Advertisement

Regulation of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I by Nutrition

  • Jean-Paul Thissen
  • Véronique Beauloye
  • Jean-Marie Ketelslegers
  • Louis E. Underwood
Chapter
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)

Abstract

  • Nutrition is one of the principal regulators of circulating IGF-I. Many mechanisms are involved in the nutritional regulation of IGF-I.

  • Both energy and protein are critical to the regulation of serum IGF-I concentrations. After fasting, adequate energy and protein are necessary for restoration of serum IGF-I, but energy may be somewhat more important than protein. While a low intake of protein is able to increase IGF-I in the presence of adequate energy, there is a threshold requirement of energy below which optimal protein intake fails to raise IGF-I after fasting.

  • The decline of serum IGF-I during dietary restriction is independent of diet-induced alterations in pituitary GH secretion. In severe dietary restriction (fasting), a marked decrease in the number of liver somatogenic receptors suggests that a GH receptor defect is involved in the decline of serum IGF-I. In protein restriction, the decline of serum IGF-I results from a postreceptor defect in GH action at the hepatic level.

  • Nutritional deprivation decreases hepatic IGF-I production by diminishing IGF-I gene expression. Decline in IGF-I gene expression results from both transcriptional and post-transcription mechanisms.

  • Diet restriction also increases the clearance and degradation of serum IGF-I through changes in the levels of circulating IGFBPs.

  • The molecular mechanisms leading to the decline of IGF-I in catabolic stress seem to be similar to those operational in food deprivation.

  • Nutrients may also control the biological action of IGF-I, either directly or indirectly, through changes in IGFBPs.

Keywords

Growth Hormone Growth Hormone Receptor Amino Acid Deprivation Acid Labile Subunit Dietary Protein Restriction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Haymond MW, Mauras N. The rationale for the use of recombinant human growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I for catabolic conditions in humans. Horm Res 1996; 46: 202–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Frost RA, Fuhrer J, Steigbigel R, Mariuz P, Lang CH, Gelato MC. Wasting in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome is associated with multiple defects in the serum insulin-like growth factor system. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1996; 44: 501–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Clemmons DR, Klibanski A, Underwood LE, McArthur JW, Ridgway EC, Beitins IZ, et al. Reduction of plasma immunoreactive somatomedin-C during fasting in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1981; 53: 1247–1250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thissen JP, Ketelslegers JM, Underwood LE. Nutritional regulation of the insulin-like growth factors. Endocr Rev 1994; 15: 80–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Argente J, Caballo N, Barrios V, Munoz MT, Pozo J, Chowen JA, et al. Multiple endocrine abnormalities of the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor axis in patients with anorexia nervosa: effect of short-and long-term weight recuperation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 2084–2092.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chu LW, Lam KSL, Tam SCF, Hu WJHC, Hui SL, Chiu A, et al. A randomized controlled trial of low-dose recombinant human growth hormone in the treatment of malnourished elderly medical patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 1913–1920.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ross R, Miell J, Freeman E, Jones J, Matthews D, Prece M, et al. Critically ill patients have high basal growth hormone levels with attenuated oscillatory activity associated with low levels of insulin-like growth factor-I. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1991; 35: 47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Isley WL, Underwood LE, Clemmons DR. Dietary components that regulate serum somatomedin-C concentrations in humans. J Clin Invest 1983; 71: 175–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Isley WL, Underwood LE, Clemmons DR. Changes in plasma somatomedin-C in reponse to ingestion of diets with variable protein and energy content. JPEN 1984; 8: 407–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Snyder DK, Clemmons DR, Underwood LE. Dietary carbohydrate content determines responsiveness to growth hormone in energy-restricted humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1989; 69: 745–752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Clemmons DR, Seek MM, Underwood LE. Supplemental essential aminoacids augment the somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor-I response to refeeding after fasting. Metabolism 1985; 34: 391–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tannenbaum GS, Rorstad O, Brazeau P. Effects of prolonged food deprivation on the ultradian growth hormone rhythm and immunoreactive somatostatin tissue levels in the rat. Endocrinology 1979; 104: 1733–1738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ho KY, Veldhuis JD, Johnson ML, Furlanetto R, Evans WS, Alberti KGMM, et al. Fasting enhances growth hormone secretion and amplifies the complex rhythms of growth hormone secretion in man. J Clin Invest 1988; 81: 968–975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tannenbaum GS, Ling N. The interrelationship of growth hormone (GH)-releasing factor and somatostatin in generation of the ultradian rhythm of GH secretion. Endocrinology 1984; 115: 1952–1957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tannenbaum GS, Epelbaum J, Colle E, Brazeau P, Martin JB. Antiserum to somatostatin reverses starvation-induced inhibition of growth hormone but not insulin secretion. Endocrinology 1978; 102: 1909–1914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bruno JF, Olchovsky D, White JD, Leidy JW, Song J, Berelowitz M. Influence of food deprivation in rat on hypothalamic expression of growth hormone-releasing factor and somatostatin. Endocrinology 1990; 127: 2111–2116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wu V, Sumii K, Tari A, Sumii M, Walsh JH. Regulation of rat antral gastrin and somatostatin gene expression during starvation and after refeeeding. Gastroenterology 1991; 101: 1552–1558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Katakami H, Downs TR, Frohman LA. Inhibitory effect of hypothalamic medial preoptic area somatostatin on growth hormone-releasing factor in the rat. Endocrinology 1988; 123: 1103–1109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Harel Z, Tannenbaum GS. Dietary protein restriction impairs both spontaneous and growth hormone-releasing factor-stimulated growth hormone release in the rat. Endocrinology 1993; 133: 1035–1043.