The mechanisms and possibilities of controlling or predetermining the sex of offspring are likely to have been pondered by humans throughout history. Different cultures, social classes, and races may exhibit different preferences for a child of a given sex. Chromosomal sex is determined at fertilization by the heterogametic parent. For humans, the male is the heterogametic parent, producing both X and Y chromosome-bearing sperm. The mechanisms of meiosis in the production of gametes by the heterogametic parent should, in theory, yield an equal number of male and female offspring. Because the human sex ratio is almost 50:50, it appears that the sex ratio of babies born primarily reflects the ratio of X- and Y-bearing sperm in semen and is probably not significantly impacted by other factors, such as the female reproductive tract environment or differential fetal survival to birth.
KeywordsPreimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Sperm Head Motile Sperm Gender Selection Sperm Separation
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