Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Movement Disorders
Botulinum toxins are the most deadly neurotoxins known and are produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum produces seven antigenically (immunologically) distinct neurotoxins: A, B, C1, D, E, F, and G. These neurotoxins block neuromuscular transmission, resulting in both skeletal and smooth muscle paralysis. Clinically, botulism can occur after ingestion of contaminated food or from a wound infection. Signs of botulism can include limb paralysis, facial weakness, ophthalmoplegia, dysarthria, dysphagia, dyspnea progressing to respiratory arrest, constipation progressing to ileus, and urinary retention.
KeywordsBotulinum Toxin Cervical Dystonia Botulinum Toxin Injection Botulinum Toxin Type Hemifacial Spasm
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Brin MF, Blitzer A, Herman S, Stewart C. Oromandibular dystonia: treatment of 96 patients with botulinum toxin type A, in Therapy With Botulinum Toxin ( Jankovic J, Hallett M eds), Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994, pp. 429–435.Google Scholar
- Greene P. Controlled trials of botulinum toxin for cervical dystonia: a critical review, in Therapy With Botulinum Toxin ( Jankovic J, Hallett M eds), Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994, pp. 279–287.Google Scholar
- Jankovic J. Botulinum toxin in movement disorders. Curr Opin Neurol 1994; 7: 358–366. Jankovic J, Schwartz K. Botulinum toxin treatment of tremors. Neurology 1991; 41: 1185–1188.Google Scholar
- Price J, Farish S, Taylor H, O’Day J. Blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. Randomized trial to determine the most appropriate location for botulinum toxin injections. Ophthalmology 1997; 104: 865–868. Pulmann SL, Greene P, Fahn S, Pedersen SF. Approach to the treatment of limb disorders with botulinum toxin A. Experience with 187 patients. Arch Neurol 1996; 53: 617–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar