Advertisement

Technologies to Diagnose Acute Ischemia

  • Robert J. Zalenski
  • Joseph Lau
  • Harry P. Selker
Chapter
Part of the Contemporary Cardiology book series (CONCARD)

Abstract

As the most common cause of death in this country, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has deservedly been the subject of substantial efforts of clinicians, scientists, governmental and other agencies, and the public in efforts to reduce its devastating impact. Although very significant progress continues to be made, The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recognized the need for a concerted and coordinated effort to reduce mortality and morbidity in this country from AMI and, in 1991, initiated the National Heart Attack Alert Program (NHAAP).

Keywords

Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute Chest Pain Anisoylated Plasminogen Streptokinase Activator Complex Chest Pain Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Selker HP, Zalenski RJ, Antman EM, et al. An evaluation of technologies for identifying acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department: a report from a National Heart Attack Alert Program Working Group. Ann Emerg Med 1997; 29: 13–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Selker HP, Zalenski RJ, Antman EM, et al. An evaluation of technologies for identifying acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department: executive summary of a National Heart Attack Alert Program Working Group report. Ann Emerg Med 1997; 29: 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lau J, Loannidis JPA, Balk EM, et al. Diagnosing acute cardiac ischemia in the Emergency Department: a systematic review of the accuracy and the clinical effect of current technologies. Ann Emerg Med 2001; 37: 453–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Loannidis JPA, Salem D, Chew PW, Lau J. Accuracy and clinical effect of out-of-hospital electrocardiography in the diagnosis of acute cardiac ischemia: a meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med 2001; 37: 461–470.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Loanndis JPA, Salem D, Chew PW, Lau J. Accuracy of imaging technologies in the diagnosis of acute cardiac ischemia in the Emergency Department: a meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med 2001; 37: 471–477.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Balk EM, Loannidis JPA, Salem D, Chew PW, Lau J. Accuracy of biomakers to diagnose acute cardiac ischemia in the Emergency Department: a meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med 2001; 37: 478–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bilodeau L, Theroux P, Gregoire J, Gagnon D, Arsenault A. Technetium-99m sestamibi tomography in patients with spontaneous chest pain: correlations with clinical, electrocardiographic and angiographie findings. J Am Coll Cardiol 1991; 7: 1684–1691.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lopez-Sendon J, Coma-Canella I, Alcasena S, Seoane J, Gamallo C. Electrographic findings in acute right ventricular infarction: sensitivity and specificity of electrographic alteration in right precordial lead V4R, V3R, VI, V2, and V3. J Am Coll Cardiol 1985; 6: 1273–1279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wrenn KD. Protocols in the emergency room evaluation of chest pain: do they fail to diagnose lateral wall myocardial infarction? J Gen Intern Med 1987; 2: 66–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nestico PF, Hakki AH, Iskandrian AS, Anderson GJ. Electrographic diagnosis of posterior myocardial infarction revisited: a new approach using a multivariate discriminant analysis and thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy. J Electrocardiol 1986; 19; 33–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fisch C. Electrocardiography, exercise stress testing, and ambulatory monitoring. In: Kelley WN (ed). Textbook of Internal Medicine. J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1989, pp. 305–316.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee TH, Rouan GW, Weisberg MC, et al. Clinical characteristics and natural history of patients with acute myocardial infarction sent home from the emergency room. Am J Cardiol 1987; 60: 219–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grim P, Feldman T, Martin M, Donovan R, Nevins V, Childers RW. Cellular telephone transmission of 12-lead electrocardiograms from ambulance to hospital. Am J Cardiol 1987; 60: 715–720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aufderheide TP, Keelan MH, Hendley GE, et al. Milwaukee Prehospital Chest Pain Project Phase I: feasibility and accuracy of prehospital thrombolytic candidate selection. Am J Cardiol 1992; 69: 991–996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Aufderheide TP, Hendley GE, Woo J, Lawrence S, Valley V, Teichman SL. A prospective evaluation of prehospital 12-lead ECG application in chest pain patients. J Electrocardiol 1992; 24S: 8–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weaver WD, Eisenberg MS, Martin JS, et al. Myocardial Infarction Triage and Intervention Project Phase I: patient characteristics and feasibility of prehospital initiation of thrombolytic therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990; 15: 925–931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aufderheide TP, Kereiakes DJ, Weaver WD, Gibier WB, Simoons ML. Planning, implementation, and process monitoring for prehospital 12-lead ECG diagnostic programs. Prehospital Disaster