. L. and H. P. Wurzner. An evaluation of instant and regular coffee in the Ames mutagenicity test. Toxicol Lett 1979; 5: 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. CA166.
    Kato, T., K. Hiramoto, and K. Kikugawa. Possible occurrence of new mutagens with the DNA breaking activity in coffee. Mutat Res 1994; 306(1): 9–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. CA167.
    Mehta, S. W., M. E. Pritchard, and C. Stegman. Contribution of coffee and tea to anemia among NANNES. II. Participants. Nutr Res 1992; 12(2): 209–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. CA168.
    Zamora-Martinez, M. C., and C. N. P. Pola. Medicinal plants used in some rural populations of Oaxaca, Puebla and Veracuz, Mexico. J Ethnopharmacol 1992; 35(3): 229–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. CA169.
    Stadler, R. H., R. J. Turesky, O. Muller, J. Markovic, and P. M. Leong-Morgenthaler. The inhibitory effects of coffee on radical-mediated oxidation and mutagenicity. Mutat Res 1994; 308(2): 177–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. CA170.
    Gershbein, L. L. Action of dietary trypsin, pressed coffee oil, silymarin and iron salt on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine tumorigenesis by gavage. Anticancer Res 1994; 14(3A): 1113–1116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. CA171.
    Schroeder, E. Preliminary study of Chinese anticancer drugs. An Paul MedCir 1978; 105(1): 67–94.Google Scholar
  172. CA172.
    Urgert, R., A. G. M. Schulz, and M. B. Katan. Effects of cafestol and kahweol from coffee grounds on serum lipids and serum lipids and serum liver enzymes in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 61(1): 149–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. CA173.
    Miller, E. G., A. P. Gonzales-Sanders, A. M. Couvillon, et al. Inhibition of oral carcinogenesis by green coffee beans and limonoid glucosides. ACS Symp Ser 1994; 546: 220–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. CA174.
    Ratnayake, W. M. N., and G. Pelletier. Investigation of the effect of coffee lipids on serum cholesterol in hamsters. Food Chem Toxicol 1995; 33(3): 195–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. CA175.
    Nagasawa, H., M. Yasuda, S. Sakamoto, and H. Inatomi. Protection by coffee cherry against spontaneous mammary tumor development in mice. Anticancer Res 1995; 15(1): 141–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. CA176.
    Hasegawa, R., T. Ogiso, K. Imaida, T. Shirai, and N. Ito. Analysis of the potential carcinogenicity of coffee and its related compounds in a medium-term liver bioassay of rats. Food Chem Toxicol 1995; 33(1): 15–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. CA177.
    Brin, A. J. and N. Goutelard. Cosmetic or pharmaceutical composition for topical application active free radicals. Patent-Eur. Pat. Appl.-629,397 1994; 16 pp.Google Scholar
  178. CA178.
    Daglia, M., M. T. Cuzzoni, and C. Dacarro. Anibacterial activity of coffee. J Agr Food Chem 1994; 42(10): 2270–2272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. CA179.
    Willett, W. C., M. J. Stampfer, J. E. Manson, et al. Coffee consumption and coronary heart disease in women. J Am Med Ass 1996; 275(6): 458–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. CA180.
    Nagasawa, H., M. Yasuda, S. Sakamoto, and H. Inatomi. Suppression in coffee cherry of the growth of spontaneous mammary tumors in SHN mice. Anticancer Res 1996; 16(1): 151–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. CA181.
    Barrett, B. Medicinal plants of Nicaragua’s Atlantic coast. Econ Bot 1994; 48(1): 8–20.Google Scholar
  182. CA182.
    Abraham, S. K. Inhibitory effects of coffee on transplacental genotoxicity in mice. Mutat Res 1995; 347(1): 45–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. CA183.
    Stehmann, J. R. and M. G. L. Brandao. Medicinal plants of Lavras Novas (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Fitoterapia 1995; 56(6): 515–520.Google Scholar
  184. CA184.
    Coee, F. G. and G. J. Anderson. Ethnobotany of the Garifuna of eastern Nicaragua. Econ Bot 1996; 50(1): 71–107.Google Scholar
  185. CA185.
    Abraham, S. K. and U. Graf. Protection by coffee against somatic genotoxicity in Drosophila: role of bioactivation capacity. Food Chem Toxicol 1996; 34(1): 1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. CA186.
    Kobayashi, T., M. Yasuda, K. Iijima, K. Toriizuka, J. C. Cyong, and H. Nagasawa. Effects of coffee cherry on the immune system in SHN mice. Anticancer Res 1996; 16(4A): 1827–1830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. CA187.
    Beynen, A. C., M. P. M. E. Van Der Wouw, B. De Roos, and M. B. Katan. Boiled coffee fails to raise serum cholesterol in hamsters and rats. Br J Nutr 1996; 76(5): 755–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. CA188.
    Badria, F. A. Is man helpless against cancer? An environmental approach: antimutagenic agents from Egyptian food, and medicinal preparations. Cancer Lett 1994; 84(1): 1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. CA189.
    Baron, J. A., E. R. Greenberg, R. Haile, J. Mandel, R. S. Sandler, and L. Mott. Coffee and tea and the risk of recurrent colorectal adenomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prevent 1997; 6(1): 7–10.Google Scholar
  190. CA190.
    Nhgard, O., H. Refsum, P. M. Ueland, et al. Coffee consumption and plasma total homocysteine: the hordaland and homocysteine study. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65(1): 136–143.Google Scholar
  191. CA191.
    Abraham, S. K. Anti-enotoxic effects in mice after the interaction between coffee and dietary constituents. Food Chem Toxicol 1996; 34(1): 15–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. CA192.
    Rakic, V., L. J. Beilin, and V. Burke. Effect of coffee and tea drinking on postprandial hypotension in older men and women. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1996; 23(6–7): 559–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. CA193.
    Nishibe, Y., N. Tomono, H. Hirasawa, and T. Okada. Skin-lightening cosmetics containing extracts of Coffea arabica seeds. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-08 92,057 1996; 12 pp.Google Scholar
  194. CA194.
    Hirsbrunner, P. and E. Brambilla. Separation of serotonin from coffee wax. Patent-Ger Offen-2,532,308 1976; 14 pp.Google Scholar
  195. CA195.
    Mori, H. and I. Hirono. Effect of coffee on carcinogenicity of cycasin. Br J Cancer 1977; 35: 369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. CA196.
    Latorre, D. L. and F. A. Latorre. Plants used by the Mexican Kickapoo Indians. Econ Bot 1977; 31: 340–357.Google Scholar
  197. CA197.
    Wurzner, H. P., E. Lindstrom, L. Vuataz, and H. Luginbuhl. A 2-year feeding study of instant coffees in rats. II. Incidence and types of neoplasms. Food Cosmet Toxicol 1977; 15: 289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. CA198.
    Wurzner, H. P., E. Lindstrom, L. Vuataz, and H. Luginbuhl. A 2-year feeding study of instant coffees in rats. I. Body weight, food consumption, hematological parameters and plasma chemistry. Food Cosmet Toxicol 1977; 15:7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. CA199.
    De Ross, B., S. Meyboom, T. G. Kosmeijer-Schuil, and M. B. Katan. Absorption and urinary excretion of the coffee diterpenes cafestola and kahweol in healthy ileostomy volunteers. J Intern Med 1998; 244(6): 451–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. CA200.
    Duke, J. A. and V. R. Martinez. Amazonian ethnobotanical dictionary. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1994: 181.Google Scholar
  201. CA201.
    Axelsson, I. G. K. Allergy to the coffee plant. Allergy 1994; 49(10): 885–887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. CA202.
    Nagasawa, H., M. Yasuda, and H. Inatomi. Further study on the effects of coffee cherry on spontaneous mammary tumourigenesis in mice: effects of methanol extract. Anticancer Res 1996; 16(6B): 3507–3513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. CA203.
    Ponepal, V., U. Spielberger, G. Riedel-Caspari, and F. W. Schmidt. Use of Coffea-arabica-toasta extract in propyl-axis and therapy of multifactorial infectious diseases in newborn calves. Dtsch Tieraerztl Wochenschr 1996; 103(10): 390–394.Google Scholar
  204. CA204.
    Daglia, M., A. Papetti, C. Dacarro, and G. Gazzani. Isolation of an antibacterial component from roasted coffee. J Pharm Biomed Anal 1998; 18(1/2): 219–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. CA205.
    Vaijayanthimala, J., C. Anandi, V. Udhaya, and K. V. Pugalendi. Anti-candidal activity of certain South Indian medicinal plants. Phytother Res 2000; 14(3): 207–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. CA206.
    Nakasato, F., M. Nakayasu, Y. Fujita, M. Nagao, M. Terada, and T. Sugimura. Mutagenicity of instant coffee on cultured Chinese hamster lung cells. Mutat Res 1984; 141(2): 109–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. CA207.
    Kinlen, L. J. and K. McPherson. Pancreas cancer and coffee and tea consumption: a case-control study. Br J Cancer 1984; 49(1): 93–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. CA208.
    Sampaio, E. D., F. D. Furtado, M. J. Furtado, M. N. Cavalcante, and O. D. Riedel. Hypoglycemic effect of raw coffee beans (Coffea arabica L. Rubiaceae). Rev Med Univ Fed Ceara 1979; 19(1/2): 49–53.Google Scholar
  209. CA209.
    Aeschbacher, H. U., H. Meier, E. Ruch, and H. P. Wurzner. Investigation of coffee in sister chromatid exchange and micronucleus tests in vivo. Food Chem Toxicol 1984; 22(10): 803–807.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. CA210.
    Dobmeyer, D. J., R. A. Stine, C. V. Leier, R. Greenberg, and S. F. Schaal. The arrhythmogenic effects of caffeine in human beings. N Engl J Med 1983; 308(14): 814–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. CA211.
    Toda, M., S. Okubo, R. Hiyoshi, and T. Shimamura. The bactericidal activity of tea and coffee. Lett Appl Microbiol 1989; 8(4): 123–125.Google Scholar
  212. CA212.
    Piraccini, B. M., F. Bardazzi, C. Vincenzi, and M. P. Tardio. Occupational contact dermatitis due to coffee. Contact Dermatitis 1990; 23(2): 114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. CA213.
    Okubo, S., H. Ikigai, M. Toda, and T. Shimamura. The anti-haemolysin activity of tea and coffee. Lett Appl Microbiol 1989; 9(2): 65–66.Google Scholar
  214. CA214.
    Aeschbacher, H. U. and E. Jaccaud. Inhibition by coffee on nitrosourea-mediated DNA damage in mice. Food Chem Toxicol 1990; 28(9): 633–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. CA215.
    Miwa, M., Z. L. Kong, K. Shinohara, and M. Watanabe. Macrophage stimulating activity of foods. Agr Biol Chem 1990; 54(7): 1863–1866.Google Scholar
  216. CA216.
    Stalder, R., A. Bexter, H. P. Wurzner, and H. Luginbuhl. A carcinogenicity study of instant coffee in Swiss mice. Ed Chem Toxicol 1990; 28(12): 829–837.Google Scholar
  217. CA217.
    El Tahir, K. E. H., E. A. Hamad, A. M. Ageel, M. A. Abu Nasif, and E. A. Gadkarim. Influence of tea, and coffee beverages on prostacyclin synthesis by the rat aorta. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essent Fatty Acids 1990; 40(1): 63–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. CA218.
    Li, Y., R. Q. Yan, G. Z. Tan, X. X. Duan, and L. L. Tan. Comparative study on the inhibitory effect of green tea, coffee, and levamisole on the hepatocacinogenetic action of dimethylnitrosamine. Chung-Hua Chung Liu Tsa Chin 1991; 13(3): 193–195.Google Scholar
  219. CA219.
    Eisele, J. W. and D. T. Reay. Death related to coffee enemas. JAMA 1980; 244:1608–1609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. CA220.
    Lam, L. K. T., V. L. Sparnins, and L. W. Wattenberg. Isolation and identification of kahweol palmitate and cafestol palmitate as active constituents of green coffee beans that enhance glutathione S-transferase activity in the mouse. Cancer Res 1982; 42: 1193–1198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. CA221.
    Lam, L. K. T., V. L. Sparnins, and L. W. Wattenberg. Isolation and identification of kahweol palmitate and cafestol palmitate as active constituents of green coffee beans that enhance glutathione (GSH) S-transferase activity. Proc Am Ass Cancer Res 1982; 23: 88.Google Scholar
  222. CA222.
    Grollier, J. F. and S. Pessis. Use of coffee oil as a solar radiation filter on the skin. Patent-Fr Demande-2,479,688 1981; 3 pp.Google Scholar
  223. CA223.
    Stich, H. F., M. P. Rosin and L. Bryson. Inhibition of the mutagenicity of a model nitrosation reaction by naturally occurring phenolics, coffee and tea. Mutat Res 1982; 95: 119–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. CA224.
    Lilahut, N. and S. Tancharoen. Studies of the effect of coffee on EKG of non-coffee drinker. Undergraduate Special Project Report 19878; 22 pp.Google Scholar
  225. CA225.
    Konowalchuk, J. and J. I. Speirs. Antiviral effect of commercial juices and beverages. Appl Environ Microbiol 1978; 35: 1219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. CA226.
    Ayensu, E. S. Medicinal plants of the West Indies. Unpublished Manuscript 1978; 110 pp.Google Scholar
  227. CA227.
    Nagao, M., Y. Takahashi, H. Yamanaka, and T. Sugimura. Mutagens in coffee and tea. Mutat Res 1979; 68: 101–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. CA228.
    Nolen, G. A. The effect of brewed and instant coffee in reproduction and teratogenesis in the rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1981; 58: 171–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. CA229.
    Murphy, S. J. and C. P. Benzamin. The effects of coffee on mouse development. Microbiol Lett 1981; 17: 91–99.Google Scholar
  230. CA230.
    Fujita, F. Y., K. Wakabayashi, M. Nagao, and T. Sugimura. Characteristics of major mutagenicity of instant coffee. Mutat Res 1985; 142(4): 145–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. CA231.
    Lubin, F., E. Ron, Y. Wax, and B. Modan. Coffee and methylxanthines and breast cancer: a case-control study. J Nat Cancer Inst 1985; 74(3): 569–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. CA232.
    Blair, C. A. and T. Shibamoto. Ames mutagenicity tests of overheated brewed coffee. Food Chem Toxicol 1984; 22(12): 971–975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. CA233.
    Aeschbacher, H. U., E. Ruch, H. Meier, H. P. Wurzner, and R. Munoz-Box. Instant and brewed coffees in the in vitro human lymphocyte mutagenicity test. Food Chem Toxicol 1985; 23(8): 747–752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. CA234.
    Yamaguchi, T. and M. Iki. Inhibitory effect of coffee extract against some mutagens. Agr Biol Chem 1986; 50(12): 2983–2988.Google Scholar
  235. CA235.
    Obana, H., S. I. Nakamura, and R. I. Tanaka. Suppressive effects of coffee on the SOS responses induced by UV and chemical mutagens. Mutat Res 1986; 175; 47–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. CA236.
    Weniger, B., M. Rouzier, R. Daguilh, D. Henrys, J. H. Henrys, and R. Anton. Popular medicine of the central plateau of Haiti. 2. Ethnopharmacological inventory. J Ethnopharmacol 1986; 17(1): 13–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. CA237.
    Kloos, H., F. W. Thiongo, J. H. Ouma, and A. E. Buttersworth. Preliminary evaluation of some wild and cultivated plants for snail control in Machakos district, Kenya. J Trop Med Hyg 1987; 90(4): 197–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. CA238.
    Kark, J. D., Y. Friedlander, N. A. Kaufmann, and Y. Stein. Coffee, tea, and plasma cholesterol: the Jerusalem lipid research clinic prevalence study. Br Med J 1985; 291(6497): 699–701.Google Scholar
  239. CA239.
    Aeschbacher, H. U., E. Ruch, H. Meier, H. P. Wurzner, and R. Munoz-Box. Instant and brewed coffees in the in vitro human lymphocyte mutagenicity test. Food Cosmet Toxicol 1985; 23(8): 747–752.Google Scholar
  240. CA240.
    Abraham, S. K. Inhibition of the in vivo genotoxicity by coffee. Food Chem Toxicol 1989; 27(12): 787–792.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. CA241.
    Melamed, I., J. D. Kark, and Z. Spirer. Coffee and the immune system. Int J Immunopharmacol 1990; 12(1): 129–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. CA242.
    Christianson, R. E., F. W. Oechsli, and B. J. Van Dert Berg. Caffeinated beverages and decreased fertility. Lancet 1989; 1989(8634): 378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. CA243.
    Roig Y Mesa, J. T. Plantas medicinales, aromaticas o venenosas de Cuba, Ministerion de Agricultura, Republica de Cuba, Havana. 1945; 872 pp.Google Scholar
  244. CA244.
    Coleman, D. E. S. The effect of certain homeopathic remedies upon the hearing. J Am Inst Homeopathy 1922; 15: 279–281.Google Scholar
  245. CA245.
    Wasuwat, S. A list of Thai medicinal plants, ASRCT, Bangkok. Report no. 1 on Res. Project 17. Research Report, A. S. R. C.T., No. 1 on Research Project 17, 1967; 22 pp.Google Scholar
  246. CA246.
    Nishina, A., F. Kajishima, M. Matsunaga, H. Tezuka, H. Inatomi, and T. Osawa. Antimicrobial substance, 3′,4′-dihydroxyacetophenone, in coffee residue. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1994; 58(2): 293–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. CA247.
    Wei, M., C. A. Macera, C. A. Horning, and S. N. Blair. The impact of changes in coffee consumption on serum cholesterol. J Clin Epidemiol 1995; 48(10): 1189–1196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. CA248.
    De G Paula, R. D. Investigation of coffee oil. Anail Assoc Brasil Quim 1943; 2: 57.Google Scholar
  249. CA249.
    Tohda, C., N. Nakamura, K. Komatsu, and M. Hattori. Trigonelline-induced neurite outgrowth in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. Biol Pharm Bull 1999; 22(7): 679–682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. CA250.
    Fontana, G., G. Mantia, P. Vetri, F. Venturella, V. Hopps, and G. Cascio. Effects on the carbohydrate metabolism of “coffee atractylosides”. Fitoterapia 1994; 65(1): 29–33.Google Scholar
  251. CA251.
    Booth, S.L., H.T. Madabushi, K.W. Davidson, and J.A. Sadowski. Tea and coffee brews are not dietary sources of vitamin K-1 (phylloquinone). JAMA 1995; 95(1): 82–83.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2005

Personalised recommendations