Advertisement

Marihuana

Acute Effects on Human Memory
  • Loren L. Miller

Abstract

The single most consistently reported behavioral effect of cannabinoids in humans is an alteration in memory functioning (1). Interest in the effects of Cannabis on memory stemmed from anecdotal reports of the effects of Cannabis on mood and thinking. In 1845, the French psychiatrist de Tours Moreau (2) provided an elegant characterization of the effects of hashish on human mental functioning. Moreau stated that one of the more prominent effects of hashish was a “gradual weakening of the power to direct thoughts at will.” Ideas extraneous to the focus of an individual’s attention appeared to enter the mind producing a loosening of associations. Other early investigators such as Bromberg (3) and Ames (4) employing less potent Cannabis preparations than those used by Moreau and his followers also noted fragmentation of thought and confusion on attempting to remember recent occurrences.

Keywords

Serial Position Anterograde Amnesia List Presentation Intrusion Error Recall Trial 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Miller, L. L. (1976) Marijuana and human cognition: a review of laboratory investigations. In: The Therapeutic Potential of Marijuana ( Cohen, S. and Stillman, R. C., eds.). Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moreau, J. J. (1845) Du hachich et de l’ alienation mentale: Etudes psychologiques, 34, Pacis: Libraire de Roxten, Maison Paris.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bomberg, W. (1934) Marijuana intoxication. Am. J. Psych. 91, 303–330.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ames, F. A. (1958) A clinical and metabolic study of acute intoxication with cannabis sativa and its role in the model psychoses. J. Mental Sci. 104, 972–999.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tinklenberg, J. R., Kopell, B. S., Melges, E T. and Hollister, L. E. (1972) Marijuana and alcohol: time production and memory functions. Arch. Gen. Psych. 27, 812–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clark, L. D., Hughes, R. and Nakashima, E. N. (1970) Behavioral effects of marijuana: experimental studies. Arch. Gen. Psych. 23, 193–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Melges, F. T., Tinklenberg, J. R., Hollister, L. E. and Gillespie, H. K. (1970) Marijuana and temporal disintegration. Science 168, 1118–1120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Melges, F. T., Tinklenberg, J. R., Hollister, L. E. and Gillespie, H. K. (1971) Marijuana and temporal span of awareness. Arch. Gen. Psych. 24, 564–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weil, A. T. and Zinberg, N. E. (1969) Acute effects of marijuana on speech. Nature 222, 434–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Abel, E. I. (1975) Marijuana, learning and memory. In International Review of Neurobiology ( Pfeiffer, C. and Smythies, J., eds.). Academic, New York.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rafaelsen, L., Christup, A., Bech, P. and Rafaelesen, O. J. (1973) Effects on cannabis and alcohol on psychological tests. Nature 242, 117–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tinklenbert, J. R., Kopell, B. S., Melges, E T. and Hollister, L. E. (1972) Marijuana and alcohol: time production and memory functions. Arch. Gen. Psych. 27, 812–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Darley, C. F. and Tinklenberg, J. R. (1974) Marijuana and memory. In: Marijuana: Effects on Human Behavior ( Miller, L. L., ed.). Academic, New York.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shiffrin, W. and Atkinson, R. E. (1969) Storage and retrieval processes in long-term memory. Psychol. Rev. 76, 179–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Darley, C. F., Tinklenberg, J. R., Roth, W. T., Hollister, L. E. and Atkinson, R. C. (1973) Influence of marijuana on storage and retrieval processes in memory. Memory Cognition 1, 196–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Abel, E. L. (1971) Marijuana and memory: acquisition or retrieval? Science 173, 1038–1040.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Buschke, H. (1974) Retrieval in verbal learning. Trans. Acad. Sci. 236, 721–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Peters, B. H. and Levin, H. S. (1977) Memory enhancement after physostigmine treatment in the amnesic syndrome. Arch. Neurol. 34, 215–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kovner, R., Mattis, S., Goldmeier, E., and Davis L. (1981) Korsakoff amnesic syndrome: the result of simultaneous deficits in several independent processes. Brain Language 12, 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fuld, P. A. (1976) Storage, retention and retrieval in Korsakoff’s syndrome. Neuropsychologica 14, 225–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Davis, K. L. et al., Cholinomimetic agents and human memory: clinical studies in Alzheimer’s disease and scopolamine dementia. Pharmacological strategies in aging and dementia and the cholinergic hypothesis. In Strategy for the Development of an Effective Treatment for Senile Dementia ( Cook, T. and Gershon, S., eds.). Mark Powley Associates, New Canann, CT., 1981.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Davies, P. and Maloney, A. J. F. (1976) Selective loss of central cholinergic neurons in Alzheimers disease. Lancet 2, 1043.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Whitehouse, P. J., Price, D., Struble, R. G., Clark, A. W., Gayle, J. T. and DeLong, M. R. (1982) Alzheimer’s disease and senile dementia: loss with neurons in the basal forebrain. Science 215, 1237–1239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Meissner, W. W. (1968) Learning and memory in the Korsakoff syndrome. Int. J. Neuropsych. 4, 6–20.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Miller, L. L., Cornett„ T. and McFarland, D. (1978) Marijuana: an analysis of storage and retrieval deficits in memory with the technique of restricted reminding. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behan 8, 327–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Adam, U. (1979) Disruption of memory functions associated with general anesthetics. In: Functional Disorders of Memory (Kihlstrom, J. F. and Evans, F. J. eds.). Lawrence Erlbaum Press, Hillsdale, N J.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Loren L. Miller

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations