The Insulin-Like Growth Factors and Assessment of Nutritional Status

  • M. Sue Houston
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)


  • The regulation of circulating IGF-I and IGFBPs by nutritional intake and the short half-life of these proteins in circulation offer great potential for the IGF proteins to be utilized as exceptionally sensitive acute biochemical markers of nutritional intake, repletion, and metabolic status.

  • The value of serum IGF-I as an indicator of short-term response to nutrional intervention has been described in a wide variety of patient populations and experimental conditions.

  • The sensitivity and specificity of serum IGF-I as a marker of nutritional status in critical illness is much greater than other visceral markers such as albumin, retinol binding protein, or transthyretin. Continued validation of IGF-I and IGFBPs in critical illness and other acute disorders is anticipated since assessment of appropriate nutritional intervention is both exceedingly important and particularly challenging in these circumstances.

  • Because of the acute nature of the response to nutrition, IGFs are much less suited to evaluating chronic nutritional status, body weight, or body composition.

  • The dependence of IGF proteins on vitamins, minerals, and other dietary constituents has been less fully investigated; however, deficiencies of specific nutrients clearly influence IGF protein synthesis and concentrations in the serum.

  • The IGFBPs, in particular IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and perhaps ratios of the IGFBPs and IGF-I, or free IGF-I in relation to nutrition, await further study, but could prove to be valuable markers of nutritional status.


Growth Hormone Anorexia Nervosa Nutritional Assessment Protein Energy Malnutrition Somatomedin Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bistrian BR, Blackburn GL, Vitale J, Cochran D, Naylor J. Prevalence of malnutrition in general medical patients. JAMA 1976; 235: 1567–1570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bistrian BR, Blackburn GL, Hallowell E, Heddle R. Protein status of general surgical patients. JAMA 1974; 230: 858–860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Butterworth CE, Jr. Editorial: Malnutrition in the hospital. JAMA 1974; 230: 879.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    McWhirter JP, Pennington CR. Incidence and recognition of malnutrition in hospital. Brit Med J 1994; 308: 945–948.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Edington J, Boorman J, Durrant ER, et al. Prevalence of malnutrition on admission to four hospitals in England. The Malnutrition Prevalence Group. Clin Nutr 2000; 19: 191–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    McClave SA, Mitoraj TE, Thielmeier KA, Greenburg RA. Differentiating subtypes (hypoalbuminemic vs marasmic) of protein-calorie malnutrition: incidence and clinical significance in a university hospital setting. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1992; 16: 337–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fleck A. Plasma proteins as nutritional indicators in the perioperative period. Br J Clin Pract Suppl 1988; 63: 20–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tayek JA, Blackburn GL. Goals of nutritional support in acute infections. Am J Med 1984; 76: 81–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gibson RS. Principles of Nutritional Assessment. Oxford University Press, New York, 1990.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shenkin A. Impact of disease on markers of macronutrient status. Proc Nutr Soc 1997; 56: 433–441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shenkin A, Cederblad G, Elia M, Isaksson B. Laboratory assessment of protein energy status. J Int Fed Clin Chem 1996; 9: 58–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Laboratory Utilization for Nutrition Support: Current Practice, Requirements, Expectations. Ross Laboratories, Columbus, OH, 1994.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fischer J. Plasma proteins as indicators of nutritional status. In: Nutritional Assessment-Present Status, Future Directions and Prospects. Levenson S (ed.). Ross Laboratories, Columbus, OH, 1981, p. 25–26.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guler HP, Zapf J, Schmid C, Froesch ER. Insulin-like growth factors I and II in healthy man. Estimations of half-lives and production rates. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1989; 121: 753–758.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boosalis MG, Ott L, Levine AS, et al. Relationship of visceral proteins to nutritional status in chronic and acute stress. Crit Care Med 1989; 17: 741–747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Buzby GP, Mullen JL, Matthews DC, Hobbs CL, Rosato EF. Prognostic nutritional index in gastrointestinal surgery. Am J Surg 1980; 139: 160–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shetty PS, Watrasiewicz KE, Jung RT, James WP. Rapid-turnover transport proteins: an index of sub-clinical protein-energy malnutrition. Lancet 1979; 2: 230–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bistrian BR. Acute phase proteins and the systemic inflammatory response. Crit Care Med 1999; 27: 452–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Klein S. The myth of serum albumin as a measure of nutritional status. Gastroenterology 1990; 99: 1845–1846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Doweiko JP, Nompleggi DJ. Role of albumin in human physiology and pathophysiology. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1991; 15: 207–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fleck A. Clinical and nutritional aspects of changes in acute-phase proteins during inflammation. Proc Nutr Soc 1989; 48: 347–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ingenbleek Y, Barclay D, Dirren H. Nutritional significance of alterations in serum amino acid patterns in goitrous patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 43: 310–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ingenbleek Y, Young V. Transthyretin (prealbumin) in health and disease: nutritional implications. Annu Rev Nutr 1994; 14: 495–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cavarocchi NC, Au FC, Dalal FR, Friel K, Mildenberg B. Rapid turnover proteins as nutritional indicators. World J Surg 1986; 10: 468–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    CarpentierYA, Barthel J, Bruyns J. Plasma protein concentration in nutritional assessment. Proc Nutr Soc 1982; 41: 405–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fletcher JP, Little JM, Guest PK. A comparison of serum transferrin and serum prealbumin as nutritional parameters. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1987; 11: 144–147.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Raguso CA, Dupertuis YM, Pichard C. The role of visceral proteins in the nutritional assessment of intensive care unit patients. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2003; 6: 211–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ingenbleek Y, Bernstein L. The stressful condition as a nutritionally dependent adaptive dichotomy. Nutrition 1999; 15: 305–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Clemmons DR, Klibanski A, Underwood LE, et al. Reduction of plasma immunoreactive somatomedin C during fasting in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1981; 53: 1247–1250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Isley WL, Underwood LE, Clemmons DR. Dietary components that regulate serum somatomedin-C concentrations in humans. J Clin Invest 1983; 71: 175–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Isley WL, Underwood LE, Clemmons DR. Changes in plasma somatomedin-C in response to ingestion of diets with variable protein and energy content. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1984; 8: 407–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Smith WJ, Underwood LE, Clemmons DR. Effects of caloric or protein restriction on insulin-like growth factor- I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding proteins in children and adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995; 80: 443–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bolze MS, Reeves RD, Lindbeck FE, Elders MJ. Influence of selected amino acid deficiencies on somatomedin, growth and glycosaminoglycan metabolism in weanling rats. J Nutr 1985; 115: 782–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Reeves RD, Dickinson L, Lee J, Kilgore B, Branham B, Elders MJ. Effects of dietary composition on somatomedin activity in growing rats. J Nutr 1979; 109: 613–620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Phillips LS, Orawski AT, Belosky DC. Somatomedin and nutrition. IV. Regulation of somatomedin activity and growth cartilage activity by quantity and composition of diet in rats. Endocrinology 1978; 103: 121–127.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Price DA, Wit JM, van Buul-Offers S, et al. Serum somatomedin activity and cartilage metabolism in acutely fasted, chronically malnourished, and refed rats. Endocrinology 1979; 105: 851–861.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Prewitt TE, D’Ercole AJ. Modest dietary restriction and serum somatomedin-C/insulin like growth factor-I in young, mature and old rats. Prog Clin Biol Res 1989; 287: 157–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Simmen FA, Badinga L, Green ML, Kwak I, Song S, Simmen RC. The porcine insulin-like growth factor system: at the interface of nutrition, growth and reproduction. J Nutr 1998; 128: 315S - 3205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Beccavin C, Chevalier B, Simon J, Duclos MJ. Circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and -II) and IGF binding proteins in divergently selected fat or lean chickens: effect of prolonged fasting. Growth Horm IGF Res 1999; 9: 187–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Maxwell A, Butterwick R, Yateman M, Batt RM, Cotterill A, Camacho-Hubner C. Nutritional modulation of canine insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins. J Endocrinol 1998; 158: 77–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Oldham JM, Martyn JA, Hua KM, MacDonald NA, Hodgkinson SC, Bass JJ. Nutritional regulation of IGF-II, but not IGF-I, is age dependent in sheep. J Endocrinol 1999; 163: 395–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Clemmons DR, Seek MM, Underwood LE. Supplemental essential amino acids augment the somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor I response to refeeding after fasting. Metabolism 1985; 34: 391–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Smith WJ, Underwood LE, Keyes L, Clemmons DR. Use of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein measurements to monitor feeding of premature infants. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 3982–3988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Thissen JP, Ketelslegers JM, Underwood LE. Nutritional regulation of the insulin-like growth factors. Endocr Rev 1994; 15: 80–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Savendahl L, Underwood LE. Fasting increases serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in healthy, nonobese humans. J Nutr 1999; 129: 2005–2008.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Unterman TG, Vazquez RM, Slas AJ, Martyn PA, Phillips LS. Nutrition and somatomedin. XIII. Usefulness of somatomedin-C in nutritional assessment. Am J Med 1985; 78: 228–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Donahue SP, Phillips LS. Response of IGF-I to nutritional support in malnourished hospital patients: a possible indicator of short-term changes in nutritional status. Am J Clin Nutr 1989; 50: 962–969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bonofiglio D, Maggiolini M, Catalano S, Marsico S, Aquila S, Ando S. Bone mineral density is inversely related to parathyroid hormone in adolescent girls. Horm Metab Res 2001; 33: 170–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rizzoli R, Ammann P, Chevalley T, Bonjour JP. Protein intake and bone disorders in the elderly. Joint Bone Spine 2001; 68: 383–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Underwood LE, Clemmons DR, Maes M, D’Ercole AJ, Ketelslegers JM. Regulation of somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor I by nutrients. Horm Res 1986; 24: 166–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Underwood LE, Thissen JP, Lemozy S, Ketelslegers JM, Clemmons DR. Hormonal and nutritional regulation of IGF-I and its binding proteins. Horm Res 1994; 42: 145–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rabkin R. Nutrient regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1997; 23: 157–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Estivariz CF, Ziegler TR. Nutrition and the insulin-like growth factor system. Endocrine 1997; 7: 65–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Frystyk J, Hussain M, Skjaerbaek C, Porksen N, Froesch ER, Orskov H. The pharmacokinetics of free insulin-like growth factor-I in healthy subjects. Growth Horm IGF Res 1999; 9: 150–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Frystyk J, Delhanty PJ, Skjaerbaek C, Baxter RC. Changes in the circulating IGF system during short-term fasting and refeeding in rats. Am J Physiol 1999; 277: E245 - E252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Baxter RC, Martin JL, Tyler MI, Howden ME. Growth hormone-dependent insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein from human plasma differs from other human IGF binding proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1986; 139: 1256–1261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Baxter RC. The binding protein’s binding protein-clinical applications of acid-labile subunit (ALS) measurement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 3941–3943.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Delhanty PJ, Baxter RC. The regulation of acid-labile subunit gene expression and secretion by cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate. Endocrinology 1998; 139: 260–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pucilowska JB, Davenport ML, Kabir I, et al. The effect of dietary protein supplementation on insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF-binding proteins in children with shigellosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993; 77: 1516–1521.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Blum WF, Ranke MB (ed.) Modern Concepts of Insulin-Like Growth Factors: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1991.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Savendahl L, Underwood LE. Decreased interleukin-2 production from cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human acute starvation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 1177–11780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Houston MS, Levis N, Knotts FB. Initial response of serum IGF-I to severe injury is related to adequacy of nutrition support, FASEB J 1998; 12: A249.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cotterill AM, Holly JM, Wass JA. The regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1 during prolonged fasting. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1993; 39: 357–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Baxter RC, Cowell CT. Diurnal rhythm of growth hormone-independent binding protein for insulin-like growth factors in human plasma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987; 65: 432–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Busby WH, Snyder DK, Clemmons DR. Radioimmunoassay of a 26,000-dalton plasma insulin-like growth factor-binding protein: control by nutritional variables. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988; 67: 1225–1230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Musey VC, Goldstein S, Farmer PK, Moore PB, Phillips LS. Differential regulation of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-1 by dietary composition in humans. Am J Med Sci 1993; 305: 131–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Laughlin GA, Yen SS. Nutritional and endocrine-metabolic aberrations in amenorrheic athletes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81: 4301–4309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Snyder DK, Clemmons DR, Underwood LE. Dietary carbohydrate content determines responsiveness to growth hormone in energy-restricted humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1989; 69: 745–752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Clemmons DR. Use of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in catabolism that is induced by negative energy balance. Horm Res 1993; 40: 62–67.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ninh NX, Thissen JP, Collette L, Gerard G, Khoi HH, Ketelslegers JM. Zinc supplementation increases growth and circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in growth-retarded Vietnamese children. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 63: 514–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Devine A, Rosen C, Mohan S, Baylink D, Prince RL. Effects of zinc and other nutritional factors on insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68: 200–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bolze MS, Reeves RD, Lindbeck FE, Elders MJ. Influence of zinc on growth, somatomedin, and glycosaminoglycan metabolism in rats. Am J Physiol 1987; 252: E21 - E26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bolze MS, Reeves RD, Lindbeck FE, Kemp SF, Elders MJ. Influence of manganese on growth, somatomedin and glycosaminoglycan metabolism. J Nutr 1985; 115: 352–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Bolze MS, Reeves RD, Lindbeck FE, Elders MJ. Influence of vitamin A on somatomedin and glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Nutr Res 1986; 6: 395–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gabbitas B, Canalis E. Retinoic acid regulates the expression of insulin-like growth factors I and II in osteoblasts. J Cell Physiol 1997; 172: 253–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fu Z, Yoneyama M, Noguchi T, Kato H. Response of the insulin-like growth factor system to vitamin A depletion and repletion in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2002; 48: 453–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fatayerji D, Mawer EB, Eastell R. The role of insulin-like growth factor I in age-related changes in calcium homeostasis in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85: 4657–4662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Yoo A, Tanimoto H, Akesson K, Baylink DJ, Lau KH. Effects of calcium depletion and repletion on serum insulin-like growth factor I and binding protein levels in weanling rats. Bone 1998; 22: 225–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Alikasifoglu A, Ozon A, Yordam N. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 levels in severe iodine deficiency. Turk J Pediatr 2002; 44: 215–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Aydin K, Bideci A, Kendirci M, Cinaz P, Kurtoglu S. Insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 levels of children living in an iodine-and selenium-deficient endemic goiter area. Biol Trace Elem Res 2002; 90: 25–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Dorup I, Flyvbjerg A, Everts ME, Clausen T. Role of insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormone in growth inhibition induced by magnesium and zinc deficiencies. Br J Nutr 1991; 66: 505–521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Dorup I. Magnesium and potassium deficiency. Its diagnosis, occurrence and treatment in diuretic therapy and its consequences for growth, protein synthesis and growth factors. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 1994; 618: 1–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Flyvbjerg A, Dorup I, Everts ME, Orskov H. Evidence that potassium deficiency induces growth retardation through reduced circulating levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I. Metabolism 1991; 40: 769–775.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Roughead ZK, Lukaski HC. Inadequate copper intake reduces serum insulin-like growth factor-I and bone strength in growing rats fed graded amounts of copper and zinc. J Nutr 2003; 133: 442–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Giovannucci E, Pollak M, Liu Y, et al. Nutritional predictors of insulin-like growth factor I and their relationships to cancer in men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prey 2003; 12: 84–89.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Holmes MD, Pollak MN, Willett WC, Hankinson SE. Dietary correlates of plasma insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 concentrations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prey 2002; 11: 852–861.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Mucci LA, Tamimi R, Lagiou P, et al. Are dietary influences on the risk of prostate cancer mediated through the insulin-like growth factor system? BJU Int 2001; 87: 814–820.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Allen NE, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Kaaks R, Rinaldi S, Key TJ. The associations of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor I and its main binding proteins in 292 women meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prey 2002; 11: 1441–1448.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Khalil DA, Lucas EA, Juma S, Smith BJ, Payton ME, Arjmandi BH. Soy protein supplementation increases serum insulin-like growth factor- I in young and old men but does not affect markers of bone metabolism. J Nutr 2002; 132: 2605–2608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Probst-Hensch NM, Wang H, Goh VH, Seow A, Lee HP, Yu MC. Determinants of circulating insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 concentrations in a Cohort of Singapore men and women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prey 2003; 12: 739–746.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Nagata C, Shimizu H, Takami R, Hayashi M, Takeda N, Yasuda K. Dietary soy and fats in relation to serum insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 levels in premenopausal Japanese women. Nutr Cancer 2003; 45: 185–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Adams KF, Newton KM, Chen C, et al. Soy isoflavones do not modulate circulating insulin-like growth factor concentrations in an older population in an intervention trial. J Nutr 2003; 133: 1316–1319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Friedl ICE, Moore RJ, Hoyt RW, Marchitelli LJ, Martinez-Lopez LE, Askew EW. Endocrine markers of semistarvation in healthy lean men in a multistressor environment. J Appl Physiol 2000; 88: 1820–1830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Clemmons DR, Underwood LE, Dickerson RN, et al. Use of plasma somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor I measurements to monitor the response to nutritional repletion in malnourished patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 41: 191–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Caregaro L, Favaro A, Santonastaso P, et al. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), a nutritional marker in patients with eating disorders. Clin Nutr 2001; 20: 251–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Spiekerman AM. Proteins used in nutritional assessment. Clin Lab Med 1993; 13: 353–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Burgess EJ. Insulin-like growth factor 1: a valid nutritional indicator during parenteral feeding of patients suffering an acute phase response. Ann Clin Biochem 1992; 29: 137–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Minuto F, Barreca A, Adami GF, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-I in human malnutrition: relationship with some body composition and nutritional parameters. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1989; 13: 392–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Caregaro L, Alberino F, Amodio P, et al. Nutritional and prognostic significance of insulin-like growth factor 1 in patients with liver cirrhosis. Nutrition 1997; 13: 185–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bhutta ZA, Bang P, Karlsson E, Hagenas L, Nizami SQ, Soder O. Insulin-like growth factor I response during nutritional rehabilitation of persistent diarrhoea. Arch Dis Child 1999; 80: 438–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Doherty CP, Crofton PM, Sarkar MA, et al. Malnutrition, zinc supplementation and catch-up growth: changes in insulin-like growth factor I, its binding proteins, bone formation and collagen turnover. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2002; 57: 391–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hintz RL, Suskind R, Amatayakul K, Thanangkul O, Olson R. Plasma somatomedin and growth hormone values in children with protein-calorie malnutrition. J Pediatr 1978; 92: 153–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kabir I, Butler T, Underwood LE, Rahman MM. Effects of a protein-rich diet during convalescence from shigellosis on catch-up growth, serum proteins, and insulin-like growth factor-I. Pediatr Res 1992; 32: 689–692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lopez-Jaramillo P, Lopez de Garcia A, Prevot C, et al. Effect of social class and nutrient intake on height and plasma insulin-like growth factor in Andean Equadorian children. Eur J Clin Nutr 1992; 46: 137–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Palacio AC, Perez-Bravo F, Santos JL, Schlesinger L, Monckeberg F. Leptin levels and IgF-binding proteins in malnourished children: effect of weight gain. Nutrition 2002; 18: 17–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Smith IF, Taiwo O, Payne-Robinson HM. Plasma somatomedin-C in Nigerian malnourished children fed a vegetable protein rehabilitation diet. Eur J Clin Nutr 1989; 43: 705–713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Soliman AT, Hassan AE, Aref MK, Hintz RL, Rosenfeld RG, Rogol AD. Serum insulin-like growth factors I and II concentrations and growth hormone and insulin responses to arginine infusion in children with protein-energy malnutrition before and after nutritional rehabilitation. Pediatr Res 1986; 20: 1122–1130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Zamboni G, Dufillot D, Antoniazzi F, Valentini R, Gendrel D, Tato L. Growth hormone-binding proteins and insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins in protein-energy malnutrition, before and after nutritional rehabilitation. Pediatr Res 1996; 39: 410–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Aaberg ML, Houston MS, Meserve LA, Williford JH, Knotts FB. Alterations in serum IGF-1, IGFBP1, IGFBP-3, and ALS in response to nutrition support in severe injury, Endocrine Society Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, June, 2002, p3–553.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Baxter RC, Hawker FH, To C, Stewart PM, Holman SR. Thirty-day monitoring of insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins in intensive care unit patients. Growth Horm IGF Res 1998; 8: 455–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Elimam A, Tjader I, Norgren S, et al. Total parenteral nutrition after surgery rapidly increases serum leptin levels. Eur J Endocrinol 2001; 144: 123–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hawker FH, Stewart PM, Baxter RC, et al. Relationship of somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor I levels to conventional nutritional indices in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 1987; 15: 732–736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Jeevanandam M, Holaday NJ, Petersen SR. Integrated nutritional, hormonal, and metabolic effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) supplementation in trauma patients. Nutrition 1996; 12: 777–787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lopez-Hellin J, Baena-Fustegueras JA, Schwartz-Riera S, Garcia-Arumi E. Usefulness of short-lived proteins as nutritional indicators surgical patients. Clin Nutr 2002; 21: 119–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Marin VB, Rebollo MG, Castillo-Duran CD, et al. Controlled study of early postoperative parenteral nutrition in children. J Pediatr Surg 1999; 34: 1330–1335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Mattox TW, Brown RO, Boucher BA, Buonpane EA, Fabian TC, Luther RW. Use of fibronectin and somatomedin-C as markers of enteral nutrition support in traumatized patients using a modified amino acid formula. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1988; 12: 592–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Pittoni G, Gallioi G, Zanello M, et al. Activity of GH/IGF-I axis in trauma and septic patients during artificial nutrition: different behavior patterns? J Endocrinol Invest 2002; 25: 214–223.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Argente J, Caballo N, Barrios V, et al. Disturbances in the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis in children and adolescents with different eating disorders. Horm Res 1997; 48: 16–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Counts DR, Gwirtsman H, Carlsson LM, Lesern M, Cutler GB, Jr. The effect of anorexia nervosa and refeeding on growth hormone-binding protein, the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and the IGFbinding proteins. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992; 75: 762–767.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Fukuda I, Hotta M, Hizuka N, et al. Decreased serum levels of acid-labile subunit in patients with anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84: 2034–2036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Golden NH, Kreitzer P, Jacobson MS, et al. Disturbances in growth hormone secretion and action in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. J Pediatr 1994; 125: 655–660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Heer M, Mika C, Grzella I, Drummer C, Herpertz-Dahlmann B Changes in bone turnover in patients with anorexia nervosa during eleven weeks of inpatient dietary treatment. Clin Chem 2002; 48: 754–760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hill KK, Hill DB, McClain MP, Humphries LL, McClain CJ. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations in the recovery of patients with anorexia nervosa. J Am Coll Nutr 1993; 12: 475–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Hotta M, Fukuda I, Sato K, Hizuka N, Shibasaki T, Takano K. The relationship between bone turnover and body weight, serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, and serum IGF-binding protein levels in patients with anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85: 200–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Nedvidkova J, Papezova H, Haluzik M, Schreiber V. Interaction between serum leptin levels and hypothalamo-hypophyseal-thyroid axis in patients with anorexia nervosa. Endocr Res 2000; 26: 219–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Pascal N, Amouzou EK, Salmi A, et al. Serum concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin are elevated in kwashiorkor and anorexia nervosa but not in marasmus. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 239–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Rappaport R, Prevot C, Czernichow P. Somatomedin activity and growth hormone secretion. I. Changes related to body weight in anorexia nervosa. Acta Paediatr Scand 1980; 69: 37–41.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Beattie RM, Camacho-Hubner C, Wacharasindhu S, Cotterill AM, Walker-Smith JA, Savage MO. Responsiveness of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 to therapeutic intervention in children and adolescents with Crohn’s disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1998; 49: 483–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lebl J, Zahradnikova M, Bartosova J, Zemkova D, Pechova M, Vavrova V. Insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 in cystic fibrosis: a positive effect of antibiotic therapy and hyperalimentation. Acta Paediatr 2001; 90: 868–872.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Thomas AG, Holly JM, Taylor F, Miller V. Insulin like growth factor-I, insulin like growth factor binding protein-1, and insulin in childhood Crohn’s disease. Gut 1993; 34: 944–947.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Bachrach-Lindstrom M, Unosson M, Ek AC, Arnqvist HJ. Assessment of nutritional status using biochemical and anthropometric variables in a nutritional intervention study of women with hip fracture. Clin Nutr 2001; 20: 217–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Campillo B, Paillaud E, Bories PN, Noel M, Porquet D, Le Parco JC. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 in the three months following surgery for a hip fracture in elderly: relationship with nutritional status and inflammatory reaction [In Process Citation]. Clin Nutr 2000; 19: 349–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Schurch MA, Rizzoli R, Slosman D, Vadas L, Vergnaud P, Bonjour JP. Protein supplements increase serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels and attenuate proximal femur bone loss in patients with recent hip fracture. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1998; 128: 801–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Salbe AD, Kotler P, Tierney AR, Wang J, Pierson R, Campbell RG. Correlation between serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) concentrations and nutritional status in HIV-infected individuals. Nutr Res 1995; 15: 1437–1443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Raynaud-Simon A, Perin L, Meaume S, et al. IGF-I, IGF-I-binding proteins and GH-binding protein in malnourished elderly patients with inflammation receiving refeeding therapy. Eur J Endocrinol 2002; 146: 657–665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Colonna F, Pahor T, de Vonderweid U, Tonini G, Radillo L. Serum Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGFI) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in growing preterm infants on enteral nutrition. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 1996; 9: 483–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Diaz-Gomez NM, Domenech E, Barroso F. Breast-feeding and growth factors in preterm newborn infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1997; 24: 322–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Park MJ, Namgung R, Kim JN, Kim DH. Serum leptin, IGF-I and insulin levels in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition during the first week of life. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2001; 14: 429–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Price WA, Lee E, Maynor A, Stiles AD, Clemmons DR. Relation between serum insulinlike growth factor-1, insulinlike growth factor binding protein-2, and insulinlike growth factor binding protein- 3 and nutritional intake in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2001; 32: 542–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Harris TB, Kiel D, Roubenoff R, et al. Association of insulin-like growth factor-I with body composition, weight history, and past health behaviors in the very old: the Framingham Heart Study. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997; 45: 133–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Copeland KC, Colletti RB, Devlin JT, McAuliffe TL. The relationship between insulin-like growth factor-I, adiposity, and aging. Metabolism 1990; 39: 584–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Veldhuis JD, Liem AY, South S, et al. Differential impact of age, sex steroid hormones, and obesity on basal versus pulsatile growth hormone secretion in men as assessed in an ultrasensitive chemiluminescence assay. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995; 80: 3209–3222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Landin-Wilhelmsen K, Wilhelmsen L, Lappas G, et al. Serum insulin-like growth factor I in a random population sample of men and women: relation to age, sex, smoking habits, coffee consumption and physical activity, blood pressure and concentrations of plasma lipids, fibrinogen, parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1994; 41: 351–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Kelly PJ, Eisman JA, Stuart MC, Pocock NA, Sambrook PN, Gwinn TH. Somatomedin-C, physical fitness, and bone density. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990; 70: 718–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Nystrom FH, Ohman PK, Ekman BA, Osterlund MK, Karlberg BE, Arnqvist HJ. Population-based reference values for IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-1: relations with metabolic and anthropometric variables. Eur J Endocrinol 1997; 136: 165–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Darling-Raedeke M, Thornton WH, Jr., MacDonald RS. Growth hormone and IGF-I plasma concentrations and macronutrient intake measured in a free-living elderly population during a one-year period. J Am Coll Nutr 1998; 17: 392–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Rudman D, Drinka PJ, Wilson CR, et al. Relations of endogenous anabolic hormones and physical activity to bone mineral density and lean body mass in elderly men. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1994; 40: 653–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Marin P, Kvist H, Lindstedt G, Sjostrom L, Bjorntorp P. Low concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I in abdominal obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1993; 17: 83–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Jorgensen JO, Vahl N, Hansen TB, et al. Determinants of serum insulin-like growth factor I in growth hormone deficient adults as compared to healthy subjects. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1998; 48: 479–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    O’Connor KG, Tobin JD, Harman SM, et al. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I are related to age and not to body composition in healthy women and men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1998; 53: M176 - M182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Goodman-Gruen D, Barrett-Connor E. Epidemiology of insulin-like growth factor-I in elderly men and women. The Rancho Bernardo Study. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 145: 970–976.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Holmes MD, Pollak MN, Hankinson SE. Lifestyle correlates of plasma insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 concentrations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prey 2002; 11: 862–867.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Juul A, Bang P, Hertel NT, et al. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I in 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults: relation to age, sex, stage of puberty, testicular size, and body mass index. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994; 78: 744–752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Ogilvy-Stuart AL, Hands SJ, Adcock CJ, et al. Insulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-1, growth hormone, and feeding in the newborn. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83: 3550–3557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Fall CH, Pandit AN, Law CM, et al. Size at birth and plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations. Arch Dis Child 1995; 73: 287–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Yang SW, Yu JS. Relationship of insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, insulin, growth hormone in cord blood and maternal factors with birth height and birthweight. Pediatr Int 2000; 42: 31–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Ong K, Kratzsch J, Kiess W, Dunger D. Circulating IGF-I levels in childhood are related to both current body composition and early postnatal growth rate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87: 1041–1044.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Beckett PR, Wong WW, Copeland KC. Developmental changes in the relationship between IGF-I and body composition during puberty. Growth Horm IGF Res 1998; 8: 283–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Wilson DM, Killen JD, Hammer LD, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-I as a reflection of body composition, nutrition, and puberty in sixth and seventh grade girls. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991; 73: 907–912.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Jorgensen JO, Pedersen SB, Borglum J, et al. Serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), IGF binding proteins 1 and 3 and growth hormone binding protein in obese women and the effects of growth hormone administration: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Endocrinol 1995; 133: 65–70.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Nam SY, Lee EJ, Kim KR, et al. Effect of obesity on total and free insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and their relationship to IGF-binding protein (BP)-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, insulin, and growth hormone. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1997; 21: 355–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Attia N, Tamborlane WV, Heptulla R, et al. The metabolic syndrome and insulin-like growth factor I regulation in adolescent obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83: 1467–1471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Argente J, Caballo N, Barrios V, et al. Multiple endocrine abnormalities of the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor axis in prepubertal children with exogenous obesity: effect of short-and long-term weight reduction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 2076–2083.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Rasmussen MH, Frystyk J, Andersen T, Breum L, Christiansen JS, Hilsted J. The impact of obesity, fat distribution, and energy restriction on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-3, insulin, and growth hormone. Metabolism 1994; 43: 315–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Saitoh H, Kamoda T, Nakahara S, Hirano T, Nakamura N. Serum concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor(IGF)-I, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and -3 and growth hormone binding protein in obese children: fasting IGFBP-1 is suppressed in normoinsulinaemic obese children. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1998; 48: 487–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Falorni A, Bini V, Cabiati G, et al. Serum levels of type I procollagen C-terminal propeptide, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF binding protein-3 in obese children and adolescents: relationship to gender, pubertal development, growth, insulin, and nutritional status. Metabolism 1997; 46: 862–871.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Bideci A, Cinaz P, Hasanoglu A, Elbeg S. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in obese children. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 1997; 10: 295–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Hall K, Lundin G, Povoa G. Serum levels of the low molecular weight form of insulin-like growth factor binding protein in healthy subjects and patients with growth hormone deficiency, acromegaly and anorexia nervosa. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1988; 118: 321–326.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Hochberg Z, Hertz P, Colin V, et al. The distal axis of growth hormone (GH) in nutritional disorders: GH- binding protein, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF-I receptors in obesity and anorexia nervosa. Metabolism 1992; 41: 106–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Argente J, Caballo N, Barrios V, et al. Multiple endocrine abnormalities of the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor axis in patients with anorexia nervosa: effect of short-and long-term weight recuperation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 2084–2092.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Besbas N, Ozdemir S, Saatci U, et al. Nutritional assessment of children on haemodialysis: value of IGF-I, TNF-alpha and IL-lbeta. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998; 13: 1484–1488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Qureshi AR, Alvestrand A, Danielsson A, et al. Factors predicting malnutrition in hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study. Kidney Int 1998; 53: 773–782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Sanaka T, Shinobe M, Ando M, Hizuka N, Kawaguchi H, Nihei H. IGF-I as an early indicator of malnutrition in patients with end-stage renal disease. Nephron 1994; 67: 73–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Abdullah MS, Wild G, Jacob V, et al. Cytokines and the malnutrition of chronic renal failure. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1997; 23: 237–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Taylor AM, Bush A, Thomson A, et al. Relation between insulin-like growth factor-I, body mass index, and clinical status in cystic fibrosis. Arch Dis Child 1997; 76: 304–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Taylor AM, Thomson A, Bruce-Morgan C, et al. The relationship between insulin, IGF-I and weight gain in cystic fibrosis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1999; 51: 659–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Ponzer S, Tidermark J, Brismar K, Soderqvist A, Cederholm T. Nutritional status, insulin-like growth factor-1 and quality of life in elderly women with hip fractures. Clin Nutr 1999; 18: 241–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Sullivan DH, Carter WJ. Insulin-like growth factor I as an indicator of protein-energy undernutrition among metabolically stable hospitalized elderly. J Am Coll Nutr 1994; 13: 184–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Smith IF, Latham MC, Azubuike JA, et al. Blood plasma levels of cortisol, insulin, growth hormone and somatomedin in children with marasmus, kwashiorkor, and intermediate forms of protein-energy malnutrition. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1981; 167: 607–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Bouhaddioui L, Brun JF, Jacquemin JL, et al. Immunoreactive somatomedin C in children from Morocco: a biological marker of nutritional growth retardation? Biomed Pharmacother 1989; 43: 59–63.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Wan Nazaimoon WM, Osman A, Wu LL, Khalid BA. Effects of iodine deficiency on insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 levels and height attainment in malnourished children. Clin Endocrinol (0x0 1996; 45: 79–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Thibault H, Souberbielle JC, Taieb C, Brauner R. Idiopathic prepubertal short stature is associated with low body mass index. Horm Res 1993; 40: 136–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Attard-Montalto SP, Hadley J, Kingston JE, Eden OB, Saha V. Ongoing assessment of nutritional status in children with malignant disease. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1998; 15: 393–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Colletti RB, Copeland KC, Devlin JT, Roberts JD, McAuliffe TL. Effect of obesity on plasma insulin-like growth factor-I in cancer patients. Int J Obes 1991; 15: 523–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Brennan BM, Gill M, Pennells L, Eden OB, Thomas AG, Clayton PE. Insulin-like growth factor I, IGF binding protein 3, and IGFBP protease activity: relation to anthropometric indices in solid tumours or leukaemia. Arch Dis Child 1999; 80: 226–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Grant DB, Hambley J, Becker D, Pimstone BL. Reduced sulphation factor in undernourished children. Arch Dis Child 1973; 48: 596–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Mohan PS, Jaya Rao KS. Plasma somatomedin activity in protein calorie malnutrition. Arch Dis Child 1979; 54: 62–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Dai ZK, Huang MY, Huang TY. [Somatomedin-C in infantile nutritional assessment with comparison with prealbumin, insulin and growth hormone]. Gaoxiong Yi Xue Ke Xue Za Zhi 1995; 11: 110–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Bolze MS, Osborne JM, Vecbastiks KA, White ME. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in rats respond to fasting and the protein and energy content of the re-feeding diet. J Nutr Biochem 1991; 2: 623–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Clark MA, Hentzen BT, Plank LD, Hill GI. Sequential changes in insulin-like growth factor 1, plasma proteins, and total body protein in severe sepsis and multiple injury. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1996; 20: 363–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Jeevanandam M, Holaday NJ, Petersen SR. Posttraumatic hormonal environment during total par-enteral nutrition. Nutrition 1993; 9: 333–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Della Corte F, Mancini A, Valle D, et al. Provocative hypothalamopituitary axis tests in severe head injury: correlations with severity and prognosis. Crit Care Med 1998; 26: 1419–1426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Cotterill AM, Mendel P, Holly JM, et al. The differential regulation of the circulating levels of the insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins (IGFBP) 1, 2 and 3 after elective abdominal surgery. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1996; 44: 91–101.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Jeevanandam M, Shamos RF, Petersen SR. Substrate efficacy in early nutrition support of critically ill multiple trauma victims. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1992; 16: 511–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Petersen SR, Holaday NJ, Jeevanandam M. Enhancement of protein synthesis efficiency in parenterally fed trauma victims by adjuvant recombinant human growth hormone. J Trauma 1994; 36: 726–733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Petersen SR, Jeevanandam M, Holaday NJ. Adjuvant recombinant human growth hormone stimulates insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 secretion in critically ill trauma patients. J Trauma 1995;39:295–300; discussion 300–302.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Nygren J, Sammann M, Malm M, et al. Distributed anabolic hormonal patterns in burned patients: the relation to glucagon. Clin Endocrinol (0x0 1995; 43: 491–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Timmins AC, Cotterill AM, Hughes SC, et al. Critical illness is associated with low circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factors-I and -II, alterations in insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, and induction of an insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 protease. Crit Care Med 1996; 24: 1460–1466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Wojnar MM, Fan J, Frost RA, Gelato MC, Lang CH. Alterations in the insulin-like growth factor system in trauma patients. Am J Physiol 1995; 268: R970 - R977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Ross RJ, Miell JP, Holly JM, et al. Levels of GH binding activity, IGFBP-1, insulin, blood glucose and cortisol in intensive care patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1991; 35: 361–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Houston-Bolze MS, Downing MT, Sayed AM, Williford JH. Serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 responds differently to trauma in men and women. Crit Care Med 1996; 24: 1988–1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Houston-Bolze MS, Downing MT, Sayed AM, Meserve LA. Gender differences in the responses of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 and transthyretin (prealbumin) to trauma. Crit Care Med 1996; 24: 1982–1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Jeevanandam M, Holaday NJ, Shamos RF, Petersen SR. Acute IGF-I deficiency in multiple trauma victims. Clin Nutr 1992; 11: 352–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Abribat T, Nedelec B, Jobin N, Garrel DR. Decreased serum insulin-like growth factor-I in burn patients: relationship with serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 proteolysis and the influence of lipid composition in nutritional support. Crit Care Med 2000; 28: 2366–2372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Abribat T, Brazeau P, Davignon I, Garrel DR. Insulin-like growth factor-I blood levels in severely burned patients: effects of time post injury, age of patient and severity of burn. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1993; 39: 583–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Buonpane EA, Brown RO, Boucher BA, Fabian TC, Luther RW. Use of fibronectin and somatomedin-C as nutritional markers in the enteral nutrition support of traumatized patients [see comments]. Crit Care Med 1989; 17: 126–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Davies SC, Wass JA, Ross RJ, et al. The induction of a specific protease for insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in the circulation during severe illness. J Endocrinol 1991; 130: 469–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Bang P, Nygren J, Carlsson-Skwirut C, Thorell A, Ljungqvist O. Postoperative induction of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 proteolytic activity: relation to insulin and insulin sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83: 2509–2515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Davenport ML, Isley WL, Pucilowska JB, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 proteolysis is induced after elective surgery. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992; 75: 590–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Skjaerbaek C, Frystyk J, Orskov H, et al. Differential changes in free and total insulin-like growth factor I after major, elective abdominal surgery: the possible role of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 proteolysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83: 2445–2449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Maile LA, Holly JM. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) proteolysis: occurrence, identification, role and regulation. Growth Horm IGF Res 1999; 9: 85–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Gianotti L, Broglio F, Ramunni J, et al. The activity of GH/IGF-I axis in anorexia nervosa and in obesity: a comparison with normal subjects and patients with hypopituitarism or critical illness. Eat Weight Disord 1998; 3: 64–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Laughlin GA, Dominguez CE, Yen SS. Nutritional and endocrine-metabolic aberrations in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83: 25–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Keys A, Brozek J, Henschel A, Mickelsen 0, Taylor H. The Biology of Human Starvation. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1950.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Smith G, Robinson PH, Fleck A. Serum albumin distribution in early treated anorexia nervosa. Nutrition 1996; 12: 677–684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Suliman ME, Qureshi AR, Barany P, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia, nutritional status, and cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 2000; 57: 1727–1735.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Lu F, Li P, Zheng F, Zhang Z, Tornino Y. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 level and nutritional assessment in nondialytic patients with chronic renal failure. Kidney Blood Press Res 2002; 25: 116–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Nanba K, Nagake Y, Miyatake N, et al. Relationships of serum levels of insulinlike growth factors with indices of bone metabolism and nutritional conditions in hemodialysis patients. Nephron 2001; 89: 145–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Jacob V, Marchant PR, Wild G, Brown CB, Moorhead PJ, el Nahas AM. Nutritional profile of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Nephron 1995; 71: 16–22.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Jacob V, Le Carpentier JE, Salzano S, et al. IGF-I, a marker of undernutrition in hemodialysis patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 52: 39–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Lindgren BF, Friis K, Ericsson F. Insulin-like growth factor I correlates with protein intake estimated from the normalized protein catabolic rate in hemodialysis patients. Am J Nephrol 2000; 20: 255–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Parker TF, 3rd, Wingard RL, Husni L, Ikizler TA, Parker RA, Hakim RM. Effect of the membrane biocompatibility on nutritional parameters in chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 1996; 49: 551–556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Hong-Brown LQ, Frost RA, Lang CH. Alcohol impairs protein synthesis and degradation in cultured skeletal muscle cells. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2001; 25: 1373–1382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Eriksson S. Insulin-like growth factor in chronic liver disease. J Intern Med 1994; 235: 93–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Inaba T, Saito H, Inoue T, et al. Growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis alterations contribute to disturbed protein metabolism in cirrhosis patients after hepatectomy. J Hepatol 1999; 31: 271–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Santolaria F, Gonzalez-Gonzalez G, Gonzalez-Reimers E, et al. Effects of alcohol and liver cirrhosis on the GH-IGF-I axis. Alcohol Alcohol 1995; 30: 703–708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Mendenhall CL, Anderson S, Weesner RE, Goldberg SJ, Crolic KA. Protein-calorie malnutrition associated with alcoholic hepatitis. Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group on Alcoholic Hepatitis. Am J Med 1984; 76: 211–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Caregaro L, Alberino F, Amodio P, et al. Malnutrition in alcoholic and virus-related cirrhosis. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 63: 602–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Mendenhall CL, Chernausek SD, Ray MB, et al. The interactions of insulin-like growth factor I(IGFI) with protein-calorie malnutrition in patients with alcoholic liver disease: V.A. Cooperative Study on Alcoholic Hepatitis VI. Alcohol Alcohol 1989; 24: 319–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Kondrup J, Nielsen K, Juul A. Effect of long-term refeeding on protein metabolism in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Br J Nutr 1997; 77: 197–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Santolaria F, Perez-Cejas A, Aleman MR, et al. Low serum leptin levels and malnutrition in chronic alcohol misusers hospitalized by somatic complications. Alcohol Alcohol 2003; 38: 60–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Laursen EM, Lanng S, Rasmussen MH, Koch C, Skakkebaek NE, Muller J. Normal spontaneous and stimulated GH levels despite decreased IGF-I concentrations in cystic fibrosis patients. Eur J Endocrinol 1999; 140: 315–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Laursen EM, Juul A, Lanng S, et al. Diminished concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I in cystic fibrosis. Arch Dis Child 1995; 72: 494–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Barrios V, Pozo J, Munoz MT, Buno M, Argente J. Normative data for total and free acid-LabileSubunit of the human insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex in pre-and full-term newborns and healthy boys and girls throughout postnatal development [In Process Citation]. Horm Res 2000; 53: 148–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Juul A, Flyvbjerg A, Frystyk J, Muller J, Skakkebaek NE. Serum concentrations of free and total insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF binding proteins -1 and -3 and IGFBP-3 protease activity in boys with normal or precocious puberty. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1996; 44: 515–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Juul A, Holm K, Kastrup KW, et al. Free insulin-like growth factor I serum levels in 1430 healthy children and adults, and its diagnostic value in patients suspected of growth hormone deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 2497–2502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Argente J, Barrios V, Pozo J, et al. Normative data for insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), IGF-binding proteins, and growth hormone-binding protein in a healthy Spanish pediatric population: age-and sex-related changes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993; 77: 1522–1528.Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Juul A, Moller S, Mosfeldt-Laursen E, et al. The acid-labile subunit of human ternary insulin-like growth factor binding protein complex in serum: hepatosplanchnic release, diurnal variation, circulating concentrations in healthy subjects, and diagnostic use in patients with growth hormone deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83: 4408–4415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Janssen JA, Stolk RP, Pols HA, Grobbee DE, de Jong FH, Lamberts SW. Serum free IGF-I, total IGFI, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in an elderly population: relation to age and sex steroid levels. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1998; 48: 471–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Janssen JA, Jacobs ML, Derkx FH, Weber RF, van der Lely AJ, Lamberts SW. Free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and IGFBP-3 and their relationships to the presence of diabetic retinopathy and glomerular hyperfiltration in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [see comments]. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 2809–2815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Hall K, Hilding A, Thoren M. Determinants of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I. J Endocrinol Invest 1999; 22: 48–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Hong Y, Pedersen NL, Brismar K, Hall K, de Faire U. Quantitative genetic analyses of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-1, and insulin levels in middle-aged and elderly twins. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81: 1791–1797.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Cardim HJ, Lopes CM, Giannella-Neto D, da Fonseca AM, Pinotti JA. The insulin-like growth factor-I system and hormone replacement therapy. Fertil Steril 2001; 75: 282–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Leifke E, Gorenoi V, Wichers C, Von Zur Muhlen A, Von Buren E, Brabant G. Age-related changes of serum sex hormones, insulin-like growth factor-1 and sex-hormone binding globulin levels in men: cross-sectional data from a healthy male cohort. Clin Endocrinol (0x0 2000; 53: 689–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Juul A, Scheike T, Pedersen AT, et al. Changes in serum concentrations of growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 1 and 3 and urinary growth hormone excretion during the menstrual cycle. Hum Reprod 1997; 12: 2123–2128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Seck T, Scheidt-Nave C, Ziegler R, Pfeilschifter J. Positive association between circulating free thyroxine and insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations in euthyroid elderly individuals. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1998; 48: 361–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Rojdmark S, Rydvald Y, Aquilonius A, Brismar K. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF-binding protein-1 concentrations in serum of normal subjects after alcohol ingestion: evidence for decreased IGF-1 bioavailability. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000; 52: 313–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Nindl BC, Kraemer WJ, Marx JO, et al. Overnight responses of the circulating IGF-I system after acute, heavy-resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 2001; 90: 1319–1326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Koziris LP, Hickson RC, Chatterton RT, Jr., et al. Serum levels of total and free IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are increased and maintained in long-term training. J Appl Physiol 1999; 86: 1436–1442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Anthony TG, Anthony JC, Lewitt MS, Donovan SM, Layman DK. Time course changes in IGFBP-1 after treadmill exercise and postexercise food intake in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001; 280: E650 — E656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Tomita M, Shimokawa I, Higami Y, et al. Modulation by dietary restriction in gene expression related to insulin-like growth factor-1 in rat muscle. Aging (Milano) 2001; 13: 273–281.Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Naranjo WM, Yakar S, Sanchez-Gomez M, Perez AU, Setser J, D LE. Protein calorie restriction affects nonhepatic IGF-I production and the lymphoid system: studies using the liver-specific IGF-I gene-deleted mouse model. Endocrinology 2002; 143: 2233–2241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Sue Houston

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations