Camellia sinensis is an evergreen tree or shrub of the THEACEAE family that grows to 10–15 m high in the wild, and 0.6–1.5 m under cultivation. The leaves are short-stalked, light green, coriaceous, alternate, elliptic-obovate or lanceolate, with serrate margin, glabrous, or sometimes pubescent beneath, varying in length from 5 to 30 cm, and about 4 cm wide. Young leaves are pubescent. Mature leaves are bright green in color, leathery, and smooth. Flowers are white, fragrant, 2.5–4 cm in diameter, solitary or in clusters of two to four. They have numerous stamens with yellow anthers and produces brownish-red, one- to four-lobed capsules. Each lobe contains one to three spherical or flattened brown seeds. There are numerous varieties and races of tea. There are three main groups of the cultivated forms: China, Assam, and hybrid tea, differing in form.


Camellia Sinensis Oral Submucous Fibrosis Linalool Oxide Purine Alkaloid Acidulate Phosphate Fluoride 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. CS001.
    Vincent, D., G. Segonzae and R. Issandou-Carles. Action of purine alkaloids and caffeine-containing drugs on hyaluronidase. C R Seances Soc Biol Ses Fil 1954; 148: 1075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. CS002.
    Renold, W., R. Naf-Muller, U. Keller, B. Willhalm and G. Ohloff. An investigation of the tea aroma. Part I. New volatile black tea constituents. Helv Chim Acta 1974; 57: 1301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. CS003.
    Kaiser, H. E. Cancer-promoting effect of phenols in tea. Cancer (Philadelphia) 1967; 20: 361.Google Scholar
  4. CS004.
    Koshioka, M., S. Yamaguchi, T. Nishima, H. Yamazaaki, D. O. Ferraren and L. N. Mander. Endogenous gibberellins in the developing liquid endosperm of tea. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1993; 57(9): 1586–1588.Google Scholar
  5. CS005.
    Hashimoto, F., G. I. Nonaka and I. Nishioka. Tannins and related compounds. LVI. Isolation of four new acylated flavan-3-ols from oolong tea. Chem Pharm Bull 1987; 35(2): 611–616.Google Scholar
  6. CS006.
    Hashimoto, F., G. I. Nonaka and I. Nishioka. Tannins and related compounds. LXIX. Isolation and structure elucidation of B,B′-linked bisflavanoids, theasinensis D-G and oolong-theanin from oolong tea. Chem Pharm Bull 1988; 36(5): 1676–1684.Google Scholar
  7. CS007.
    Hashimoto, F., G. Nonaka and I. Nishioka. Tannins and related compounds. LXXVII. Novel chalcan—flavan dimmers, assamicains A, B and C, and a new flavan-3-ol and pro-anthocyanidins from the fresh leaves of Camellia sinensis L. var. assamica Kitamura. Chem Pharm Bull 1989; 37(1): 77–85.Google Scholar
  8. CS008.
    Hashimoto, F., G. I. NAnaka and I. Nishioka. Tannins and related compounds. XC. 8-C-ascorbyl (−)-epogalocatechin 3-O-gallate and novel dimeric flavan-3-ols, oolonghomo-bisflavans A and B, from oolong tea. (3). Chem Pharm Bull 1989; 37(12): 3255–3263.Google Scholar
  9. CS009.
    Finger, A., U. H. Engelhadt and V. Wray. Flavonol triglycosides containing galactose in tea. Phytochemistry 1991; 30(6): 2057–2060.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. CS010.
    Hashimoto, F., G. I. Nonaka and I. Nishioka. Tannins and related compounds. CXIV. Structure of novel fermentation products, theogallinin, theaflavonin and desgalloyl theaflavonin from black tea and changes of tea leaf polyphenols during fermentation. Chem Pharm Bull 1992; 40(6): 1383–1389.Google Scholar
  11. CS011.
    Sekine, T., Y. Arai, F. Ikegami, Y. Fujii, S. Shindo, T. Yanagisawa, Y. Ishida, S. Okonogi and I. Murakoshi. Isolation of camelliaside C from “tea seed cake” and inhibitory effects of its derivatives on arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase. Chem Pharm Bull 1993; 41(6): 1185–1187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. CS012.
    Fang, J. N., Z. H. Zhang, G. Q. Song and B. N. Liu. Structural features of a polysaccharide from the leaves of Thea sinensis. Chin J Chem 1991; 9(6): 547–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. CS013.
    Sagesak, Y. M., T. Uemura, N. Watanabe, K. Sakata and J. Uzawa. A new glucuronide saponin from tea leaves (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis). Biosci Biotech Biochem 1994; 58(11): 2036–2040.Google Scholar
  14. CS014.
    Banerjee, J. and S. N. Ganguly. A new furocoumarin from the leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze. Nat Prod Sci 1997; 3(1): 11–13.Google Scholar
  15. CS015.
    Roy, M. and S. N. Ganguly. Isolation and characterization of indole-3-methylethanoate from Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntz and its biological activity. Nat Prod Sci 1997; 3(2): 106–107.Google Scholar
  16. CS016.
    Davis, A. L., J. R. Lewis, Y. Cai, C. Powell, A. P. Davis, J. P. G. Wilkins, P. Pudney and M. N. Clifford. A polyphenolic pigment from black tea. Phytochemistry 1997; 46(8): 1397–1402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. CS017.
    Kitagawa, I., K. Hori, T. Motozawa, T. Murakami and M. Yoshikawa. Structures of new acylated oleanene-type triterpene oligoglycosides, teasaponins E-I and E-2, from the seeds of tea plant, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze. Chem Pharm Bull 1998; 46(12): 1901–1906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. CS018.
    Moon, J. H., N. Watanabe, Y. Ijima, A. Yagi and K. Sakata. Cis-and trans-linalool 3,7-oxides and methyl salicylate glycosides and (Z)-3-hexenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside as aroma precursors from tea leaves of oolong tea. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1996; 60(11): 1815–1819.Google Scholar
  19. CS019.
    Lewis, J. R., A. L. Davis, Y. Cai, A. P. Davies, J. P. G. Wilkins and M. Pennington. Theaflavate B, isothea-flavin-3′-O-gallate and neotheaflavin-3-O-gallate: three polyphenolic pigments from black tea. Phytochemistry 1998; 49(8): 2511–2519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. CS020.
    Wei, J. X., Q. Y. Zuo and Y. Zhu. Studies on the chemical constituents of seeds of Camellia sinensis var. assamica. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi 1997; 22(4): 228–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. CS021.
    Murakami, T., J. Nakamura, H. Matsuda and M. Yoshikawa. Bioactive saponins and glycosides. XV. Saponin constituents with gastroprotective effect from the seeds of tea plant, Camellia sinensis L. var. assamica Pierre, cultivated in Sri Lanka: structures of assamsaponins A, B, C, D and E. Chem Pharm Bull 1999; 47(12): 1759–1764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. CS022.
    Lu, Y., T. Umeda, A. Yagi, K. Sakata, T. Chaudhuri, D. K. Ganguly and S. Sarma. Triterpenoid saponins from the roots of tea plant (Camellia sinensis var. assamica). Phytochemistry 2000; 53(8): 941–946.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. CS023.
    Tanaka, T., Y. Betsumiya, C. Mine and I. Kouno. Theanaphthoquinone, a novel pigment oxidatively derived from theaflavin during tea-fermentation. Chem Commun 2000; 2000(15): 1365–1366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. CS024.
    Zarnadze, D. N., L. G. Lominadze and G. I. Kharebava. Rapid method for determination of tannin. Subtrop Kult 1974; 1974(4): 21–24.Google Scholar
  25. CS025.
    Saijo, R. and T. Takeo. Increase of cis-3-hexen-1-ol content in tea leaves following mechanical injury. Phytochemistry 1975; 14: 181–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. CS026.
    Mikaberidze, K. G. and I. I. Moniava. Flavonoids of tea leaves. Chem Nat Comp 197; 10(4):527.Google Scholar
  27. CS027.
    Vitzthum, O. G., P. Werkhoff and P. Hubert. New volatile constituents of black tea aroma. J Agr Food Chem 1975; 23(5): 999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. CS028.
    Lancaster, L. A. and B. Rajadurai. An automated procedure for the determination of aluminum in soil and plant digest. J Sci Food Agr 1974;25: 381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. CS029.
    Suzuki, T. and E. Takahashi. Biosynthesis of caffeine b tea leaf extracts. Enzymic formation of theobromine from 7-mehylxanthine and of caffeine from theobromine. Biochem J 1975; 146:87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. CS030.
    Fuit, Y., S. Fujita and H. Yoshikawa. Comparative biochemical and chemical-taxonomical studies of the plants of Theaceae. I. Essential oils of Camelliasasanqua, C. japonica and Thea sinensis. Osaka Kogyo Gijutsu Shikensho Kiho 1974;25:198.Google Scholar
  31. CS031.
    Sekya, J., W. Kawasaki, T. Kajiwara and A. Hatanaka. NADP-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from tea seeds. Agr Biol Chem 1975; 39: 1677.Google Scholar
  32. CS032.
    Mikaberidze, K. G. and I. I. Moniawa. Umbelliferone from tea leaves. Chem Nat Comp 1974; 10(1):81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. CS033.
    Suzuki, T. and E. Takahashi. Metabolism of xanthine and hypoxnthine in the tea plant (Thea sinensis). Biochem J 1975; 146: 79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. CS034.
    Kajiwara, T., T. Harada and A. Hatanaka. Isolation of Z-3-hexenal in tea leaves, Thea sinensis, and synthesis thereof. Agr Biol Chem 1975; 39: 243.Google Scholar
  35. CS035.
    Yamahara, J., Y. Shintani, T. Konoshima, T. Sawada and H. Fujimura. Biological active principles of the crude drugs. II. Antiulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory actions of the crude drugs contained saponin. Yakugaku Zasshi 1975; 95: 1179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. CS036.
    Vitzhum, O. G., P. Werkhoff and P. Hubert. New volatile constituents of black tea aroma. J Agr Food Chem 1975; 23(5): 999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. CS037.
    Higuchi, K., T. Suzuki and H. Ashihara. Pipecolic acid from the developing fruits (pericarp and seeds) of Coffea arabica and Camellia sinensis. Colloq Sci Int Café(C. R.) 1995; 16: 389–395.Google Scholar
  38. CS038.
    Yoshida, Y., M. Kiso, H. Ngashima and T. Goto. Alterations in chemical constituents of tea shoot during its development. Chagyo Kenkyu Hokoku 1996; 83: 9–16.Google Scholar
  39. CS039.
    Chaudhuri, T., S. K. Das, J. R. Vedasiromoni and D. K. Ganguly. Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Camellia sinensis L. (O. Kuntze). J Indian Chem Soc 1997; 74(2): 166.Google Scholar
  40. CS040.
    Akagi, M., N. Fukuishi, T. Kan, Y. M. Sagesaka and R. Akagi. Anti-allergic effect of tea-saponin (TLS) from tea leaves (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis). Biol Pharm Bull 1997; 20(5): 565–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. CS041.
    Ooishi, K., J. Kato and K. Hayamizu. Topoisomerase inhibitors conaining tannins, especially pedunculagin, for treatment of cancer. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-06 72,885 1994; 7 pp.Google Scholar
  42. CS042.
    Sakanaka, S., S. Maaku, S. Shu and B. Kin. Isolation and characterization of anticancer polyphenols from tea. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-07 238,078 1995; 6 pp.Google Scholar
  43. CS043.
    Sha, J. Q. and D. Zheng. Fluorine content in fresh leaves of tea plant in Fijian province. Chaye Kexue 1994; 14(1): 37–42.Google Scholar
  44. CS044.
    Omata, A., K. Yomogida, S. Nakamura, T. Ota and Y. Izawa. Volatile compounds of Camelliaflowers. Engei Gakkai Zasshi 1989; 58(2): 429–434.Google Scholar
  45. CS045.
    Wang, D. X., M. Zhou and Y. A. Chen. Effect of tea polyphone and morin on oxidative modification of LDL (ox-LDL) in prevention of artherosclerosis. Tianjin Yiyao 1995; 23(6): 354–355.Google Scholar
  46. CS046.
    Yang, G. Y., Z. J. Liu, D. N. Seril, Lioa, W. Ding, S. B. Kim, F. Bondoc and C. S. Yang. Black tea constituents, theaflavins, inhibit 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice. Carcinogenesis 1997; 18(12): 2361–2365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. CS047.
    Davis, R. A., M. F. Stiles, J. D. de Bethizy and J. H. Reynolds. Dietary nicotine: a source of urinary cotinine. Food Chem Toxicol 1991; 29(12): 821–827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. CS048.
    Yen, G. C. and H. Y. Chen. Relationship between antimutagenic activity and major components of various teas. Mutagenesis 1996; 11(1): 37–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. CS049.
    Miyagawa, C., C. Wu, D. O. Kennedy, T. Nakatani, K. Ohtani, S. Sakanaka, M. Kim and I. Matsui-Yuasa. Protective effect of green tea extract and tea polyphenols against the cytotoxicity of 1,4-naphthoquinone in isolated rat hepatocytes. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1997; 61(11): 1901–1905.Google Scholar
  50. CS050.
    Shervington, A., L. A. Shervington, F. Afifi and M. A. El-Omari. Caffeine and theobromine formation by tissue cultures of Camellia sinensis. Phytochemistry 1998; 47(8): 1535–1536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. CS051.
    Apostolides. Z. and J. H. Weisburger. Catechins of Camellia sinensis for treatment of periodontosis. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-04 77,424 1992; 7 pp.Google Scholar
  52. CS052.
    Horie, H. and K. Kohata. Application of capillary electrophoresis to tea quality estimation. J Chromatogr A 1998; 802(1): 219–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. CS053.
    Ahn, Y. J., T. Kawamura, M. Kim, T. Yamamoto and T. Mitsuoka. Tea polyphenols: selective growth inhibitors of Clostridium ssp. Agr Biol Chem 1991; 55(5): 1425–1426.Google Scholar
  54. CS054.
    Sakanaka, S., Y. Ito, B. Kin and N. Yamazaki. Dental caries and periodontosis-treating agents containing catechins. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-01 90,124:6pp.Google Scholar
  55. CS055.
    Mori, M., N. Morita and K. Ikegaya. Polysaccharides from tea for manufacture of hypoglycemics, antidiabetics, and health foods. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-63,308,001 1988; 8 pp.Google Scholar
  56. CS056.
    Lin, J. K., C. L. Lin, Y. C. Liang, S. Y. Lin-Shiau and I. M. Juan. Survey of catechins, gallic acid, and methylax-anthines in green, oolong, pu-erh, and black teas. J Agr Food Chem 1998; 46(9): 3635–3642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. CS057.
    Sagesaka, Y. M., T. Uemura, Y. Suzuki, T. Sugiura, M. Yoshida, K. Yamaguchi and K. Kyuki. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions of tea-leaf saponin. Yakugaku Zasshi 1996; 116(3): 238–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. CS058.
    Price, K. R., M. J. C. Rhodes and K. A. Barnes. Flavonol glycoside content and composition of tea infusions made from commercially available teas and tea products. J Agr Food Chem 1998; 46(7): 2517–2522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. CS059.
    Guo, W. F., N. Sasaki, M. Fukuda, A. Yagi, N. Watanabe and K. Sakata. Isolation of an aroma precursor of bnzaldehyde from tea leaves (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis cv. Yabukita). Biosci Biotech Biochem 1998; 62(10): 2052–2054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. CS060.
    Koetskaya, T. F. and M. N. Zaprometov. Phenolic compounds in the tissue culture of Camellia sinensis and effect of light on their formation. Fiziol Rast(Moscow) 1975; 22: 941.Google Scholar
  61. CS061.
    Sokol’skii, I. N., A. I. Ban’kovskii and E. P. Zinkevich. The structure of glucotheasaponin. Chem Nat Comp 1975; 11(1): 119–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. CS062.
    Itoh, T., T. Tamura and T. Matsu-moto. Tirucalla-7,24-dienol: a new triterpene alcohol from tea seed oil. Lipids 1975; 11:434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. CS063.
    Imperato, F. D-fructose in flavonol and flavanone glycosides from Camellia sinensis. Phytochemistry 1976; 15: 439–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. CS064.
    Cattell, D. J. and H. E. Nursten. Fractionation and chemistry of ethyl acetate-soluble thearubigins from black tea. Phytochemistry 1976; 15: 1967–1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. CS065.
    Hatanaka, A., T. Kajiwara and J. Sekiya. Biosynthesis of trans-2-hex-enal in chloroplasts from Thea sinensis. Phytochemistry 1996; 15: 1125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. CS066.
    Matsura, T., T. Tsunoda and M. Arai. Theanine manufacture with tissue cultures of tea. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-03 187,388 1991; 7 pp.Google Scholar
  67. CS067.
    Takeo, C., H. Kinugass, H. Oosu, T. Kawasaki, N. Takakuwa, M. Shimizu and H. Kondo. Extraction of hyper-glycemics from tea. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-04 124,139 1992; 8 pp.Google Scholar
  68. CS068.
    Stalcup, A. M., K. H. Ekborg, M. P. Gasper and D. W. Armstron. Enantiomeric separation of chiral components reported to be in coffee, tea or cocoa. J Agr Food Chem 1993; 41(10):1684–1689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. CS069.
    Katiyar, S. K. and A. K. Bhatia. Epicatechin derivatives and fatty acid composition of a traditional product made in Sikkim from leaves of Camellia sinensis. J. Sci Food Agr 1992; 60(2): 271–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. CS070.
    Cho, Y. J., B. J. An and C. Choi. Isolation and enzyme inhibition of tannins from Korean green tea. Han’guk Saenghwa Hakhoe Chi 1993; 26(3): 216–223.Google Scholar
  71. CS071.
    Shiraki, M., Y. Hara, T. Osawa, H. Kumon, T. Nakayama and S. Kawakishi. Antioxidative and antimutagenic effects of theaflavins from black tea. Mutat Res 1994; 323(1/2): 29–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. CS072.
    Booth, S. L., H. T. Madabushi, K. W. Davidson and J. A. Sadowski. Tea and coffee brews are not dietary sources of vitamin K-1 (phylloquinone). J Amer Diet Ass 1995; 95(1): 82–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. CS073.
    Miyake, T. and T. Shibamoto. Quantitative analysis of acetylaldehyde in foods and beverages. J Agr Food Chem 1993; 41(11): 1968–1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. CS074.
    Wang, D. M., K. Ando, K. Morita, K. Kubota and A. Kobayashi. Optical isomers of linalool and linalool oxides in tea aroma. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1994; 58(1): 2050–2053.Google Scholar
  75. CS075.
    Narayan, M. S., B. Bhattacharya, N. Dhanaraj and R. Seshadri. Free and bound triacontanol in tea leaves. J Agr Food Chem 1988; 43(3): 229–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. CS076.
    Kobayashi, A., K. Kubota, Y. Joki, E. Wada and M. Wakabayashi. (Z)-3-hexenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside in fresh tea leaves as a precursor of green odor. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1994; 58(3): 592–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. CS077.
    Gong, Z. L., N. Watanabe, A. Yagi, H. Etoh, K. Sakata, K. Ina and Q. J. Liu. Compositional change of Pu-Erh tea during processing. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1993; 57(10): 1745–1746.Google Scholar
  78. CS078.
    Deisinger, P. J., T. S. Hills and J. C. English. Human exposure to naturally occurring hydroquinone. J Toxicol Environ Health 1996; 47(1): 31–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. CS079.