Med 1996; 11: 162–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Aufderheide TP, Hendley GE, Thakur RK, et al. The diagnostic impact of prehospital 12-lead electrocardiography. Ann Emerg Med 1990; 19: 1280–1287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aufderheide TP, Haselow WC, Hendley GE, et al. Feasibility of prehospital r-TPA therapy in chest pain patients. Ann Emerg Med 1992; 21: 379–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kereiakes DJ, Gibier WB, Martin LH, Pieper KS, Anderson LC. Relative importance of emergency medical system transport and the prehospital electrocardiogram on reducing hospital time delay to therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a preliminary report from the Cincinnati Heart Project. Am Heart J 1992; 123: 835–840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Karagounis L, Ipsen SK, Jessop MR, et al. Impact of field-transmitted electrocardiography on time to in-hospital thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1990; 66: 786–791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    O’Rourke MF, Cook A, Carroll G, Gallagher D, Hall J. Accuracy of a portable interpretive ECG machine in diagnosis of acute evolving myocardial infarction. Aust N Z J Med 1992; 22: 9–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Foster DB, Dufendach JH, Barkdoll CM, Mitchell BK. Prehospital recognition of AMI using independent nurse/paramedic 12-lead ECG evaluation: impact on in-hospital times to thrombolysis in a rural community hospital. Am J Emerg Med 1994; 12: 25–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Koren G, Weiss AT, Hasin Y, et al. Prevention of myocardial damage in acute myocardial ischemia by earlier treatment with intravenous streptokinase. N Engl J Med 1985; 313: 1384–1389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fine DG, Weiss AT, Sapoznikov D, et al. Importance of early initiation of intravenous streptokinase therapy for acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1986; 58: 411–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Aufderheide TP, Lawrence SW, Hall KN, Otto LA. Prehospital 12-lead electrocardiograms reduce hospital-based time to treatment in thrombolytic candidates [abstract]. Acad Emerg Med 1994; 1: A13 - A14.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Weaver WD, Cerqueira M, Hallstrom AP, et al. Prehospital-initiated vs hospital-initiated thrombolytic therapy. The Myocardial Infarction and Intervention Trial. JAMA 1993; 270: 1211–1216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bippus PH, Storch WH, Andresen D, Schroder R. Thrombolysis started at home in acute myocardial infarction: feasibility and time-gain. Circulation 1987; 76 (Suppl. IV): IV - 122.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Holmberg S, Hjalmarson A, Swedberg K, et al. Very early thrombolysis therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1990; 65: 401–407.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Oemrawsingh PV, Bosker HA, Vanderlaarse A, Manger Cats V, Bruschke AV. Early reperfusion by initiation of intravenous streptokinase prior to ambulance transport. Circulation 1988; 78 (Suppl. II): II - 110.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Castaigne A, Herve C, Duval-Moulin AM, et al. Prehospital use of APSAC: results of placebo-controlled study. Am J Cardiol 1989; 64: 30A - 33A.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bossaert LL, Demey HE, Colemont LJ, et al. Prehospital thrombolytic treatment of acute myocardial infarction with anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex. Crit Care Med 1988; 16: 823–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Roth A, Barbash GI, Hod H, et al. Should thrombolytic therapy be administered in the mobile intensive care unit in patients with evolving myocardial infarction? A pilot study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990; 15: 932–936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rawles J. On behalf of the GREAT group. Halving of mortality at 1 year by domiciliary thrombolysis in the Grampian Region Early Anistreplase Trial (GREAT). J Am Coll Cardiol 1994; 23: 1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    The European Myocardial Infarction Project Group. Prehospital thrombolytic therapy in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 383–389.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    BEPS Collaborative Group. Prehospital thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction: the Belgian eminase prehospital study (BEPS). Eur Heart J 1991; 12: 965–967.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Risenfors M, Gustaysson G, Ekstrom L, et al. Prehospital thrombolysis in suspected acute myocardial infarction: results from the TEAHAT Study. J Intern Med 1991; 229 (Suppl. 1): 3–10.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Weiss A, Fine D, Applebaum D, et al. Prehospital coronary thrombolysis. A new strategy in acute myocardial infarction. Chest 1987; 92: 124–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fesmire FM, Smith EE. Continuous 12-lead electrocardiograph monitoring in the emergency department. Am J Emerg Med 1993; 11: 54–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fesmire FM, Percy RF, Bardoner JB,Wharton DR, Calhoun FB. Usefulness of automated serial 12-lead ECG monitoring during the initial emergency department evaluation of patients with chest pain. Ann Emerg Med 1998; 31: 3–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gibler WB, Runyon JP, Levy RC, et al. A rapid diagnostic and treatment center for patients with chest pain in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 1995; 25: 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rude RE, Poole WK, Muller JE, et al. Electrocardiographic and clinical criteria for recognition of acute myocardial infarction based on analysis of 3697 patients. Am J Cardiol 1983; 52: 936–942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rich MW, Imburgia M, King TR, Fischer KC, Kovach KL. Electrocardiographic diagnosis of remote posterior wall myocardial infarction using unipolar posterior lead V9. Chest 1989; 96: 489–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zalenski RJ, Rydman RJ, Sloan EP, et al. Value of posterior and right ventricular leads in comparison to the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram in evaluation of ST-segment elevation in acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1997; 79: 1579–1585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Perloff JK. The recognition of strictly posterior myocardial infarction by conventional scale electrocardiography. Circulation 1964; 30: 706–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Seyal MS, Swiryn S. True posterior myocardial infarction. Arch Intern Med 1983; 143: 983–985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zehender M, Kasper W, Kauder E, et al. Right ventricular infarction as an independent predictor of prognosis after acute inferior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 981–988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Braat SH, Bruguda P, den Dulk K, van Ommen V, Wellens HJ. Value of lead V4R for recognition of the infarct coronary artery in acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1984; 53: 1538–1541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Candell-Riera J, Figueras J, Vaile V, et al. Right ventricular infarction: relationships between ST segment elevation in V4R and hemodynamic, scintigraphic, and echocardiographic findings in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 1981; 101: 281–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Klein HO, Tordiman T, Ninio R, et al. The early recognition of right ventricular infarction: diagnostic accuracy of the electrocardiographic V4R lead. Circulation 1983; 67: 558–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ramires JAF, Solimene MC, Savioli RM, et al. Mortality is not increased with inferior infarction associated with right ventricular infarction and atrioventricular block. Cor Heart Dis 1993; 4: 965–970.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Froelicher VF, Marcondes GD. Manual of Exercise Testing. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, 1989, p. 332.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gaspoz JM, Lee TH, Cook EF, Weisberg MC, Goldman L. Outcome of patients who were admitted to a new short-stay unit to “rule-out” myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1991; 68: 145–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lewis WR, Amsterdam EA. Utility and safety of immediate exercise testing of low-risk patients admitted to the hospital for suspected acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1994; 74: 987–990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kerns JR, Shaub TF, Fontanarosa PB. Emergency cardiac stress testing in the evaluation of emergency department patients with atypical chest pain. Ann Emerg Med 1993; 22: 794–798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tsakonis JS, Shesser R, Rosenthal R, Bittar GD, Smith M, Wasserman AG. Safety of immediate treadmill testing in selected emergency department patients with chest pain: a preliminary report. Am J Emerg Med 1991; 9: 557–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zalenski RJ, McCarren M, Roberts RR, et al. An evaluation of a chest pain diagnostic protocol to excluded acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department. Arch Intern Med 1997; 157: 1085–1091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rydman RJ, Zalenski RJ, Roberts RR, et al. Patient satisfaction with an emergency department Chest pain observation unit. Ann Emerg Med 1997; 29: 109–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Roberts RR, Zalenski RJ, Mensah EK, et al. Cost of an emergency department-based accelerated diagnostic protocol vs. hospitalization in patients with chest pain: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1997: 278: 1670–1676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mikhail MG, Smith FA, Gray M, Britton C, Frederiksen SM. Cost-effective of mandatory stress testing testing in chest pain center patients. Ann Emerg Med 1997; 29: 88–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gomez MA, Anderson JL, Karagounis LA, Muhlestein JB, Mooers FB for the ROMIO Study Group. An emergency department-based protocol for rapidly ruling out myocardial ischemia reduces hospital time and expense: results of a randomized study (ROMIO). J Am Coll Cardiol 1996; 28: 25–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Selker HP, Griffith JL, D’Agostino RB. A tool for judging coronary care unit admission appropriateness, valid for both real-time and retrospective use. A time-insensitive predictive instrument (TIPI) for acute cardiac ischemia: a multicenter study. Med Care 1991; 29: 610–627 [erratum 1992;30:188].Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Selker HP, D’Agostino RB, Laks MM. A predictive instrument for acute ischemic heart disease to improve coronary care unit admission practices: a potential on-line tool in a computerized electrocardiograph. J Electrocardiol 1988; 21: S11 - S17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Pozen MW, D’Agostino RB, Mitchell JB, et al. The usefulness of a predictive instrument to reduce inappropriate admissions to the coronary care unit. Ann Intern Med 1980; 92: 238–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Pozen MW, D’Agostino RB, Selker HP, Sytkowski PA, Hood WB Jr. A predictive instrument to improve coronary-care-unit admission practices in acute ischemic heart disease. Aprospective multicenter clinical trial. N Engl J Med 1984; 310: 1273–1278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cairns CB, Niemann JT, Selker HP, Laks MM. A computerized version of the time-insensitive predictive instrument. Use of the Q wave, ST segment, T wave and patient history in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction by the computerized ECG. J Electrocardiol 1992; 24: 546 - S49.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Aufderheide TP, Rowlandson I, Lawrence SW, Kuhn EM, Selker HP. Test of the acute cardiac ischemia time-insensitive predictive instrument (ACI-TIPI) for prehospital use. Ann Emerg Med 1996; 27: 193–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sarasin FP, Reymond JM, Griffith JL, et al. Impact of the acute cardiac ischemia time-insensitive predictive instrument (ACI-TIPI) on the speed of triage decision making for emergency department patients presenting with chest pain: a controlled clinical trial. J Gen Intern Med 1994; 9: 187–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Selker HP, Beshansky JR, Griffith JL, et al. Use of the acute cardiac ischemia time-insensitive predictive instrument (ACI-TIPI) to assist emergency department triage of patients with chest pain or other symptoms suggestive of acute cardiac ischemia: a multicenter controlled clinical trial. Ann Intern Med 1998; 129: 845–855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Goldman L, Cook EF, Brand DA, et al. A computer protocol to predict myocardial infarction in emergency department patients with chest pain. N Engl J Med 1988; 318: 797–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Goldman L, Weinberg M, Weisberg M, et al. A computer-derived protocol to aid in the diagnosis of emergency room patients with acute chest pain. N Engl J Med 1982; 307: 588–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lee TH, Pearson SD, Johnson PA, et al. Failure of information as an intervention to modify clinical management. A time-series trial in patients with acute chest pain. Ann Intern Med 1995; 122: 43437.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Aase O, Jonsbu J, Liestfl K, Rollag A, Erikssen J. Decision support by computer analysis of selected case history variables in the emergency room among patients with acute chest pain. Eur Heart J 1993; 14: 433–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jonsbu J, Aase O, Rollag A, Liestol K, Erikssen J. Prospective evaluation of an EDB-based diagnostic program to be used in patients admitted to hospital with acute chest pain. Eur Heart J 1993; 14: 441–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tierney WM, Roth BJ, Psaty B, et al. Predictors of myocardial infarction in emergency room patients. Crit Care Med 1985; 13: 526–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Dilger J, Pietsch-Breitfeld B, Stein W, et al. Simple computer-assisted diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in patients with acute thoracic pain. Methods Inf Med 1992; 31: 263–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Baxt WG. Use of an artificial neural network for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Ann Intern Med 1991; 115: 843–888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Baxt WG, Skora J. Prospective validation of artificial neural network trained to identify acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1996; 347: 12–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lee TH, Weisberg MC, Cook EF, Daley K, Brand DA, Goldman L. Evaluation of creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB for diagnosing myocardial infarction. Clinical impact in the emergency room. Arch Intern Med 1987; 147: 115–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Viskin S, Heller K, Gheva D, et al. The importance of creatine kinase determination in identifying acute myocardial infarction among patients complaining of chest pain in an emergency room. Cardiology 1987; 74: 100–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wu AHB, Gornet TG, Harker CC, Chen HL. Role of rapid immunoassays for urgent (“stat”) determinations of creatine kinase isoenzyme MB. Clin Chem 1989; 35: 1752–1756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gibler WB, Lewis LM, Erb RE, et al. Early detection of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with chest pain and nondiagnostic ECGs: serial CK-MB sampling in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 1990; 19: 1359–1366 [erratum 1991;20:420].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hedges JR, Gibler WB, Young GP, et al. Multicenter study of creatine kinase-MB use: effect on chest pain decision making. Acad Emerg Med 1996; 3: 7–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Vaidga HC. Myoglobin. Lab Med 1992; 23: 306–310.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gibier WB, Gibier CD, Weinshenker E, et al. Myoglobin as an early indicator of acute myocardial infarction. Ann Emerg Med 1987; 16: 851–856.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Katus HA, Scheffold T, Remppis A, Zehlein J. Proteins of the troponin complex. Lab Med 1992; 23: 311–317.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Adams JE III, Bodor GS, Davila-Roman VG, et al. Cardiac troponin I: a marker with high specificity for cardiac injury. Circulation 1993; 88: 101–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Katus HA, Remppis A, Nuemann FJ, et al. Diagnostic efficiency of troponin-T measurements in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 1991; 83: 902–912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ohman EM, Armstrong PW, Christenson RH, et al. Cardiac troponin T levels for risk stratification in acute myocardial ischemia. GUSTO IIA Investigators. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 1333–1341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Antman EM, Tanasijevic MJ, Thompson B, et al. Cardiac-specific troponin I levels to predict the risk of mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 1342–1349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hamm CW, Goldmann BU, Heeschen C, Kreymann G, Berger J, Meinertz T. Emergency room triage of patients with acute chest pain by means of rapid testing for cardiac Troponin T or Troponin I. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 1648–1653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hamm CW, Braunwald E. A classification of unstable angina revisited. Circulation 2000; 102: 118–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hauser G, Gangadharan V, Ramos R, Gordon S, Timmis GC. Sequence of mechanical, electrocardiographic and clinical effects of repeated coronary artery occlusion in human beings: echocardiographic observations during coronary angioplasty. J Am Coll Cardiol 1985; 5: 193–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gardner CJ, Brown S, Hagen-Ansert S, et al. Guidelines for cardiac sonographer education: report of the American Society of Echocardiography Sonographer Education and Training Committee. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1992; 5: 635–639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Pearlman AS, Gardin JM, Martin RP, et al. Guidelines for optimal physician training in echocardiography. Recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography Committee for Physician Training in Echocardiography. Am J Cardiol 1987; 60: 158–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Peels CH, Visser CA, Funke-KupperAJ, Visser FC, Roos JE Usefulness of two-dimensional echocardiography for immediate detection of myocardial ischemia in the emergency room. Am J Cardiol 1990; 65: 687–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sabia P, Afrookteh A, Touchstone DA, Keller MW, Esquivel L, Kaul S: Value of regional wall motion abnormality in the emergency room diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction: a prospective study using two-dimensional echocardiography. Circulation 1991; 84 (Suppl. I): I85 - I92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kontos MC, Arrowood JA, Jesse RL, et al. Comparison between 2-dimensional echocardiography and myocardial perfusion imaging in the emergency department in patients with possible myocardial ischemia. Am Heart J 1998; 136: 724–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ritchie JL, Bateman TM, Bonow RO, et al. Guidelines for clinical use of cardiac radionuclide imaging. A report of the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Task Force on Assessment of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Procedures, Committee on Radionuclide Imaging, developed in collaboration with the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology. Circulation 1995; 91: 1278–1303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Zaret BL, Wackers FJ. Nuclear cardiology. N Engl J Med 1993;329: 775–783, 855–863.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Van Train KF, Garcia EV, Maddahi J, et al. Multicenter trial validation for quantitative analysis of same-day rest-stress technetium-99m-sestamibi myocardial tomograms. J Nucl Med 1994; 35: 609–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Berman DS, Kiat HS, Van Train KF, Germano G, Maddahi J, Friedman JD. Myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium-99m-sestamibi: comparative analysis of available imaging protocols. J Nucl Med 1994; 35: 681–688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Varetto T, Cantalupi D, Altieri A, Orlandi C. Emergency room technetium-99m sestamibi imaging to rule out acute myocardial ischemic events in patients with nondiagnostic electrocardiograms. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993; 22: 1804–1808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hilton TC, Thompson RC, Williams HJ, Saylors R, Fulmer H, Stowers SA. Technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging in the emergency room evaluation of chest pain. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994; 23: 1016–1022.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Tatum JL, Jesse RL, Kontos MC, et al. Comprehensive strategy for the evaluation and triage of the chest pain patient. Ann Emerg Med 1997; 29: 116–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert J. Zalenski
  • Joseph Lau
  • Harry P. Selker

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations