Thyrotroph Adenomas

  • Michael Buchfelder
  • Rudolf Fahlbusch


Physiological thyroid function is intricately controlled by an elegant interplay between stimulatory hypothalamic influences and a negative feedback system. The major stimulatory influence is hypothalamic thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH), which induces thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion by pituitary thyrotrophs. TSH, in turn, is transported by the bloodstream to the thyroid gland, where it promotes synthesis and release of the thyroid hormones, tri-iodotyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). T3 is the most important physiological inhibitor of TSH secretion whereby its elevated circulating serum levels act at the hypothalamus and pituitary to downregulate the hypothalamo—pituitary—thyroid axis. In addition to these major influences, dopamine, somatostatin, and corticosteroids have been shown to possess TSH secretion-inhibiting properties, whereas epinephrine and estrogens contribute to stimulatory control (1). Modern immunoassay techniques allow the clear differentiation between normal and subnormal serum TSH levels. Hyperthyroidism is most usually because of primary thyroid disease, such as autonomous hyperfunctioning nodular goiter or overstimulation by immunoglobulins (Graves’s disease).


Thyroid Hormone Pituitary Adenoma Pituitary Tumor Luteinizing Hormone Release Hormone Inappropriate Secretion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Buchfelder
  • Rudolf Fahlbusch

There are no affiliations available

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