Plantago ovata is a stemless, soft, hairy annual herb of the PLANTAGINACEAE family that grows to a height of 30–45 cm. The leaves are 7.5–23 cm long, 0.5–1 cm broad, narrowly linear, linear lanceolate or filiform, opposite, finely acuminate entire or distantly toothed, attenuated at the base and usually three-nerved. The root system has a well-developed taproot with few fibrous secondary roots. A number of flowering shoots arise from the base of the plant. The flower spikes turn reddish brown at ripening, the lower leaves dry, and the upper leaves yellow. Plants flower approx 60 days after planting. Flowers are numerous, small, and white, in ovoid or cylindrical spikes 1.3–3.8 cm long, bracts 4 mm long and broad. The corolla gives attachment to four protruded stamina, ovary free with one or two cells, containing one or more ovules.
- Bile Acid
- Dietary Fiber
- Glycemic Index
- Arabic Country
- Fecal Bile Acid
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Siddiqui, H. H., K. K. Kapur, and C. K. Atal. Indian seeds oils. Effect of Plantago ovata embryo oil on serum cholesterol levels in rabbits. Indian J Pharmacy 1964; 26: 266.
Wattiez, N., and M. Hans. A holoside extracted from the seeds of Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forsk (P. isphagulata Roxb.). Bull Acad Roy Med Belg 1943; 8: 386–396.
Khorana, M. L., V. G. Prabbu, and M. R. R. Rao. Pharmacology of an alcoholic extract of Plantago ovata. Indian J Pharmacy 1958; 29: 3–6.
Gelpi, E., H. Schneider, V. M. Doctor, J. Tennison, and J. Oro. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric identifications of the hydrocarbons and fatty acids of Plantago ovata seeds. Phytochemistry 1969; 8(10): 2077–2081.
Zagari, A. Medicinal plants. Vol. 4, 5th ed, Tehran University Publications, No 1810/4, Tehran, Iran, 1992; 4: 969.
Sander, E. H. Psylium-hydrocolloid gum compositions and fiber supplements. Paten-Can Pat Appl-2,100,295 1994; 17 p.
Gelissen, C., B. Brodie, and M. A. Eastwood. Effect of Plantago ovata (psyllium) husk and seeds on sterol metabolism: studies in normal and ileostomy subjects, Amer J Clin Nutr 1994; 59(2): 395–400.
Nordgaard, I., H. Hove, M. R. Clausen, and P. B. Mortensen. Colonic production of butyrate in patients with previous colonic cancer during long-term treatment with dietary fiber (Plantago ovata seeds). Scand J Gastroenterol 1996; 31(10): 1011–1020.
Kritschevsky, D., S. A. Tepper, and D. M. Klurfeld. Influence of psyllium preparations on plasma and liver lipids of cholesterol-fed plants. Artery 1995; 21(6): 303–311.
Davidson, M. H., L. D. Dugan, J. H. Burns, D. Sugimoto, K. Story, and K. Drennan. A psyllium-enriched cereal for treatment of hypercholesterolemia in children: a controlled, double blind, crossover study. Amer J Clin Nutr 1996; 63(1): 96–102.
Olson, B. H., S. M. Anderson, M. P. Becker, et al. Psyllium-enriched cereals lower blood total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but not HDL cholesterol, in hypercholesterolemic adults: results of a meta-analysis. J Nutr 1997; 127(10): 1973–1980.
Odes, H. S., and Z. Madar. A double-blind trial of a celandine, Aloe vera and psyllium laxative preparation in adult patients with constipation. Digestion 1991; 49(2): 65–71.
Cohen, L. A., Z. Zhao, E. A. Zhang, T. T. Wynn, B. Simi, and A. Rivenson. Wheat bran and psyllium diets: effects on N-methylnitrosourea-induced mammary tumorigenesis in F344 rats. J Nat Cancer Inst 1996; 88(13): 898–907.
Davidson, M. H., K. C. Maki, J. C. Kong, et al. Long-term effects of consuming food containing psyllium seed husk on serum lipids in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Amer J Clin Nutr 1998; 67(3): 367–376.
Segawa, K., T. Kataoka, and Y. Fukuo. Cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium seed associated with urea metabolism. Biol Pharm Bull 1998; 21(2): 184–187.
Riguad, D., F. Paycha, A. Muelemans, M. Merrouche, and M. Mignon. Effect of psyllium on gastric emptying, hunger feeling, and food intake in normal volunteers: a double-blind study. European J Clin Nutr 1998; 52(4): 239–245.
Arlian, L. G., D. L. Vyszenski-Noher, A. T. Lawrence, K. R. Schrotel, and H. L. Ritz. Antigenic and allergenic analysis of psyllium seed components. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992; 89(4): 866–876.
Anderson J. W., S. Riddell-Mason, N. J. Gustafson, S. F. Smith, and M. Mackey. Cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium-enriched cereal as an adjunct to a prudent diet in the treatment of mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Amer J Clin Nutr 1992; 56(1): 93–98.
Day, C. E. Activity of psyllium hydrophilic colloid for reducing serum cholesterol in sea quail fed diet supplemented with cholesterol. Artery 1991; 18(3): 163–167.
McCall, M. R., T. Mehta, C. W. Leathers, and D. M. Foster. Psyllium husk II. Effect on the metabolism of apoliprotein B in African green monkeys. Amer J Clin Nutr 1992; 56(2): 385–393.
James, J. M., S. K. Cooke, A. Barnett, and H. A. Sampson. Anaphylactic reactions to a psyllium-containing cereal. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1991; 88(3): 402–408.
Everson, G. T., B. P. Daggy, C. Mc Kinley, and J. A. Story. Effect of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid on LDL-cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in hypercholesterolemic men. J Lipid Res 1992; 33(8): 1183–1192.
Tomlin, J., and N. W. Read. A comparative study of the effects on colon function caused by feeding ispaghula husk and polydextrose. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1988; 2(6): 513–519.
Bergmann, J. F., O. Chassany, A. Petit, R. Triki, C. Caulin, and J. M. Segrestaa. Correlation between echographic gastric emptying and appetite: Influence of psyllium. Gut 1992; 33(8): 1042–1043.
McCall, M. R., T. Mehta, C. W. Leathers, and D. M. Foster. Psyllium husk I. Effect on plasma lipoprotein, cholesterol metabolism, and artherosclerosis in African green monkeys. Amer J Clin Nutr 1992; 56(2): 376–384.
Smith, M. A., and A. A. Aso. Comparison of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid and bile salt binding resin therapy for hypercholesterolemia. Abstr Endocrine Society 144th Annual Meeting June 1992; 62.
Hopewell, R., R. Yeater, and I. Ullrich. Soluble fiber: Effect on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Progress Food Nutr Sci 1993; 17(2): 159–182.
Eherer, A. J., A. Santa, A. Carol, J. Porter, and J. S. Fordtran. Effect of psyllium, calcium polycarbophil, and wheat bran on secretory diarrhea induced by phenolphthalein. Gastroenterology 1993; 104(4): 1007–1012.
Colliopoulos, J. Psyllium-based laxative compositions. Patent-US-5,232, 699 1993; 6 p.
Gupta, S., J. N. S. Yadava, and J. S. Tandon. Antisecretory (antidiarrheal) activity of Indian medicinal plants against Escherichia coli enterotoxin-induced secretion in rabbit and Guinea pig ileal loop models. Int J Pharmacog 1993; 31(3): 198–204.
Passmore, A. P., K. Wilson-Davies, C. Stoker, and M. E. Scott. Chronic constipation in long stay elderly patients: a comparison of lactulose and a senna-fiber combination. Brit Med J 1993; 307(6907): 769–771.
Wolever, T., D. Jenkins, S. Mueller, et al. Method of administration influences the serum cholesterol lowering effect of psyllium. Amer J Clin Nutr 1994; 59(5): 1055–1059.
Turley, S.D., B. P. Daggy, and J. M. Dietschy. Psyllium augments the cholesterol-lowering action of cholestyramine in hamsters by enhancing sterol loss from the liver. Gastroenterology 1994; 107(2): 444–452.
Naylor, J. M. and T. Lieber. Effect of psyllium on plasma concentration of glucose, breath hydrogen concentration, and fecal composition in calves with diarrhea treated orally with electrolyte solutions. Amer J Vet Res 1995; 56(1): 56–59.
Ganji, V. and C. V. Kies. Psyllium husk fiber supplementation to soybean and coconut oil diets of humans: effect on rat digestibility and fecal fatty acid excretion. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994; 48(8): 595–597.
Matheson, H. B. and J. A. Story. Dietary psylium hydrocolloid and pectin increase bile acid pool size and change bile acid composition in rats. J Nutr 1994; 124(8): 1161–1165.
Freeman, G. L. Psyllium hypersensitivity. Ann Allergy 1994; 73(6): 490–492.
Turley, S. D., and J. M. Dietschy. Mechanisms of LDL-cholesterol lowering action of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid in the hamster. Biochim Biophys Acta 1995; 1255(2): 177–184.
Gupta, B. R., C. G. Agrawal, G. P. Singh, and A. Ghatak. Lipid-lowering efficacy of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid in non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with hyperlipidaemia. Indian J Med Res 1994; 100(5): 237–241.
Chan, E. K., and D J. Schroeder. Psyllium in hypercholesterolemia. Ann Pharmacother 1995; 29(6): 625–627.
Ewe, K., B. Uberschaer, and A. G. Press. Influence of senna, fiber, and fiber+senna on colonic transit in lopermaide-induced constipation. Pharmacology 1993; 47(1): 242–248.
Williams, C. L., M. Bollella, A. Spark, and D. Puder. Soluble fiber enhances the hypercholesterolemic effect of the step I diet in childhood. J Amer Coll Nutr 1995; 14(3): 251–257.
Turnbull, W. H., and H. G. Thomas. The effect of a Plantago ovata seed containing preparation of appetite variables, nutrient, and energy intake. Int J Obesity 1995; 19(5): 338–342.
Etman, M. A. Effect of a bulk forming laxative on the bioavailability of carbamazepine in man. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1995; 21(16): 1901–190.
Martinez-Lirola, M. J., M. R. Gonzalez-Tejero, and J. Molero-Mesa. Ethnobotanical resources in the province of Almeria, Spain: Campos de Nijar. Econ Bot 1996; 50(1): 40–56.
Arjmandi, B. H., E. Sohn, S. Juma, S. R. Murthy, and B. P. Daggy. Native and partially hydrolyzed psyllium has comparable effects on cholesterol metabolism in rats. J Nutr 1997; 127(3): 463–469.
Jenkins, D., T. Wolever, E. Vidgen, et al. Effect of psyllium in hypercholesterolemia at two monounsaturated fatty acid intakes. Amer J Clin Nutr 1997; 65(5): 1524–1533.
Prior, A., and P. J. Whorwell. Double blind study of Ispaghula in irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 1987; 28: 1510–1513.
Jamal, S., I. Ahmad, R. Agarwal, M. Ahamad, and S. M. Osman. A novel oxo fatty acid in Plantago ovata seed oil. Phytochemistry 1987; 26(11): 3067–3069.
Miettinen, T. A., and S. Tarpila. Serum lipids and cholesterol metabolism during guar gum, Plantago ovata and high fiber treatments. Clinica Chim Acta 1989; 183: 253–262.
Watters, K., and P. Blaisdell. Reduction of glycemic and lipid levels in DB/DB diabetic mice by psyllium plant fiber. Diabetes 1989; 38(12): 1528–1533.
Shah, G. L. and G. V. Gopal. Ethno-medical notes from the tribal inhabitants of the north Gujarat (India). J Econ Taxon Botany 1985; 6(1): 193–201.
Enzi, G., E. M. Inelmen, and G. Crepaldi. Effect of a hydrophilic mucilage in the treatment of obese patients. Pharmacotherapeutica 1980; 2(7): 421–428.
Lantner, R. R., B. R. Espiritu, P. Zumerchik, and M. C. Tobin. Anaphylaxis following ingestion of a psyllium-containing cereal. JAMA 1990; 264(19): 2534–2536.
Pastors, J. G., P. W. Blaisdell, T. K. Balm, C. M. Asplin, and S. L. Pohl. Psyllium fiber reduces rise in postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Amer J Clin Nutr 1991; 53(6): 1431–1435.
Wolever, T. M. S., V. Vuksan, H. Eshuis, et al. Effect of method of administration of psyllium on glycemic response and carbohydrate digestibility. J Amer Coll Nutr 1991; 10(4): 364–371.
Naovi, S. A. H., M. S. Y. Khan, and S. B. Vohora. Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anthelmintic investigations on Indian medicinal plants. Fitoterapia 1991; 62(3): 221–228.
Ricci, P. D., and R. Angeli. Plantago ovata and defecation disorders in the aged. Effects of the administration of powdered Plantago ovata on defecation disorders in the aged. Clin Ter 1978; 86: 434–439.
Khanna, N. M., J. P. S. Sarin, R. C. Nandi, et al. Isaptent—a new cervical dilator. Contraception 1980; 21: 29–40.
Sandhu, J. S., G. J. Hudson, and J. F. Kennedy. The gel nature and structure of the carbohydrate of Ispaghula husk. Carbohydr Res 1981; 93: 247–259.
Jewvachdamrongkul, Y., T. Dechatiwongtse, D. Pecharaply, J. Bansiddhi, and P. Kanchanapee. Identification of some Thai medicinal plants. Mahidol Univ J Pharm Sci 1982; 9(3): 65–73.
Patel, R. B., C. G. Rana, M. R. Patel, H. K. Dhyani, and H. V. Chauhan. Chromatographic screening of proteins of seeds of Plantago ovata Forsk. Indian Drugs Pharm Ind 1981; 16: 3–5.
Roy, P. Mid trimester abortion by slow dilatation with Isapgol tents (Dilexc). Patna J Med 1982; 56(5): 95–97.
Vijayalakshimi, K., S. D. Mishra, and S. K. Prasad. Nematocidal properties of some indigenous plant materials against second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (koffoid and white) chitwood. Indian J Entomol 1979; 41(4): 326–331.
Al-Shamma, A., and L. A. Mitscher. Comprehensive survey of indigenous Iraqi plants for potential economic value. I. Screening results of 327 species for alkaloids and antimicrobial agents. J Nat Prod 1979; 42: 633–642.
Shukla, P. C., M. C. Desai, L. P. Purohit, and H. B. Desai. Use of Isabgul (Plantago ovata Forsk.) gola in the concentrate mixture of milk cows. Gujarat Agr Univ Res 1983; 9(1): 33–36.
Toth, B. Effect of Metamucil on tumor formation by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride in mice. Food Chem Toxicol 1984; 22(7): 573–578.
Dooley, D. P., M. Rhodes, and D. Drehner. Psyllium worm. Amer J Gastroenterol 1993; 88(1): 153–154.
Alabaster, O., Z. C. Tang, A. Frost, and N. Shivapurkar. Potential synergism between wheat bran and psyllium: enhanced inhibition of colon cancer. Cancer Lett 1993; 75(1): 53–58.
Atal, C. K., K. K. Kapoor, and H. H. Siddiqui. Studies on Indian seed oils. Part I. Preliminary screening of linoleic acid rich oils. Indian J Pharmacy 1964; 26; 163–164.
Siddiqui, H. H., K. K. Kapoor, and C. K. Atal. Studies on Indian seed oils. Part II. Effect of Plantago ovata embryo oil on raised serum cholesterol levels in rabbits. Indian J Pharmacy 1964; 26: 1663–1664.
Wasicky, B. Investigations of the seeds of Plantago ovata, P. psyllium, and P. major variety cruenta as laxatives. Planta Med 1961; 9: 232–244.
Balbaa, S. I., M. S. Karawaya, and M. S. Afifi. Pharmacognostical study of the seeds of certain Plantago species growing in Egypt. UAR J Pharm Sci 1971; 12(1): 35–52.
Salguero Molpeceres O., M. C. Seijas Ruiz-Coello, J. Hernandez-Nunez, D. Caballos Villar, L. Diaz Picazo, and L. Ayerbe Garcia-Monzon. Esophageal obstruction caused by dietary fiber from Plantago ovata, a complication preventable by adequate information. Gastroenterologia y Hepatologia 2003; 26(4): 248–250.
Rodriguez-Cabezaz, M. E., J. Galvez, M. D. Lorente, et al. Dietary fiber down-regulates colonic tumor necrosis factor alpha and nitric oxide production in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid—induced colitis rats. J Nutr 2002; 132(11): 3263–3271.
Romero, A. L., K. L. West, T. Zern, and M. L. Fernandez. The seeds from Plantago ovata lower plasma lipids by altering hepatic ad bile acid metabolism in guinea pigs. J Nutr 2002; 132(6): 1194–1198.
Chiang, L. C., W. Chiang, M. Y. Chiang, L. T. Ng, and C. C. Lin. Anti-leukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Amer J Chin Med 2003; 31(1): 37–46.
Rezaeipoor, R., S. Saednia, and M. Kamalinejad. The effect of Plantago ovata on humoral immune responses in experimental animals. J Ethnopharmacol 2000; 72(1–2): 283–286.
Rodriguez-Moran, M., F. Guerrero-Romero, and G. Lazcano-Burciaga. Lipid-and glucose-lowering efficacy of Plantago psyllium in type II diabetes. J Diabet Complic 1998; 12(5): 273–278.
Frati-Munari, A. C., W. Benitez Pinto, C. Raul Ariza Andraca, and M. Casarrubias. Lowering glycemic index of food by acarbose and Plantago psyllium mucilage. Arch Med Res 1998; 29(2): 137–141.
Moran, S., M. Uribe, M. E. Prado, et al. Effects of fiber administration in the prevention of gallstones in obese patients on a reducing diet. A clinical trial. Revista de Gastroenterologia de Mexico 1997; 62(4): 266–272.
Perez-Miranda, M., A. Gomez-Cedenilla, T. Leon-Colombo, J. Pajares, and J. Mate-Jimenez. Effect of fiber supplements on internal bleeding hemorrhoids. Hepato-Gastroener 1996; 43(12): 1504–1507.
Nordgaard, I., H. Howe, M. R. Clausen, and P. B. Mortensen. Colonic production of butyrate in patients with previous colonic cancer during long-term treatment with dietary fiber. Scand J Gastroenter 1996; 31(10): 1011–1020.
Frati-Munai, A. C., M. A. Flores-Garduno, R. Ariza-Andraca, S. Islas-Andrade, and A. Chavez-Negrete. Effect of different doses of Plantago psyllium mucilage on the glucose tolerance test. Archivos de Investigacion Medica 1989; 20(2): 147–152.
Westerhof, W., P. K. Das, E. Middlelkoop, J. Verschoor, L. Storey, and C. Regnier. Mucopolysaccharides from psyllium involved in wound healing. Drugs Under Exp Clin Res 2001; 27(5–6): 165–175.
Aleman, A. M., S. Quirce, C. Bombin, and J. Sastre. Asthma related to inhalation of Plantago ovata. Med Clin 2001; 116(1): 20–22.
Fernandez-Banares, F., J. Hinojosa, J. L. Sanchez-Lombrana, et al. Randomized clinical trial of Plantago ovata seeds (dietary fiber) as compared with mesalamine in maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis. Spanish Group for the Study of Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis (GETECCU). Amer J Gastroenterol 1999; 94(2): 427–433.
Fernanzed, N., M. J. Diez, M. T. Teran, J. J. Garcia, A. P. Calle, and M. Sierra. Influence of two commercial fibers in the pharmacokinetics of ethinyl-estradiol in rabbits. J Pharmacol Exp Therap 1998; 286; 870–874.
Voderholzer, W.A., W. Schatke, B. E. Muhldorfer, A. G. Klauser, B. Birkner, and S. A. Muller-Lissner. Clinical response to dietary fiber treatment of chronic constipation. Amer J Gastroenterol 1997; 92(1): 95–98.
Gelissen, I. C., and M. A. Eastwood. Taurocholic acid adsorption during non-starch polysaccharide fermentation: an in vitro study. Brit J Nutr 1995; 74(2): 221–228.
Turnbull, W. H., and H. G. Thomas. The effect of a Plantago ovata seed containing preparation on appetite variables, nutrient and energy intake. Int J Obesity Rel Metab Disord 1995; 19(5): 338–342.
Marteau, P., B. Flourie, C. Cherbut, et al. Digestibility and bulking effect of ispaghula husk in healthy humans. Gut 1994; 35(12): 1747–1752.
Freeman, G. L. Psyllium hypersensitivity. Ann Allergy 1994; 73(6): 490–492.
Gelissen, I. C., B. Brodie, and M. A. Eastwood. Effect of Plantago ovata (psyllium) husk and seeds on sterol metabolism: studies in normal and ileostomy subjects. Amer J Clin Nutr 1994; 59(2): 395–400.
Edwards, C. A., J. Bowen, W. G. Brydon, and M. A. Eastwood. The effect of ispaghula on rat caecal fermentation and stool output. Brit J Nutr 1992; 68(2): 473–482.
Tomas-Ridicci, M., R. Anon, M. Minguez, A. Zaragoza, J. Ballester, and A. Benages. The efficacy of Plantago ovata as a regulator of intestinal transit. A double-blind study compared to placebo. Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas 1992; 82(1): 17–22.
Leng-Peschlow, E. Plantago ovata seeds as dietary fiber supplement: physiological and metabolic effects in rats. Br J Nutr 1991; 66(2): 331–349.
Leng-Peschlow, E. Interference of dietary fibers with gastrointestinal enzymes in vitro. Digestion 1989; 44(4): 200–210.
Miettinen, T. A. and S. Tarpila. Serum lipids and cholesterol metabolism during guar gum, Plantago ovata and high fiber treatments. Clin Chim Acta 1989; 183; 253–262.
Faber, P., and A. Strenge-Hesse. Relevance of rhein excretion into breast milk. Pharmacology 1988; 1(Suppl 36): 212–220.
Suhonen, R., I. Kantola, and F. Bjorksten. Anaphylactic shock due to ingestion of psyllium laxative. Allergy 1983; 38(5): 363–365.
Harborne, J. B., and C. A. Williams. Comparative biochemistry of flavonoids. XIII. 6-Hydroxyluteolin and scutellarein as phyletic markers in higher plants. Phytochemistry 1971; 10: 367–378.
Machado, L., O. Zetterstrom, and E. Fagerberg. Occupational allergy in nurses to a bulk laxative. Allergy 1979; 34(1): 51–55.
Lerman Garber, I., M. Lagunas, J. C. Sierra Perez, et al. The effect of psyllium plantago in slightly to moderately hypercholesterolemic patients. Archives del Instituto de Cardiologia de Mexico 1990; 606): 535–539.
Uribe, M., M. Dibildox, S. Malpica, et al. Beneficial effect of vegetable protein diet supplemented with psyllium plantago in patients with hepatic encephalopathy and diabetes mellitus. Gastroenterology 1985; 88(4): 901–907.
© 2005 Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
(2005). Plantago ovata. In: Medicinal Plants of the World, Volume 3. Humana Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59259-887-8_12
Publisher Name: Humana Press
Print ISBN: 978-1-58829-129-5
Online ISBN: 978-1-59259-887-8