    Yokozawa, T., H. Oura, H. Nakagawa, S. Sakanaka and M. Kim. Effects of a component of green tea on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1995; 59(11): 2134–2136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. CS080.
    Wang, D. M., K. Kubota and A. Kobayashi. Optical isomers of methyl jasmonate in tea aroma. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1996; 60(3): 508–510.Google Scholar
  81. CS081.
    Kitagawa, I., S. Kobayashi, H. Sagesaka and T. Uemura. Extraction of saponins from tea leaves. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-07 61,998 1995; 9pp.Google Scholar
  82. CS082.
    Goto, T., Y. Yoshida, M. Kiso and H. Nagashima. Simultaneous analysis of individual catechins and caffeine in green tea. J Chromatogr A 1996; 749(1/2): 295–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. CS083.
    Lin, Y. L., I. M. Juan, Y. L. Chen, Y. C. Liang and J. K. Lin. Composition of polyphenols in fresh tea leaves and associations of their oxygen-radical-absorbing capacity with antiproliferative actions in fibroblast cells. J Agr Food Chem 1996; 44(6): 1387–1394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. CS084.
    Davis, A. L., Y. Cai, A. P. Davies and J. R. Lewie. 1H and 13C NMR assignments of some green tea polyphenols. Magn Reson Chem 1996; 34(11): 887–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. CS085.
    Shiragami, T., Y. Shobu, M. Morino and C. Yoshikumi. Polyphenols and extraction of the compounds from Camellia sinensis (l.) O. Kuntze for use as anticancer agent-resistance inhibitors. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-07 330,599 1995; 6 pp.Google Scholar
  86. CS086.
    Ding, M. Y., P. R. Chen and G. A. Luo. Simultaneous determination of organic acids and inorganic anions in tea by ion chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1997; 764(2): 341–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. CS087.
    Zaprometov, M. N., N. V. Zagoskina and T. F. Koretskaya. Effect of some precursors on the formation of phenolic compounds in tea plant tissue cultures. Fiziol Rast 1976; 23: 1274.Google Scholar
  88. CS088.
    Higashi-Okai, K., S. Otani and Y. Okai. Potent suppressive activity of pheophytin A and B from the non-polyphenolic fraction of green tea (Camellia sinensis) against tumor promotion in mouse skin. Cancer Lett 1998; 129(2): 223–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. CS089.
    Ikekawa, N., S. Takatsuto, T. Kitsuwa, H. Saito, T. Morishita and H. Abe. Analysis of natural brassinosteroids by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr 1984; 290(1): 289–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. CS090.
    Abe, H., T. Morishita, M. Uchiyama, S. Takatsuto and N. Ikekawa. A new brassinolide-related steroid in the leaves of Thea sinensis. Agr Biol Chem 1984; 1984(1): 2127–2172.Google Scholar
  91. CS091.
    Lin, Z. K., Y. F. Hua and Y. H. Gu. Analysis of the aroma of Sichuan oolong tea. You-ji Hua Hsueh 1984; 1984(1): 21–24.Google Scholar
  92. CS092.
    Nonaka, G. I., R. Sakai and I. Nishioka. Hydrolysable tannins and proantho-cyanidins from green tea. Phytochemistry 1984; 23(8): 1753–1755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. CS093.
    Skhiladze, N. R. and V. Y. Vachnadze. Isolation of caffeine and theophylline from ripe tea seeds. Chem Nat Comp 1984; 20(5): 641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. CS094.
    Chkhikvishivili, I. D., V. A. Kurkin and M. N. Zaprometov. Flavonoids of Camellia sinensis. Chem Nat Comp 1984; 20(5): 629–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. CS095.
    Itoh, O., T. Uetsuki, T. Tamura and A. Matsumoto. Characterization of triterpene alcohols of seed oils from some species of Theaaceae, Phytolaccaceae and Sapotaceae. Lipids 1980; 15(6): 407–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. CS096.
    Chkhikvishivili, I. D., V. A. Kurkin and M. N. Zaprometov. Flavonids of Camellia sinensis. II. Components of a methanolic extract. Khim Prir Soedin 1985; 21(1): 118–119.Google Scholar
  97. CS097.
    Tsushida, T. and T. Takeo. Occurrence of theanine in Camelliajaponica and Camellia sasanqua seedlings. Agr Biol Chem 1984; 48(11): 2861–2862.Google Scholar
  98. CS098.
    Karawya, M. S., S. M. A. Wahab, M. M. El-Olemy and N. M. Farrrag. Diphenylamine, an antiyperglycemic agent from onion and tea. J Nat Prod 1984; 47(5): 775–780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. CS099.
    Tsushida, T. and Y. Doi. Caffeine, theanine and catechin content in calluses of tea stem and anther. Nippon Nogei Kagaku Kaishi 1984; 58(11): 1131–1133.Google Scholar
  100. CS100.
    Barruah, S., M. Hhazarika, P. K. Mahanta, H. Horita and T. Mutai. Effect of plucking intervals on the chemical constituents of CTC black tea. Agr Biol Chem 1986; 50(4): 1039–1041.Google Scholar
  101. CS101.
    Anon. Extraction of tannins especially catechins. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-59 216,884 1984; 3 pp.Google Scholar
  102. CS102.
    Suzuki, T. and G. R. Waller. Purine alkaloids of the fruis of Camellia sinensis L. and of Coffea arabica L. during fruit development. Ann Bot (London) 1985; 56(4): 537–542.Google Scholar
  103. CS103.
    Chaboud, A., J. Rayaud, L. Debourcieu and J. Reynaud. The presence of apigenin-2“-O-glucosyl-6-C-glucosylapigenin or 2“-)-glucosylisovitexin in the leaves of Thea sinensis Sims. var. macrophylla. Pharmazie 1986; 41(10): 745–746.Google Scholar
  104. CS104.
    Sakata, K., S. Sakuraba, A. Yagi, K. Ina, T. Hara and T. Takeo. Isolation and identification of (−)-quinic acid as an unidentified major tea—component. Agr Biol Chem 1986; 50(7): 1919–1921.Google Scholar
  105. CS105.
    Afzal, M., N. al-Sweedan, L. A. Massih, K. Takahashi and S. Shibata. 2-amino-5-(N-ethylcarboxamido)-pentanoic acid from green tea leaves. Planta Med 1987; 53(1): 109–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. CS106.
    Sakata, K., H. Yamaguchi, A. Yagi and K. Ina. A new inositol glycoside, 2-O-beta-L-arabinopyranosyl-myo-inositol, as a major tea component. Agr Biol Chem 1987; 51(6): 1737–1739.Google Scholar
  107. CS107.
    Suzuki, T. Purine alkaloids in Camellia sinensis flowers. Agr Biol Chem 1985; 49(9): 2803–2805.Google Scholar
  108. CS108.
    Cheng, G. R., J. L. Jin and Y. X. Wen. The structures of two new flavonoid glycosides from bai-shui-cha, a kind of Camellia sinensis L. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1987; 22(3): 203–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. CS109.
    Lee, M. H. and C. T. Lin. Changes of flavor components of ti-kuan-yin tea during manufacturing. Chung-Kuo Nung Yeh Hua Hsueh Hui Chin 1985; 23(1/2): 127–132.Google Scholar
  110. CS110.
    Abe, H., T. Morishita, M. Uchiyama, S. Takatsuto, N. Ikekawa, M. Ikeda, T. Sassa, T. Kitsuwa and S. Marumo. Occurrence of three new brassinosteroids: brassinone, (24S)-24-etylbrassi-none ad 28-norbrassinolide, in higher plants. Experientia 1983; 39(4): 351–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. CS111.
    Shimizu, M., S. Wada, T. Hayashi, M. Arisawa, K. Ikegaya, S. Ogakum, S. Yano and N. Morita. Studies on hypoglycemic constituents of Japanese tea. Yakugaku Zasshi 1988; 108(10): 964–970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. CS112.
    Taniguchi, S., Y. Miyashita, T. Ueyama, K. Haji, Y. Hirase, T. Takemoto and S. Arihara. Isolation of (−)-gallocatechin gallate from tea and pharmaceutical compositions containing it. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-63 30,418 1988; 5 pp.Google Scholar
  113. CS113.
    Skobeleva, N. I., T. A. Petrova, A. A. Bezzubov and M. A. Bokuchava. Beta-D-glucosides of monoterpene alcohols in tea shoots. Soobshch Akad Nauk Gruz SSR 1988; 131(2): 397–400.Google Scholar
  114. CS114.
    Tanizawa, H., S. Toda, Y. Sazuka, T. Taniyama, T. Hayashi, S. Arichi and Y. T. Akino. Natural antioxidants. I. Antioxidative components of tea leaf (Thea sinensis L.). Chem Pharm Bull 1984; 32(5): 2011–2014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. CS115.
    Nobumoto, Y., K. Kubota, A. Kobayashi and T. Yamanishi. Structure of alpha-farnesen in the essential oil of oolong tea. Agr Biol Chem 1990; 54(1): 247–248.Google Scholar
  116. CS116.
    Sakata, K., H. Yamauchi, A. Yagi, K. Ina, L. Parkanyi and J. Clardy. 2-O-(beta-L-arabinopyranosyl)-myo-inositol as a main constituent of tea (Camellia sinensis). Agr Biol Chem 1989; 53(1): 2975–2979.Google Scholar
  117. CS117.
    Fujimori, N. and H. Ashihara. Adenine metabolism and the synthesis of purine alkaloids in flowers of Camellia. Phytochemistry 1990; 29(11): 3513–3516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. CS118.
    Furuya, T., Y. Orihara and Y. Tsuda. Caffeine and theanine from cultured cells of Camellia sinensis. Phytochemistry 1990; 29(8): 2539–2543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. CS119.
    Sekine, T., J. Arita, A. Yamaguchi, K. Saito, S. Oknogi, N. Morisaki, S. Iwasaki and I. Murakoshi. Two flavonol glycosides from seeds of Camellia sinensis. Phytochemistry 1991; 30(3): 991–995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. CS120.
    Lin, W. Y., Y. H. He, J. H. Luo, L. J. Huang, K. Lin, S. R. Wu and J. H. Chen. Determination of trace germanium in herbal medicine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Fenxi Shiyanshi 1991; 10(1): 30–31, 34.Google Scholar
  121. CS121.
    Owuoe, P. O. Differentiation of teas by the variations of linalool and geraniol contents. Bull Chem Soc Ethiopia 1989; 3(1): 31–35.Google Scholar
  122. CS122.
    Wang, D. G. and S. R. Wang. Isolation, purification, analysis and anti-hyperlipidemia effect of green tea polysaccharide. Zhongguo Yaoke Daxue Xuebao 1991; 22(4): 225–228.Google Scholar
  123. CS123.
    Mukoyama, A., H. Ushijima, S. Nishimura, H. Koike, M. Toda, Y. Hara and T. Shimamura. Inhibition of rotavirus AND ENTEROVirus infections by tea extracts. Jap J Med Sci Biol 1991; 44(4): 181–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. CS124.
    Namiki, K. Platelet aggregation inhibitory components of tea. Fragrance J 1990; 18(11): 67–70.Google Scholar
  125. CS125.
    Park, S. N. and Y. C. Boo. Flavonoids for protection of cells against chemically active species of oxygen, their extraction from plants, and their use in cosmetics. Patent-Fr Demende-2,651,132 1991; 17 pp.Google Scholar
  126. CS126.
    Wheeler, S. R. Tea and tannins. Science 1978; 204: 6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. CS127.
    Anisimov, M. M., E. B. Shentsova, V. V. Shcheglov, Y. N. Shumilov, V. A. Rasskazov, L. I. Strigina, N. S. Chetyrina and G. B. Elyakov. Mechanism of cytotoxic action of some triterpene glycosides. Toxicon 1978; 16: 207–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. CS128.
    Dzhavelidze, T. A. Phenolic compounds in various parts of tea shoots. Subtrop Kult 1978; 1978:154–155.Google Scholar
  129. CS129.
    Hatanaka, A., T. Kajiwara and J. Sekiya. Biosynthesis of leaf alcohol: the oxygenative cleavage of linolenic acid to cis-3-hexenal and 11-formyl-cis-9-undecenoic acid from linolenic acid in tea chloroplasts. Symp Chem Nat Prod-22nd-Fukuoka, Japan 1979; 657–664.Google Scholar
  130. CS130.
    Iida, T., T. M. Jeong, T. Tamura and T. Matsumoto. Identification of chondrillasterol in two Cucurbitaceae seed oils by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Lipids 1980; 15: 66–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. CS131.
    Itoh, T., Y. Kikuchi, T. Tamura and T. Matsumoto. Two 3-oxo-steroids in Thea sinensis seeds. Phytochemistry 1981; 20: 175–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. CS132.
    Etoh, Hina, K. and M. Iguchi. Studies on the aroma of tea. Part IV. 3S-( + )-3,7-dimethyl-1,5-octadiene-3,7-diol and ionone derivatives from tea. Agr Biol Chem 1980; 44: 2999–3000.Google Scholar
  133. CS133.
    Imperato, F. N-P-coumarylglutamic acid, an unusual hydroxycinnamic acid-aminoacid derivative from black tea. Chem Ind (London) 1980; 388.Google Scholar
  134. CS134.
    Huq, M. S., B. K. Mondal and M. S. Khan. Investigation on tea seed. Part I. Studies on the composition of the oil. Bangladesh J Sci Ind Res 1980; 15(1): 125–129.Google Scholar
  135. CS135.
    Takatsuto, S., N. Ikekawa, H. Abe, T. Morishita, M. Uchiyama, M. Ikeda, T. Sasa, S. Marumo and T. Kitsuwa. Microanalysis of brassinolide and its application to the identification of new brassinosteroids in plants. Proc 25th Symp on the Chem of Nat Prod Tokyo 1982; 290–297.Google Scholar
  136. CS136.
    Lin, Z., Y. Hua, Y. Gu, J. Ma, P. Chen and Y. Xiao. Study on the chemical constituents on the volatile oils from the fresh leaves of Camellia sinensis. Chih Wu Hsueh Pao 1982; 24:440–450.Google Scholar
  137. CS137.
    Yamane, H., H. Abe and N. Takahashi. Jasmonc acid and methyl jasmonate in pollens and anthers of three Camelliaspecies. Plant Cell Physiol 1982; 23: 1125–1127.Google Scholar
  138. CS138.
    Bagratishvili, D. G. and M. N. Zaprometov. Effect of light on the formation of phenolic compounds in a suspension of a tea plant cells. Akad Nauk Gruz 1982; 105: 581–584.Google Scholar
  139. CS139.
    Ozawa, T. Separation of the components in black tea infusion by chromatography on toyopearl. Agr Biol Chem 1982; 46(4): 1079–1081.Google Scholar
  140. CS140.
    Nonaka, G. I., O. Kawahara and I. Nishioka. Tannins and related compounds. XV. A new class of dimeric flavan-3-ol gallates, theasinensins A and B, and proanthocyanidin gallates from green tea leaf. I. Chem Pharm Bull 1983; 31(11): 3906–3914.Google Scholar
  141. CS141.
    Neurath, G. B., M. Dunger, F. G. Pein, D. Ambrosius and O. Schreiber. Primary and secondary amines in the human environment. Food Cosmet Toxicol 1977; 15: 275–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. CS142.
    Shecheglov, V. V., S. I. Baranova, M. M. Anisimov, S. Antonov, S. S. Afiyatullov, E. V. Levina, V. F. Sharypov, V. A. Stonik and G. B. Elyakov. Antimicrobial spectrum of some triterpene and steroid glycosides. Antibiotiki (Moscow) 1979; 24: 270–273.Google Scholar
  143. CS143.
    Sakai, T., K. Kobashi, M. Tsunezuka, M. Hattori and T. Namba. Studies on dental caries prevention by traditional Chinese medicine (part VI). On the fluoride contents in crude drugs. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 1985; 39(2): 165–169.Google Scholar
  144. CS144.
    Nakahara, K. Oxalic acid content of vegetable foods. Eiyo To Shokuryo 1974; 27(1): 33–36Google Scholar
  145. CS145.
    John, D. One hundred useful raw drugs of the Kani tribes of Trivandrum forest division, Kerala, India. Int J Crude Drug Res 1984; 22(1): 17–39.Google Scholar
  146. CS146.
    Patel, V. K. and H. Venkatakrishna-Bhatt. Folklore therapeutic indigenous plants in periodontal disorders in India (Review, experimental and clinical approach). Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1988; 26(4): 176–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. CS147.
    Jamir, N. S. Some interesting medicinal plants used by Nagas. J Res Edu Ind Med 1990; 9(2): 81–87.Google Scholar
  148. CS148.
    Latorre, D. L. and F. A. Latorre. Plants used by the Mexican Kickapoo Indians. Econ Bot 1977; 31: 340–357.Google Scholar
  149. CS149.
    Yesilada, E., G. Honda, E. Sezike, M. Tabata, T. Fujita, T. Tanaka, Y. Takeda and Y. Takaishi. Traditional medicine in Turkey. V. Folk medicine in the inner Taurus Mountains. J Ethnopharmacol 1995; 46(3): 133–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. CS150.
    Loewenthal, R. and J. Pe’er. Traditional methods used in the treatment of ophthalmic diseases among the Turkana tribe in North West Kenya. J Ethnopharmacol 1991; 33(3): 227–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. CS151.
    Klauss, V. and H. S. Adala. Traditional herbal eye medicine in Kenya. World Health Forum 1994; 15(9): 138–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. CS152.
    Wasuwat, S. A list of Thai medicinal plants, ASRCT, Bangkok, Report No. 1 on Res. Project. 17. Res Report, A.S.R.C.T., No 1 on Research Project 17. 1067; 22 pp.Google Scholar
  153. CS153.
    Laohapaiboon, P. and P. Tosukhowong. Antifungal activity of tea seed cake and tea seed extract. Chulalongkorn Med J 1981; 24(4): 953–959.Google Scholar
  154. CS154.
    Caceres, A., L. M. Giron, S. R. Alvarado and M. F. Torres. Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 1987; 20(3): 223–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. CS155.
    Rao, R. R. and N. S. Jamir. Ethnobotanical studies on Nagaland. I. Medicinal Plants. Econ Bot 1982; 36: 176–181.Google Scholar
  156. CS156.
    Chaboud, A., J. Raynaud and L. Debourcieu. 6,8-Di-C-beta-D-arabino-pyranosyl apigenin from Thea sinensis var. macrophylla. J Nat Prod 1986; 49(6): 1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. CS157.
    Sugita-Konishi, Y., Y. Hara-Kudo, F. Amano, T. Okubo, N. Aoi, M. Iwaki and S. Kumagai. Epicallocatechin gallate and gallocatechin gallate in green tea catechins inhibit extracellular release of vero toxin from entero-hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Biochim Biophys Acta 1999; 1472(1/2): 42–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. CS158.
    Ohtsuki, K., M. Kawabata, K. Taguchi, H. Kokura and S. Kawamura. Determination of S-methylmethionine, vitamin U, in various teas. Agr Biol Chem 1984; 48(10): 2471–2475.Google Scholar
  159. CS159.
    Lin, Y. L., S. H. Tsai, S. Y. Lin-Shiau, C. T. Ho and J. K. Lin. Theaflavin-3-3-digallate from black tea blocks the nitric oxide synthase by down-regulating the activation of NF-KB in macro-phages. Eur J Pharmacol 1999; 367(2/3): 379–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. CS160.
    Riso, P., D. Erba, F. Criscuoli and G. Testolin. Effect of green tea extract on DNA repair and oxidative damage due to H2O2 in Jurkat T cells. Nutrition Research 2002; 22(10): 1143–1150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2005

Personalised recommendations