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bruno JF, Song J, Berelowitz M. Regulation of rat hypothalamic preprogrowth hormone-releasing factor messenger ribonucleic acid by dietary protein. Endocrinology 1991; 129: 1226–1232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pombo M, Pombo CM, Astorga R, Cordido F, Popovic V, Garcia-Mayor RV, et al. Regulation of growth hormone secretion by signals produced by the adipose tissue. J Endocrinol Invest 1999; 22 (5 Suppl): 22–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Palacio AC, Perez BF, Santos JL, Schlesinger L, Monckeberg F. Leptin levels and IgF-binding proteins in malnourished children: Effect of weight gain. Nutrition 2002; 18: 17–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Maccario M, Aimaretti G, Corneli G, Gauna C, Grottoli S, Bidlingmaier M et al. Short-term fasting abolishes the sex-related difference in GH and leptin secretion in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2000; 279: E411 - E416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Soliman AT, ElZalabany MM, Salama M, Ansari BM. Serum leptin concentrations during severe protein-energy malnutrition: correlation with growth parameters and endocrine function. Metabolism 2000; 49: 819–825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Carro E, Se-anis R, Considine RV, Casanueva FF, Dieguez C. Regulation of in vivo growth hormone secretion by leptin. Endocrinology 1997; 138: 2203–2206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vuagnat BAM, Pierroz DD, Lalaoui M, Englaro P, Pralong FP, Blum WF, et al. Evidence for a leptinneuropeptide Y axis for the regulation of growth hormone secretion in the rat. Neuroendocrinology 1998; 67: 291–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    LaPaglia N, Steiner J, Kirsteins L, Emanuele M, Emanuele N. Leptin alters the response of the growth hormone releasing factor growth hormone insulin-like growth factor-I axis to fasting. J Endocrinol 1998; 159: 79–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tannenbaum GS, Gurd W, Lapointe M. Leptin is a potent stimulator of spontaneous pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion and the GH response to GH-releasing hormone. Endocrinology 1998; 139: 3871–3875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Quintela M, Senaris R, Heiman ML, Casanueva FF, Dieguez C. Leptin inhibits in vitro hypothalamic somatostatin secretion and somatostatin mRNA levels. Endocrinology 1997; 138: 5641–5644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Baratta M, Saleri R, Mainardi GL, Valle D, Giustina A, Tamanini C. Leptin regulates GH gene expression and secretion and nitric oxide production in pig pituitary cells. Endocrinology 2002; 143: 551–557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Horvath TL, Diano S, Sotonyi P, Heiman M, Tschöp M. Minireview: Ghrelin and the regulation of energy balance-A hypothalamic perspective. Endocrinology 2001; 142: 4163–4169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lee HM, Wang GY, Englander EW, Kojima M, Greeley GH, Jr. Ghrelin, a new gastrointestinal endocrine peptide that stimulates insulin secretion: enteric distribution, ontogeny, influence of endocrine, and dietary manipulations. Endocrinology 2002; 143: 185–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kojima M, Hosoda H, Matsuo H, Kangawa K. Ghrelin: discovery of the natural endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 2001; 12: 118–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Samuels HH, Horwitz ZD, Stanley F, Casanova J, Shapiro LE. Thyroid hormone controls glucocorticoid action in cultured GH1 cells. Nature 1977; 268: 254–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yanagisawa M, Fukasawa N, Hase K, Sakurai S, Sakatsume Y, Iitaka M, et al. The effect of triiodothyronine replacement on the pituitary growth hormone gene expression in the fasting rat. 73th Endocrine Society Meeting abstract #202, 1991.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bedo G, Santisteban P, Aranda A. Retinoic acid regulates growth hormone gene expression. Nature 1989; 339: 231–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Morita S, Fernandez-Mejia C, Melmed S. Retinoic acid selectively stimulates growth hormone secretion and messenger ribonucleic acid levels in rat pituitary cells. Endocrinology 1989; 124: 2052–2056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Peisen JN, McDonnell KJ, Mulroney SE, Lumpkin MD. Endotoxin-induced suppression of the somatotropic axis is mediated by interleukin-lbeta and corticotrophin-releasing factor in the juvenile rat. Endocrinology 1995; 136: 3378–3390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Phillips LS, Young HS. Nutrition and somatomedin. I. Effect of fasting and refeeding on serum somatomedin activity and cartilage growth activity in rats. Endocrinology 1976; 99: 304–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Takano K, Hizuka N, Kawai K, Shizume K. Effect of growth hormone and nutrition on the level of somatomedin A in the rat. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1978; 87: 485–494.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shapiro B, Pimstone BL. Sulphation factor (somatomedin activity) in experimental protein malnutrition in the rat. J Endocrinol 1978; 77: 233–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Maes M, Amand Y, Underwood LE, Maiter D, Ketelslegers JM. Decreased serum insulin-like growth factor-I response to growth hormone in hypophysectomized rats fed a low protein diet: evidence for a postreceptor defect. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1988; 117: 320–326.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Thissen JP, Triest S, Underwood LE, Maes M, Ketelslegers JM. Divergent responses of serum insulin-like growth factor-I and liver growth hormone (GH) receptors to exogenous GH in protein-restricted rats. Endocrinology 1990; 126: 908–913.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Grant DB, Hambley J, Becker D, Pimstone BL. Reduced sulphation factor in undernourished children. Arch Dis Child 1973; 48: 596–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Soliman AT, Hassan AEI, Aref MK, Hintz RL, Rosenfeld RG, Rogol AD. Serum Insulin-like growth factor I and II concentrations and growth hormone and insulin responses to arginine infusion in children with protein-energy malnutrition before and after nutritional rehabilitation. Pediatr Res 1986; 20: 1122–1130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schwander JC, Hauri C, Zapf J, Froesch ER. Synthesis and secretion of insulin-like growth factor and its binding protein by the perfused rat liver: dependence on growth hormone status. Endocrinology 1983; 113: 297–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sjögren K, Liu JL, Blad K, Skrtic S, Vidal O, Wallenius V, et al. Liver-derived insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is the principal source of IGF-I in blood but is not required for postnatal body growth in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999; 96: 7088–7092.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Maes M, Underwood LE, Ketelslegers JM. Plasma somatomedin-C in fasted and refed rats: close relationship with changes in liver somatogenic but not lactogenic binding sites. J Endocrinol 1983; 97: 243–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mulumba N, Massa G, Ketelslegers JM, Maes M. Ontogeny and nutritional regulation of the serum growth hormone binding protein in the rat. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1991; 125: 409–415.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hochberg Z, Hertz P, Colin V, Ish-Shalom S, Yeshurun D, Youdim MBH et al. The distal axis of growth hormone (GH) in nutritional disorders: GH-binding protein, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGFI), and IGF- I receptors in obesity and anorexia nervosa. Metabolism 1992; 41: 106–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Schwartzbauer G, Menon RK. Regulation of growth hormone receptor gene expression. Mol Genet Metab 1998; 63: 243–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bomfeldt KE, Arnqvist HJ, Enberg B, Mathews LS, Norstedt G. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I and growth hormone receptor gene expression by diabetes and nutritional state in rat tissues. J Endocrinol 1989; 122: 651–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Straus DS, Takemoto CD. Effect of fasting on insulin-like growth factor-I and growth hormone receptor mRNA levels and IGF-I gene transcription in rat liver. Mol Endocrinol 1990; 4: 91–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gabrielsson BG, Carmignac DF, Flavell DM, Robinson ICAF. Steroid regulation of growth hormone (GH) receptor and GH-binding protein messenger ribonucleic acids in the rat. Endocrinology 1995; 136: 209–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Beauloye V, Ketelslegers J-M, Moreau B, Thissen J-P. Dexamethasone inhibits both growth hormone (GH)-induction of insulin-like growth factor-I(IGF-I) mRNA and GH receptor (GHR) mRNA levels in rat primary cultured hepatocytes. Growth Hormone IGF Res 1999; 9: 205–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dauncey MJ, Burton KA, White P, Harrison AP, Gilmour RS, Duchamp C et al. Nutritional regulation of growth hormone receptor gene expression. FASEB J 1994; 8: 81–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Romero GS, Stephan DA, Sperling MA, Menon RK. Distinct sexual dimorphism in the effect of hypothyroidism on the expression of the growth hormone receptor and growth hormone-binding protein gene in rat liver. Horm Res 1996; 45: 273–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mullis PE, Eblé A, Marti U, Bürgi U, Postel-Vinay MC. Regulation of human growth hormone receptor gene transcription by triiodothyronine (T3). Mol Cell Endocrinol 1999; 147: 17–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Menon RK, Stephan DA, Rao RH, Shen-Orr Z, Downs LS, Jr., Roberts CT, Jr., et al. Tissue-specific regulation of the growth hormone receptor gene in streptozocin-induced diabetes in the rat. J Endocrinol 1994; 142: 453–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Maes M, Ketelslegers JM, Underwood LE. Low plasma somatomedin-C in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus: correlation with changes in somatogenic and lactogenic liver binding sites. Diabetes 1983; 32: 1060–1069.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Leung KC, Doyle N, Ballesteros M, Waters MJ, Ho KKY. Insulin regulation of human hepatic growth hormone receptors: Divergent effects on biosynthesis and surface translocation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85: 4712–4720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Niimi S, Hayakawa T, Tanaka A, Ichihara A. Glucose regulation of growth hormone receptors in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Endocrinology 1991; 129: 2734–2739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Brameld JM, Gilmour RS, Buttery PJ. Glucose and amino acids interact with hormones to control expression of insulin-like growth factor-I and growth hormone receptor mRNA in cultured pig hepatocytes. J Nutr 1999; 129: 1298–1306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Shuto Y, Nakano T, Sanno N, Domoto H, Sugihara H, Wakabayashi I. Clinical case seminar-Reduced growth hormone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in an aged man with chronic malnutrition and growth hormone resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84: 2320–2323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hermansson M, Wickelgren RB, Hammarqvist F, Bjarnason R, Wennström I, Carlsson B, et al. Measurement of human growth hormone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based assay: Demonstration of reduced expression after elective surgery. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 421–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ninh NX, Maiter D, Lause P, Chrzanowska B, Underwood LE, Ketelslegers J-M et al. Continuous administration of growth hormone (GH) does not prevent the decrease of IGF-I gene expression in zinc-deprived rats despite normalization of liver GH binding. Growth Regul 1997; 7: 1–8.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Tonshoff B, Eden S, Weiser E, Carlsson B, Robinson IC, Blum WF et al. Reduced hepatic growth hormone (GH) receptor gene expression and increased plasma GH binding protein in experimental uremia. Kidney Int 1994; 45: 1085–1092.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Defalque D, Brandt N, Ketelslegers JM, Thissen JP. GH insensitivity induced by endotoxin injection is associated with decreased liver GH receptors. Am J Physiol 1999; 276: E565 - E572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fliesen T, Maiter D, Gerard G, Underwood LE, Maes M, Ketelslegers J-M. Reduction of serum insulin-like growth factor-I by dietary protein restriciton is age dependent. Pediatr Res 1989; 26: 415–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Thissen JP, Triest S, Maes M, Underwood LE, Ketelslegers JM. The decreased plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I in protein-restricted rats is not due to decreased number of growth hormone receptors on isolated hepatocytes. J Endocrinol 1990; 124: 159–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Oster MH, Fielder PJ, Levin N, Cronin MJ. Adaptation of the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor- I axis to chronic and severe calorie or protein malnutrition. J Clin Invest 1995; 95: 2258–2265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Phillips LS, Goldstein S, Pao CI. Nutrition and somatomedin XXVI. Molecular regulation of IGF-I by insulin in cultured rat hepatocytes. Diabetes 1991; 40: 1525–1530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Thissen JP, Pucilowska J, Underwood LE. Differential regulation of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 mRNAs by amino acid availability and growth hormone in rat hepatocyte primary culture. Endocrinology 1994; 134: 1570–1576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Beauloye V, Willems B, de C, V, Frank SJ, Edery M, Thissen JP. Impairment of liver GH receptor signaling by fasting. Endocrinology 2002; 143: 792–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Davey HW, Xie T, McLachlan MJ, Wilkins RJ, Waxman DJ, Grattan DR. STAT5b is required for GH-induced liver Igf-I gene expression. Endocrinology 2001; 142: 3836–3841.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nicholson SE, Hilton DJ. The SOCS proteins: a new family of negative regulators of signal transduction. J Leukocyte Biol 1998; 63: 665–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hansen JA, Lindberg K, Hilton DJ, Nielsen JH, Billestrup N. Mechanism of inhibition of growth hormone receptor signaling by suppressor of cytokine signaling proteins. Mol Endocrinol 1999; 13: 1832–1843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Schaefer F, Chen Y, Tsao T, Nouri P, Rabkin R. Impaired JAK-STAT signal transduction contributes to growth hormone resistance in chronic uremia. J Clin Invest 2001; 108: 467–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mao YL, Ling PR, Fitzgibbons TP, McCowen KC, Frick GP, Bistrian BR et al. Endotoxin-induced inhibition of growth hormone receptor signaling in rat liver in vivo. Endocrinology 1999; 140: 5505–5515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Phillips LS, Young HS. Nutrition and somatomedin. II. Serum somatomedin activity and cartilage growth activity in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Diabetes 1976; 25: 516–527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Scott CD, Baxter RC. Production of insulin-like growth factor-I and its binding protein in rat hepatocytes cultured from diabetic and insulin-treated diabetic rats. Endocrinology 1986; 119: 2346–2352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Baxter RC, Bryson JM, Turtle JR. Somatogenic receptors of rat liver: regulation by insulin. Endocrinology 1980; 107: 1176–1181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tollet P, Enberg B, Mode A. Growth hormone (GH) regulation of cytochrome P-450IIC12, Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and GH receptor messenger RNA expression in primary rat hepatocytes: a hormonal interplay with insulin, IGF-I, and thyroid hormone. Mol Endocrinol 1990; 4: 1934–1942.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Maes M, Underwood LE, Ketelslegers J-M. Low serum somatomedin-C in insulin-dependent diabetes: evidence for a postreceptor mechanism. Endocrinology 1986; 118: 377–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Johnson TR, Blossey BK, Denko CW, Ilan J. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-I in cultured rat hepatocytes: effects of insulin and growth hormone. Mol Endocrinol 1989; 3: 580–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Boni-Schnetzler M, Schmid C, Meier PJ, Froesch ER. Insulin regulates insulin-like growth factor I mRNA in rat hepatocytes. Am J Physiol 1991; 260: E846 - E851.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Houston B, O’Neill IE. Insulin and growth hormone act synergistically to stimulate insulin-like growth factor-I production by cultured chicken hepatocytes. J Endocrinol 1991; 128: 389–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pao CI, Farmer PK, Begovic S, Villafuerte BC, Wu G, Robertson DG, et al. Regulation of Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF- binding protein-1 gene transcription by hormones and amino acids in rat hepatocytes. Mol Endocrinol 1993; 7: 1561–1568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Goya L, De la Puente A, Ramos S, Mart’n MA, Escriva’ F, Alvarez C, et al. Regulation of IGF-I and–II by insulin in primary cultures of fetal rat hepatocytes. Endocrinology 2001; 142: 5089–5096.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Maiter D, Fliesen T, Underwood LE, Maes M, Gerard G, Davenport ML, et al. Dietary protein restriction decreases insulin-like growth factor I independent of insulin and liver growth hormone binding. Endocrinology 1989; 124: 2604–2611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Caufriez A, Golstein J, Lebrun P, Herchuelz A, Furlanetto R, Copinschi G. Relations between immunoreactive somatomedin-C, insulin and T3 patterns during fasting in obese subjects. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1984; 20: 65–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Glas AR, Mellitt R, Burman KD, et al. Serum triiodothyronine in undernourished rats: dependence on dietary composition rather than total calorie or protein intake. Endocrinology 1978; 102: 1925–1928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Burstein Pi, Draznin B, Johnson CJ, Schalch DS. The effect of hypothyroidism on growth, serum growth hormone, the growth hormone-dependent somatomedin, insulin-like growth factor, and its carrier protein in rats. Endocrinology 1979; 104: 1107–1111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Harakawa S, Yamashita S, Tobinaga T, Matsuo K, Hirayu H, Izumi M, et al. In vivo regulation of hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I messenger ribonucleic acids with thyroid hormone. Endocrinol Japon 1990; 37: 205–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Evans RM, Birnberg NC, Rosenfeld MG. Glucocorticoid and thyroid hormones transcriptionally regulate growth hormone gene expression. Proc Nati Acad Sci USA 1982; 79: 7659–7663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wolf M, Ingbar SH, Moses AC. Thyroid hormone and growth hormone interact to regulate insulin-like growth factor-I messenger ribonucleic acid and circulating levels in the rat. Endocrinology 1989; 125: 2905–2914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    keda T, Fujiyama K, Hoshino T, Takeuchi T, Mashiba H, Tominaga M. Possible role of thyroid hormone in decreased somatomedin-C levels in diabetic and starved rats. Ann Nutr Metab 1990; 34: 8–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Luo J, Murphy LJ. Dexamethasone inhibits growth hormone induction of insulin-like growth factor-I messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in hypophysectomized rats and reduces IGF-I mRNA abundance in the intact rat. Endocrinology 1989; 125: 165–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Jux C, Leiber K, Hügel U, Blum W, Ohlsson C, Klaus G, et al. Dexamethasone impairs growth hormone (GH)-stimulated growth by suppression of local insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I production and expression of GH- and IGF-I-receptor in cultured rat chondrocytes. Endocrinology 1998; 139: 3296–3305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    King APJ, Carter-Su C. Dexamethasone-induced antagonism of growth hormone (GH) action by down-regulation of GH binding in 3T3–F442A fibroblasts. Endocrinology 1995; 136: 4796–4803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Rodgers BD, Lau AOT, Nicoll CS. Hypophysectomy or adrenalectomy of rats with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus partially restores their responsiveness to growth hormone. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994; 207: 220–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bryson JM, Baxter RC. Adrenal involvement in the diabetes-induced loss of Growth Hormone and Prolactin receptors in the livers of female rats. Diabetologia 1986; 29: 106–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Unterman TG, Jentel JJ, Oehler DT, Lacson RG, Hofert JF. Effects of glucocorticoids on circulating levels and hepatic expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding proteins and IGF-I in the adrenalectomized streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Endocrinology 1993; 133 (6): 2531–2539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Fan J, Char D, Bagby GJ, Gelato MC, Lang CH. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor- I (IGF-I) and IGF binding proteins by tumor necrosis factor. Am J Physiol 1995; 269: R1204 - R1212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Lang CH, Fan J, Cooney R, Vary TC. IL-1 receptor antagonist attenuates sepsis-induced alterations in the IGF system and protein synthesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 1996; 270: E430 - E437.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Thissen JP, Verniers J. Inhibition by interleukin-113 and tumor necrosis factor-a of the insulin-like growth factor I messenger ribonucleic acid response to growth hormone in rat hepatocyte primary culture. Endocrinology 1997; 138: 1078–1084.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Maniar S, Kleinknecht C, Zhou X, Motel V, Yvert JP, Dechaux M. Growth hormone action is blunted by acidosis in experimental uremia or acid load. Clin Nephrol 1996; 46: 72–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Bereket A, Wilson TA, Kolasa AJ, Fan J, Lang CH. Regulation of the insulin-like growth factor system by acute acidosis. Endocrinology 1996; 137: 2238–2245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Harp JB, Goldstein S, Phillips LS. Molecular regulation of IGF-I by amino acid availability in cultured hepatocytes. Diabetes 1991; 40: 95–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wheelhouse NM, Stubbs AK, Lomax MA, MacRae JC, Hazlerigg DG. Growth hormone and amino acid supply interact synergistically to control insulin-like growth factor-I production and gene expression in cultured ovine hepatocytes. J Endocrinol 1999; 163: 353–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Zhang JH, Chrysis D, Underwood LE. Reduction of hepatic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) during fasting is associated with diminished splicing of IGF-I pre-mRNA and decreased stability of cytoplasmic IGF-I mRNA. Endocrinology 1998; 139: 4523–4530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Phillips LS, Huang S. Identification of an amino acid responsive element in the rat IGF-I gene. 10th International Congress of Endocrinology, June 12–15, 1966, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Fafournoux P, Bruhat A, Jousse C. Amino acid regulation of gene expression. Biochem J 2000; 351: 1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Dudek SM, Semenkovich CF. Essential amino acids regulate fatty acid synthase expression through an uncharged transfer RNA-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem 1995; 270: 29323–29329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Jousse C, Bruhat A, Ferrara M, Fafournoux P. Physiological concentration of amino acids regulates insulin-like-growth-factor-binding protein 1 expression. Biochemical J 1998; 334: 147–153.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Takenaka A, Old N, Takahashi SI, Noguchi T. Dietary restriction of single essential amino acids reduces plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) but does not affect plasma IGF-binding protein-1 in rats. J Nutr 2000; 130: 2910–2914.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Goya L, De la Puente A, Ramos S, Mart’n MA, Escriva F, Pascual-Leone AM. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I and -II by glucose in primary cultures of fetal rat hepatocytes. J Biol Chem 1999; 274: 24633–24640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lefebvre D, Beckers F, Ketelslegers JM, Thissen JP. Zinc regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), growth hormone receptor (GHR) and binding protein (GHBP) gene expression in rat cultured hepatocytes. Mol Cell Endocrinol 1998; 138: 127–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Emler CA, Schalch DS. Nutritionally-induced changes in hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene expression in rats. Endocrinology 1987; 120: 832–834.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Moats-Staats BM, Brady JLJ, Underwood LE, D’Ercole AJ. Dietary protein restriction in artificially reared neonatal rats causes a reduction of insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression. Endocrinology 1989; 125: 2368–2374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Straus DS, Takemoto CD. Specific decrease in liver insulin-like growth factor-I and brain insulin-like growth factor-II gene expression in energy-restricted rats. J Nutr 1991; 121: 1279–1286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Thissen JP, Triest S, Moats-Staats BM, Underwood LE, Mauerhoff T, Maiter D et al. Evidence that pretranslational and translational defects decrease serum IGF-I concentrations during dietary protein restriction. Endocrinology 1991; 129: 429–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Lowe WL, Jr., Adamo M, Werner H, Roberts CT, Jr., LeRoith D. Regulation by fasting of rat insulin-like growth factor I and its receptor. Effects on gene expression and binding. J Clin Invest 1989; 84: 619–626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Adamo M, Ben-Hur H, Roberts CT, Jr., LeRoith D. Regulation of start site usage in the leader exons of the rat insulin-like growth factor-I gene by development, fasting, and diabetes. Molecular Endocrinology 1991; 5: 1677–1686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Zhang JH, Whitehead RE, Jr., Underwood LE. Effect of fasting on insulin-like growth factor (IGF)IA and IGF-IB messenger ribonucleic acids and prehormones in rat liver. Endocrinology 1997; 138: 3112–3118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Straus DS, Takemoto CD. Effect of dietary protein deprivation on insulin-like growth factor-I and -II, IGF binding protein-2, and serum albumin gene expression in rat. Endocrinology 1990; 127: 1849–1860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Hayden JM, Marten NW, Burke EJ, Straus DS. The effect of fasting on insulin-like growth factor-I nuclear transcript abundance in rat liver. Endocrinology 1994; 134: 760–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Hayden JM, Straus DS. IGF-I and serine protease inhibitor 2.1 nuclear transcript abundance in rat liver during protein restriction. J Endocrinol 1995; 145: 397–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Marten NW, Sladek FM, Straus DS. Effect of dietary protein restriction on liver transcription factors. Biochem J 1996; 317: 361–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Marten NW, Hsiang CH, Yu L, Stollenwerk NS, Straus DS. Functional activity of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 is specifically decreased in amino acid-limited hepatoma cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1999; 1447: 160–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Marten NW, Burke EJ, Hayden JM, Straus DS. Effect of amino acid limitation on the expression of 19 genes in rat hepatoma cells. FASEB J 1994; 8: 538–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Entingh AJ, Law BK, Moses HL. Induction of the C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) by amino acid deprivation requires insulin-like growth factor I, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Endocrinology 2001; 142: 221–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Ron D, Habener JF. CHOP, a novel developmentally regulated nuclear protein that dimerizes with transcription factors C/EBP and LAP and functions as a dominant-negative inhibitor of gene transcription. Genes Dev 1992; 6: 439–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Nolten LA, van Schaik FM, Steenbergh PH, Sussenbach JS. Expression of the insulin-like growth factor I gene is stimulated by the liver-enriched transcription factors C/EBP alpha and LAP. Mol Endocrinol 1994; 8: 1636–1645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Nolten LA, Steenbergh PH, Sussenbach JS. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha activates promoter 1 of the human insulin-like growth factor I gene via two distinct binding sites. Mol Endocrinol 1995; 9: 1488–1499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Zhu JL, Kaytor EN, Pao CI, Meng XP, Phillips LS. Involvement of Spl in the transcriptional regulation of the rat insulin-like growth factor-1 gene. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2000; 164: 205–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Leung-Pineda V, Kilberg MS. Role of Spl and Sp3 in the Nutrient-regulated Expression of the Human Asparagine Synthetase Gene. J Biol Chem 2002; 277: 16585–16591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Hoyt EC, Hepler JE, Van Wyk JJ, Lund PK. Structural characterization of exon 6 of the rat IGF-I gene. DNA and cell biology 1992; 11: 433–441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Klausner RD, Harford JB. Cis-trans models for post-transcriptional gene regulation. Science 1989; 246: 870–872.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Davenport ML, D’Ercole AJ, Underwood LE. Effect of maternal fasting on fetal growth, serum insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and tissue IGF messenger ribonucleic acids. Endocrinology 1990; 126: 2062–2067.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Goldstein S, Harp JB, Phillips LS. Nutrition and Somatomedin XXII: molecular regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I during fasting and refeeding in rats. J Molecular Endocrinology 1991; 6: 33–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Katsumata M, Kawakami S, Kaji Y, Takada R, Dauncey MJ. Differential regulation of porcine hepatic IGF-I mRNA expression and plasma IGF-I concentration by a low lysine diet. J Nutr 2002; 132: 688–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Thissen JP, Underwood LE. Translational status of the Insulin-like growth factor-I mRNAS in liver of protein-restricted rats. J Endocrinol 1992; 132: 141–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    VandeHaar M, Moats-Staats BM, Davenport ML, Walker JL, Ketelslegers JM, Sharma BK, et al. Reduced serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in protein-restricted growing rats are accompanied by reduced IGF-I mRNA levels in liver and skeletal muscle. J Endocrinol 1991; 130: 305–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Naranjo WM, Yakar S, Sanchez-Gomez M, Perez AU, Setser J, LeRoith D. Protein calorie restriction affects nonhepatic igf-I production and the lymphoid system: studies using the liver-specific igf-I gene-deleted mouse model. Endocrinology 2002; 143: 2233–2241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Hintz RL, Liu F. Demonstration of specific plasma protein binding for somatomedin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1977; 45: 988–995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Kaufmann U, Zapf J, Torretti B, Froesch ER. Demonstration of a specific serum carrier protein of nonsuppressible insulin-like activity in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1977; 44: 160–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Furlanetto RW, Underwood LE, Van Wyk JJ, D’Ercole AJ. Estimation of somatomedin-C levels in normals and patients with pituitary disease by radioimmunoassay. J Clin Invest 1977; 60: 648–657.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Jones JI, Clemmons DR. Insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins: Biological actions. Endocr Rev 1995; 16: 3–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Elgin RG, Busby WHJ, Clemmons DR. An insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein enhances the biologic response to IGF-I. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987; 84: 3254–3258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Blum WF, Jenne EW, Reppin F, Kietzmann K, Ranke MB, Bierich JR. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-binding protein complex is a better mitogen than free IGF-I. Endocrinology 1989; 125: 766–772.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Ernst M, Rodan GA. Increased activity of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) in osteoblastic cells in the presence of growth hormone (GH): positive correlation with the presence of the GH-induced IGFbinding protein BP-3. Endocrinology 1990; 127: 807–814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Burch WW, Correa J, Shively JE, Powell DR. The 25-kilodalton insulin-like growth factor (IGF)binding protein inhibits both basal and IGF-I-mediated growth of chick embryo pelvic cartilage in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990; 70: 173–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Ross M, Francis GL, Szabo L, Wallace JC, Ballard FJ. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding proteins inhibit the biological activities of IGF-I and IGF-II but not des(1–3)IGF-I. Biochem J 1989; 258: 267–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    De Mellow JS, Baxter RC. Growth hormone dependent insulin-like growth factor binding protein both inhibits and potentiates IGF-I stimulated DNA synthesis in skin fibroblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1988; 156: 199–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Frystyk J, Gronbæk H, Skjærbæk C, Flyvbjerg A, Orskov H, Baxter RC. Developmental changes in serum levels of free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-Binding protein-1 and -3, and the acid-labile subunit in rats. Endocrinology 1998; 139: 4286–4292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Binoux M, Hossenlopp P. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF-binding proteins: comparison of human serum and lymph. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988; 67: 509–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Zapf J, Hauri C, Waldvogel M, Froesch ER. Acute metabolic effects and half-lives of intravenously administered insulinlike growth factors I and II in normal and hypophysectomized rats. J Clin Invest 1986; 77: 1768–1775.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Guler HP, Zapf J, Schmid C, Froesch ER. Insulin-like growth factor-I and II in healthy man. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1989; 121: 753–758.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Frystyk J, Hussain M, Skjaerbaek C, Porksen N, Froesch ER, Orskov H. The pharmacokinetics of free insulin-like growth factor-I in healthy subjects. Growth Horm IGF Res 1999; 9: 150–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Bar RS, Clemmons DR, Boes M, Busby WH, Booth BA, Dake BL et al. Transcapillary permeability and subendothelial distribution of endothelial and amniotic fluid insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in the rat heart. Endocrinology 1990; 127: 1078–1086.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Katz LE, DeLeon DD, Zhao H, Jawad AF. Free and Total Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-I Levels Decline during Fasting: Relationships with Insulin and IGF-Binding Protein-1. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87: 2978–2983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Frystyk J, Grofte T, Skjaerbaek C, Orskov H. The effect of oral glucose on serum free insulin-like growth factor-I and -II in health adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 3124–3127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Oh Y, Muller HL, Pham H, Rosenfeld RG. Demonstration of receptors for insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 on Hs578T human breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem 1993; 268: 26045–26048.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Hwa V, Oh Y, Rosenfeld RG. The insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) superfamily. Endocr Rev 1999; 20: 761–787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Baxter RC, Martin JL. Radioimmunoassay of growth hormone-dependent insulinlike growth factor binding protein in human plasma. J Clin Invest 1986; 78: 1504–1512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Baxter RC, Cowell CT. Diurnal rhythm of growth hormone-independent binding protein for insulin-like growth factors in human plasma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987; 65: 432–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Busby WH, Snyder DK, Clemmons DR. Radioimmunoassay of a 26,000-dalton plasma insulin-like growth factor-binding protein: control by nutritional variables. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988; 67: 1225–1230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Suikkari AM, Koivisto VA, Rutanen EM, Yki-Jarvinen H, Karonen SL, Seppala M. Insulin regulates the serum levels of low molecular weight insulin-like growth factor-binding protein. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988; 66: 266–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Conover CA, Butler PC, Wang M, Rizza RA, Lee PDK. Lack of growth hormone effect on insulin-associated suppression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in humans. Diabetes 1990; 39: 1251–1256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Snyder DK, Clemmons DR. Insulin-dependent regulation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991; 71: 1632–1636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Lewitt MS, Baxter RC. Inhibitors of glucose uptake stimulate the production of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP-1) by human fetal liver. Endocrinology 1990; 126: 1527–1533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Bar RS, Boes M, Clemmons DR, Busby WH, Sandra A, Dake BL et al. Insulin differentially alters transcapillary movement of intravascular IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and endothelial cell IGF-binding proteins in the rat heart. Endocrinology 1990; 127: 497–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Clemmons DR, Snyder DK, Busby WH. Variables controlling the secretion of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 in normal human subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991; 73: 727–733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Orlowski CC, Brown AL, Ooi GT, Yang YWH, Tseng LYH, Rechler MM. Tissue, developmental, and metabolic regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid encoding a rat insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins. Endocrinology 1990; 126: 611–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Murphy LJ, Seneviratne C, Moreira P, Reid RE. Enhanced expression of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 in the fasted rat: the effects of insulin and growth hormone administration. Endocrinology 1991; 128: 689–696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Tseng LYH, Ooi GT, Brown AL, Straus DS, Rechler MM. Transcription of the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 is increased in neonatal and fasted rat liver. Mol Endocrinol 1992; 6: 1195–1201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Smith WJ, Underwood LE, Clemmons DR. Effects of caloric or protein restriction on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding proteins in children and adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995; 80: 443–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Gallaher BW, Breier BH, Oliver MH, Harding JE, Gluckman PD. Ontogenic differences in the nutritional regulation of circulating IGF binding proteins in sheep plasma. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1992; 126: 49–54.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Frystyk J, Delhanty PJD, Skjærbæk C, Baxter RC. Changes in the circulating IGF system during short-term fasting and refeeding in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 1999; 277: E245 - E252.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Baxter RC, Martin JL, Tyler MI, Howden MEH. Growth hormone-dependent insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein from human plasma differs from other human IGF binding proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1986; 139: 1256–1261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    McCusker RH, Cohick WS, Busby WH, Clemmons DR. Evaluation of the developmental and nutritional changes in porcine IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 serum levels by immunoassay. Endocrinology 1991; 129: 2631–2638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Donovan SM, Atilano LC, Hintz RL, Wilson DM, Rosenfeld RG. Differential regulation of the insulin-like growth factors (IGF- I and -II) and IGF binding proteins during malnutrition in the neonatal rat. Endocrinology 1991; 129: 149–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Davenport ML, Clemmons DR, Miles MV, Camacho-Hubner C, D’Ercole AJ, Underwood LE. Regulation of serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding proteins during rat pregnancy. Endocrinology 1990; 127: 1278–1286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Davenport ML, Isley WL, Pucilowska JB, Pemberton LB, Lyman B, Underwood LE et al. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 proteolytic activity is induced following elective surgery. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992; 75: 590–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Timmins AC, Cotterill AM, Hughes SCC, Holly JMP, Ross RJM, Blum W, et al. Critical illness is associated with low circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factors-I and -II, alterations in insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, and induction of an insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 protease. Crit Care Med 1996; 24: 1460–1466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Stoving RK, Flyvbjerg A, Frystyk J, Fisker S, Hangaard J, Hansen-Nord M et al. Low serum levels of free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in patients with anorexia nervosa are not associated with increased IGF-binding protein-3 proteolysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84: 1346–1350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Dai J, Baxter RC. Regulation in vivo of the acid-labile subunit of the rat serum insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex. Endocrinology 1994; 135: 2335–2341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Oster MH, Levin N, Fielder PJ, Robinson ICAF, Baxter RC, Cronin MJ. Developmental differences in the IGF-I system response to severe and chronic calorie malnutrition. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 1996; 270: E646 - E653.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Takenaka A, Mori M, Yamada S, Ohgane J, Takahashi SI, Noguchi T. Nutritional regulation of gene expression of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins and the acid-labile subunit in various tissues of rats. J Endocrinol 1996; 150: 33–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Dai J, Scott CD, Baxter RC. Regulation of the acid-labile subunit of the insulin-like growth factor complex in cultured rat hepatocytes. Endocrinology 1994; 135: 1066–1072.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Bereket A, Wilson TA, Blethen SL, Sakurai Y, Herndon DN, Wolfe RR, et al. Regulation of the acid-labile subunit of the insulin-like growth factor ternary complex in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and severe burns. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1996; 44: 525–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Thissen JP, Underwood LE, Maiter D, Maes M, Clemmons DR, Ketelslegers JM. Failure of IGF-I infusion to promote growth in protein-restricted rats despite normalization of serum IGF-I concentrations. Endocrinology 1991; 128: 885–890.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Lemozy S, Pucilowska JB, Underwood LE. Reduction of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in protein-restricted rats is associated with differential regulation of IGF- binding protein messenger ribonucleic acids in liver and kidney, and peptides in liver and serum. Endocrinology 1994; 135: 617–623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Skjaerbaek C, Frystyk J, Orskov H, Kissmeyer-Nielsen P, Jensen MB, Laurberg S et al. Differential changes in free and total insulin-like growth factor I after major, elective abdominal surgery: the possible role of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 proteolysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83: 2445–2449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Lang CH, Pollard V, Fan J, Traber LD, Traber DL, Frost RA, et al. Acute alterations in growth hormone insulin-like growth factor axis in humans injected with endotoxin. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 1997; 273: R371 - R378.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Lang CH, Fan J, Frost RA, Gelato MC, Sakurai Y, Herndon DN et al. Regulation of the insulin-like growth factor system by insulin in burn patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81: 2474–2480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Takahashi S, Kajikawa M, Umezawa T, Takahashi SI, Kato H, Miura Y et al. Effect of dietary proteins on the plasma immunoreactive insulin-like growth factor-I/somatomedin-C concentrations in the rat. Br J Nutr 1990; 63: 521–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Thissen JP, Davenport ML, Pucilowska J, Miles MV, Underwood LE. Increased serum clearance and degradation of [125I1-labeled IGF- I in protein-restricted rats. Am J Physiol 1992; 262: E406 - E411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Cohen KL, Nissley SP. The serum half-life of somatomedin activity: evidence for growth hormone dependence. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1976; 83: 243–258.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Fan J, Char D, Kolasa AJ, Pan W, Maitra SR, Patlak CS et al. Alterations in hepatic production and peripheral clearance of IGF-I after endotoxin. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 1995; 269: E33 - E42.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Ninh NX, Maiter D, Verniers J, Lause P, Ketelslegers JM, Thissen JP. Failure of exogenous IGF-I to restore normal growth in rats submitted to dietary zinc deprivation. J Endocrinol 1998; 159: 211–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Bourrin S, Ammann P, Bonjour JP, Rizzoli R. Dietary protein restriction lowers plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), impairs cortical bone formation, and induces osteoblastic resistance to IGF-I in adult female rats. Endocrinology 2000; 141: 3149–3155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Kee AJ, Baxter RC, Carlsson AR, Smith RC. Parenteral amino acid intake alters the anabolic actions of insulin-like growth factor I in rats. Am J Physiol 1999; 277: E63 - E72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Philipps AF, Persson B, Hall K, Lake M, Skottner A, Sanengen T et al. The effects of biosynthetic insulin-like growth factor-I supplementation on somatic growth, maturation, and erythropoiesis on the neonatal rat. Pediatr Res 1988; 23: 298–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Hirschberg R, Kopple JD. Evidence that insulin-like growth factor-I increases renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate in fasted rats. J Clin Invest 1989; 83: 326–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Jacob R, Barrett E, Plewe G, Fagin KD, Sherwin RS. Acute effects of insulin-like growth factor-I on glucose and amino acid metabolism in the awake fasted rat. J Clin Invest 1989; 83: 1717–1723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Tomas FM, Knowles SE, Owens PC, Read LC, Chandler CS, Gargowsky SE et al. Effects of full-length and truncated insulin-like growth factor- I on nitrogen balance and muscle protein metabolism in nitrogen-restricted rats. J Endocrinol 1991; 128: 97–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Dardevet D, Manin M, Balage M, Sornet C, Grizard J. Influence of low-and high-protein diets on insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I binding to skeletal muscle and liver in the growing rats. Br J Nutr 1991; 65: 47–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Lefebvre D, Boney CM, Ketelslegers JM, Thissen JP. Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-I mito-genic action by zinc chelation is associated with a decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in RAT-1 fibroblasts. FEBS Lett 1999; 449: 284–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Patti ME, Brambilla E, Luzi L, Landaker EJ, Kahn CR. Bidirectional modulation of insulin action by amino acids. J Clin Invest 1998; 101: 1519–1529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Balage M, Sinaud S, Prod’homme M, Dardevet D, Vary TC, Kimball SR et al. Amino acids and insulin are both required to regulate assembly of the eIF4E.eIF4G complex in rat skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001; 281: E565 - E574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Snyder DK, Clemmons DR, Underwood LE. Treatment of obese, diet-restricted subjects withg growth hormone for 11 weeks: effects of anabolism, lipolysis, and body composition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988; 67: 54–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Clemmons DR, Smith-Banks A, Underwood LE. Reversal of diet-induced catabolism by infusion of recombinant Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992; 75: 234–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Mauras N, Beaufrere B. Recombinant human IGF-I enhances whole body protein anabolism and significantly diminishes the protein catabolic effect of prednisone in humans without a diabetogenic effect. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995; 80: 869–874.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Kupfer SR, Underwood LE, Baxter RC, Clemmons DR. Enhancement of the anabolic effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I by use of both agent simultaneously. J Clin Invest 1993; 91: 391–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    McNurlan MA, Garlick PJ, Steigbigel RT, DeCristofaro KA, Frost RA, Lang CH et al. Responsiveness of muscle protein synthesis to growth hormone administration in HIV-infected individuals declines with severity of disease. J Clin Invest 1997; 100: 2125–2132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Vary TC, Dardevet D, Grizard J, Voisin L, Buffiere C, Denis P et al. Differential regulation of skeletal muscle protein turnover by insulin and IGF-I after bacteremia. Am J Physiol 1998; 275: E584 - E593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Fouque D, Peng SC, Kopple JD. Impaired metabolic response to recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 in dialysis patients. Kidney Int 1995; 47: 876–883.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Ding H, Gao XL, Hirschberg R, Vadgama JV, Kopple JD. Impaired actions of insulin-like growth factor 1 on protein Synthesis and degradation in skeletal muscle of rats with chronic renal failure. Evidence for a postreceptor defect. J Clin Invest 1996; 97: 1064–1075.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Fang CH, Li BG, Sun X, Hasselgren PO. Insulin-like growth factor I reduces ubiquitin and ubiquitinconjugating enzyme gene expression but does not inhibit muscle proteolysis in septic rats. Endocrinology 2000; 141: 2743–2751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Fang CH, Li BG, Wang JJ, Fischer JE, Hasselgren PO. Treatment of burned rats with insulin-like growth factor I inhibits the catabolic response in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 1998; 275: R1091 - R1098.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Paul Thissen
  • Véronique Beauloye
  • Jean-Marie Ketelslegers
  • Louis E. Underwood

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations