In the isolated heart THC produces a biphasic effect on heart rate with an initial increase followed by a decrease. THC also decreases coronary flow and cardiac contractile force. The depressant effect of THC on cardiac contraction and coronary flow is antagonized by CBD and by Ca2+ antagonists. In humans, THC and marihuana induce increases in heart rate and blood pressure. In the supine position, postural hypotension is observed because of the peripheral vasodilation produced by the drug. THC produces a deregulation of the baroreflex. In dogs, cats, and rats, THC produces hypotension and bradycardia, indicating a predominance of the interaction of the parasympathetic outflow by THC in these animals. Marihuana smoking increases coronary insufficiency in patients with ischemic cardiac disease. Self-administration of cocaine before exercise will result in an increase in the tachycardia and a decreased efficiency. Marihuana smoking and THC have no therapeutic cardiac properties and are contraindicated in patients with coronary problems.
- Cardiovascular Effect
- Coronary Flow
- Marijuana Smoking
- Coronary Problem
- Parasympathetic Outflow
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Bose, B. C., Saifi, A. Q., and Bhagwat, A. W. (1963) Effect of Cannabis indica on hexobarbital sleeping time and tissue respirationof rat brain. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 141, 520–524.
Gill, E. W. and Paton, W. D. M. (1970) Pharmacological experiments in vitro on the active principles of cannabis, in The Botany and Chemistry of Cannabis ( Joyce, C. R. B. and Curry, S. H., eds.), Churchill, London, UK, pp. 165–173.
Schwartz, I. W. and Nahas, G. G. (1984) Inhibition of smooth muscle contraction by THC, in Marihuana in Science and Medicine ( Nahas, G. G., ed.), Raven, New York, pp. 160.
Manno, B. R. and Manno, J. E. (1973) Some cardiovascular actions of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 25, 451.
Beaconsfield, P., Oakley, C., Carpi, A., Rainsbury, R., and Del Basso, P. (1974) Cardiac effect of delta-9tetrahydrocannabinol on a heart-lung preparation and on the intact animal. Eur. J. Cardiol. 2, 167–173.
Benmoyal, E., Cote, G., and Morin, Y. (1971) A direct action of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ingestion on myocardial contractility. Clin. Res. 19, 758.
Huy, N. D., McNicholl, J., and Roy, P. E. (1972) The acute effects delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on the left ventricular function of isolated hearts. Clin. Res. 20, 910.
Smiley, K. A., Karler, R., and Turkanis, S. A. (1976) Effects of canabinoids on the perfused rat heart. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 14, 659–675.
Nahas, G., Trouve, R. (1985) Effects and interactions of cannabinoids on the isolated heart. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. 180, 312–316.
Trouve, R. and Nahas, G. (1985) Cardiac dynamics of the Langerdorff perfused heart. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 180, 303–311.
Rosenkrantz, H., Thompson, G. R., and C, B. M. (1972) Oral and parentenal formulations of marihuana constituents. J. Pharm. Sci. 61, 1106–1112.
Bloom, A. S. (1982) Cannabinoids and neurotransmitter receptors. Brain Res. 235, 370–375.
Prakash, R., Aronow, W. S., Warren, W. M., Laverty, W., and Gottschalk, L. A. (1975) Effects of marihuana and placebo marihuana smoking on hemodynamics in coronary disease. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 18, 90–95.
Collins, F. G. and Haavik, C. O. (1979) Effects of cannabinoids on cardiac microsomal ca++ATPase activity and calcium uptake. Biochem. Pharmacol. 28, 2303–2306.
Carlini, E. A., Santos, M., V, C., D., and B., F, K. (1970) Structure activity relationship of four tetrahydrocannibinols and the pharmacological activity of five semi-purified extracts of Cannabis sativa. Psychopharmagologia 18, 82–85.
Karniol, I. G. and Carlini, E. A. (1973) Pharmacological interaction between cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Psychopharmacologia 33, 53–61.
Borgen, L. A. and Davis, W. M. (1977) Cannabidiol interaction with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 16, 1–8.
Zuardi, A. W., Finkelfarb, E., A, B. O. F., E, M. R., and Karniol, I. G. (1981) Characteristics of the stimulus produced by the mixture of cannabidiol with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. 249, 137–146.
Brady, K. T. and L, B. R. (1980) The effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol alone and in combination with cannabidiol on fixed-interval performance in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology 72, 21–26.
Karniol, I. G., Shirakawa, I., Kasiniski, N., Pfeferman, A., and Carlini, E. A. (1974) Cannabidiol interferes with the effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 28, 172–177.
Dalton, W. S., Martz, R., Lemberger, L., Rodda, B. E. and Forney, R. B. (1976) Influence of cannabidiol on delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects. Clin. Pharm. and Ther. 19, 300–309.
Hollister, L. E. and Gillespie, L. E. (1975) Interactions of delta-9-THC and CBD. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 18, 80–84.
Benowitz, N. L., Nguyen, I., and Jones, R. T. (1980) Cardiovascular effect of cannabinoids. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 28, 115–123.
Graham, J. D. R. and Li, D. M. E (1973) Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of cannabis in cat and rat. Br. J. Pharmacol. 49, 1–10.
Hardman, H. F., Domino, E. F. and Seevers, M. H. (1971) General pharmacological actions of some synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol derivatives. Pharmacol. Rev. 23, 295–315.
Vollmer, R. R., Cavero, I., Ertel, R. J., Solomon, T. A. and Buckley, J. P. (1974) Role of the central autonomic nervous system in the hypotension and bradycardia induced by (-)-delta-9-transtetrahydrocannabinol. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 26, 186–192.
Dagirmanjian, R. and Boyd, E. S. (1962) Some pharmacological effects of two tetrahydrocannabinol. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 135, 25–33.
Dewey, W., Yonle, L., Harris, L., Reavis, W. M., Griffin, E. D. J. and Newby, E. V. (1970) Some cardiovascular effects of trans-delta-9-THC. Pharmacologist 12, 259.
Milzoff, J. R., Forney, R. B., Stone, C. J. and Allen, D. O. (1971) The cardiovascular effects of delta-9-THC in vagotomized rats. Pharmacologist 13, 247.
Borgen, L. A. and Davis, W. M. (1974) Cannabidiol interaction with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 7, 633–670.
Ford, R. D. and McMillan, D. E. (1971) Behavioral tolerance and cross tolerance to 1-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 1-delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol in pigeons and rats. Fed. Proc. 30, 279.
Dewey, W. L. (1986) Cannabinoid pharmacology. Pharmacol. Rev. 38, 151–178.
Mechoulam, R., Devane, W. L., and Glasser, R. (1992) Cannabinoid geometry and Biological activity in marijuana/cannabinoids Neurobiology and neurophysiology (Laura Murphy and Andrzej Bartke eds) C.R. 0 Press, Boca Baton.
Dewey, W., Harris, L., Howes, J., Granchelli, F., Pars, H., and Razdan, R. (1970) Pharmacology of some marihuana constituents and two heterocyclic analogues. Nature 226, 1265–1267.
Doherty, R. A., McCarthy, L. E., and Borison, H. L. (1983) Respiratory and cardiovascular depressant effects of nabilone, N-methyllevonantradol and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in anesthetized cats. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 227, 508–516.
Paton, W. (1982) Cannabis and the cardiovascular system, in Report of the Expert Group on the Effects of Cannabis Use The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs ( Members Letter to the Home Secretatry ), London, p. 9.
Nahas, G. G., Schwartz, I. W., and Adamec, J. (1973) Tolerance to delta-9-THC in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 142, 58–60.
Choisy, H., Choisy, G., Millart, H., and Legris, H. (1979) Influence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on contraction rate and enzymatic activity of embryonic heart cells, in Marihuana, Biological Effects, Advances in the Biosciences vol. 22,23. ( Nahas, G., and Paton, W., eds.), Pergamon Press, New York pp. X-X.
Sassenrath, E., Chapman, L., and Goo, G. (1979) Reproduction in rhesus monkeys chronically exposed to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, in Advances in the Biosciences vol. 22,23 ( Nahas, G., and Paton, W., eds.), Pergamon Press, New York pp. 501–512.
Scherwitz, L., Perkins, L., Chesney, M., Hughes, G., Sidney, S., and Manolio, T. (1992) Hostility and health behaviors in young adults: the CARDIA study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 136, 136–145.
Johnson, S. and Domino, E. E (1971) Some cardiovascular effects of marijuana smoking in normal volunteers. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 12, 762–768.
Renault, P. F., Schuster, C. R., Heinrich, R., and Freeman, D. (1971) Marijuana: standardized smoke administration and dose effect curves on heart rate in humans. Science 174, 589–591.
Ohlsson, A., Lindgren, J. E., Wahlen, A., Agurell, S., Hollister, L. E., and Gillespie, H. K. (1980) Plasma delta-9-tertrahydrocannabinol concentration and clinical effects after oral and intravenous administration and smoking. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 28, 409–416.
Benowitz, N. L. and Jones, R. T. (1975) Cardiovascular effects of prolonged delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ingestion. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 18, 287–297.
Perez-Reyes, M., DiGuiseppi, S., Davis, K. H., Shindler, V. H., and Cook, C. E. (1982) Comparison of effects of marihuana cigarettes of 3 different potencies. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 31, 617–624.
Agurell, S., Carlsson, S., Lindgren, J. E., Ohlsson, A., Widman, M., Gillespie, H., and Hollister, L. (1986) Pharmacokinetic and metabolism of delta-l-tetrahydrocannabinol. Pharmacol. Rev. 38, 21.
Benowitz, N. L. and Jones, R. T. (1977) Prolonged delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ingestion: effects of sympathomimetic amines and autonomic blockades. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 21, 336–342.
Beaconsfield, P., Ginsburg, J., and Rainsbury, R. (1972) Marijuana smoking: cardiovascular effects in man and possible mechanisms. N. Engl. J. Med. 287, 209–212.
Perez-Reyes, M., Lipton, M. A., Timmons, M. C. et al. (1973) Pharmacology of orally-administered delta-9tetrahydrocannabinol. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 14, 48–55.
Miller, R. H., Dhingra, R. C., Kanakis, C., Amatry-Leon, F., and Rosen, K. M. (1977) The electrophysiological effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (cannabis) on cardiac conduction in man. Am. Heart J. 94, 740–747.
Bachman, J. A., Benowitz, N. L., Herning, R. I., and Jones, R. T. (1979) Dissociation of autonomic and cognitive effectsof THC in man. Psychopharmacology 61, 171–175.
Kochar, M. S. and Hosko, M. J. (1973) Electrocardiographic effects of marihuana. JAMA 225, 25–27.
Hollister, L. E. (1974) Structure-activity relationships in man of cannabis constituents and homologs, and metabolism of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Pharmacology 11, 3–11.
Allentuck, S. (1941) Medical aspects of the marijuana problem in the City of New York, in The Marijuana Papers ( Soloman, D. A., ed.), Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis in, pp. 269–284.
Hollister, L. E. (1971) Actions of various marihuana derivatives. Pharmacol. Rev. 23, 349–358.
Isbell, H., Gorodetsky, G. W., Jasinski, D., Claussen, U., Spulak, E, and Korte, F. (1967) Effect of (-) delta-9transtetrahydrocannabinol in man. Psychopharmacologia 11, 184–188.
Benowitz, N. L., Rosenberg, J., Rogers, W., Bachman, J., and Jones, R. T. (1979) Cardiovascular effects of intravenous delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol: autonomic nervous mechanisms. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 25, 440–446.
Kanakis, C. J., Pouget, J. M., and Rosen, K. M. (1976) The effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (cannabis) on cardiac performance with and without beta blockage. Circulation 53, 703–707.
Malit, L. A., Johnstone, R. E., Bourke, D. I., Kulp, R. A., Klein, V., and Smith, T. C. (1975) Intravenous delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol: effects of ventilatory control and cardiovascular dynamics Anesthesiology 42, 666–673.
Tashkin, D. P., Levisman, J. A., and Abbasi, A. S. (1977) Short-term effects of smoked marihuana on left ventricular function in man. Chest 72, 20–26.
Gash, A., Karliner, J. S., Janowsky, D., and Lake, C. R. (1978) Effects of smoking marihuana on left ventrical performance and plasma norepinephrine: studies in normal men. Ann. Intern. Med. 89, 448–452.
Weiss, J. L., Watanabe, A. M., Lemberger, L., Tamarkin, N R, and Cardon, P. V. (1972) Cardiovascular effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in man. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 13, 671–684.
Bernstein, J. G., Becker, D., Babor, T. F., and Mendelson, J. H. (1974) Physiological assessments: cardiopulmonary function, in The Use of Marijuana: A Psychological and Physiological Inquiry ( Mendelson, J. H., Rossi, A. M., and Meyers, R. E., eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 147–160.
Shapiro, B. J., Reiss, S., Sullivan, S. E, Tashkin, D. P., Simmons, M. S., and Smith, R. T. (1976) Cardiopulmonary effects of marijuana smoking during exercise. Chest 70, 441.
Arakian, E. V., Horwath, S. M., Michael, E. D., and Jacobs, S. (1979) Effect of marihuana on cardiorespiratory responses to submaximal exercise. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 26, 777–781.
Santos-Martinez, J. Gonzales-Castillo, M. A., Toro-Goyco, E. (1984) Effect of (-)-delta-9-tetrahydrocannibinol on fractional sodium and potassium excretion in the dog, in The Cannabinoids: Chemical, Pharmacologic and Therapeutic Aspects (Agurell, S., Dewey, W. L., and Willete, R. E., eds.), Academic Press, New York.
Aronow, W. S. and Cassidy, J. (1974) Effect of marihuana and placebo-marihuana smoking on angina pectoris. N. Engl. J. Med. 291, 65–67.
Aronow, W. S. and Cassidy, J. (1975) Effect of smoking marihuana and of a high-nicotine cigarette on angina pectoris. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 17, 549–554.
Howlett, A. C. (1995) Cannabinoid compounds and signal transduction mechanisms, in (Pertwee, R. G., ed.), Academic, London, pp. 167–204.
Varga, K., Lake, K., Martin, B. R., and Kunos, G. (1995) Novel antagonist implicates the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the hypotensive action of anandamide. Ear. J. Pharmacol. 278, 279–283.
Editors and Affiliations
© 1999 Springer Science+Business Media New York
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Trouve, R., Nahas, G. (1999). Cardiovascular Effects of Marihuana and Cannabinoids. In: Nahas, G.G., Sutin, K.M., Harvey, D., Agurell, S., Pace, N., Cancro, R. (eds) Marihuana and Medicine. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59259-710-9_30
Publisher Name: Humana Press, Totowa, NJ
Print ISBN: 978-1-4757-5717-0
Online ISBN: 978-1-59259-710-9
eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive