Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Movement Disorders

  • Charles H. Adler
Part of the Current Clinical Practice book series (CCP)

General Overview

Botulinum toxins are the most deadly neurotoxins known and are produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum produces seven antigenically (immunologically) distinct neurotoxins: A, B, C1, D, E, F, and G. These neurotoxins block neuromuscular transmission, resulting in both skeletal and smooth muscle paralysis. Clinically, botulism can occur after ingestion of contaminated food or from a wound infection. Signs of botulism can include limb paralysis, facial weakness, ophthalmoplegia, dysarthria, dysphagia, dyspnea progressing to respiratory arrest, constipation progressing to ileus, and urinary retention.


Botulinum Toxin Cervical Dystonia Botulinum Toxin Injection Botulinum Toxin Type Hemifacial Spasm 
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Selected Reading

  1. Brin MF, Blitzer A, Herman S, Stewart C. Oromandibular dystonia: treatment of 96 patients with botulinum toxin type A, in Therapy With Botulinum Toxin ( Jankovic J, Hallett M eds), Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994, pp. 429–435.Google Scholar
  2. Brin MF, Lew MF, Adler CH, Cornelia CL, Jankovic J, O’Brien C, Murray JJ, Wallace JD, Willmer-Holme A, Koller M. Safety and efficacy of NeuroBloc (botulinum toxin type B) in type A-resistant cervical dystonia. Neurology 1999; 53: 1431–1438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Greene P. Controlled trials of botulinum toxin for cervical dystonia: a critical review, in Therapy With Botulinum Toxin ( Jankovic J, Hallett M eds), Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994, pp. 279–287.Google Scholar
  4. Greene P, Fahn S, Diamond B. Development of resistance to botulinum toxin type A in patients with torticollis. Mov Disord 1994; 9: 213–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Jankovic J. Botulinum toxin in movement disorders. Curr Opin Neurol 1994; 7: 358–366. Jankovic J, Schwartz K. Botulinum toxin treatment of tremors. Neurology 1991; 41: 1185–1188.Google Scholar
  6. Price J, Farish S, Taylor H, O’Day J. Blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. Randomized trial to determine the most appropriate location for botulinum toxin injections. Ophthalmology 1997; 104: 865–868. Pulmann SL, Greene P, Fahn S, Pedersen SF. Approach to the treatment of limb disorders with botulinum toxin A. Experience with 187 patients. Arch Neurol 1996; 53: 617–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Schantz EJ, Johnson EA. Botulinum toxin: the story of its development for the treatment of human disease. Perspect Biol Med 1997; 40: 317–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Yoshimura DM, Aminoff MJ, Tami TA, Scott AB. Treatment of hemifacial spasm with botulinum toxin. Muscle Nerve 1992; 15: 1045–1049.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles H. Adler

There are no affiliations available

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