Advertisement

Seizures pp 193-206 | Cite as

Seizures Attributable to Environmental Toxins

  • Fernando Cendes
Part of the Current Clinical Neurology book series (CCP)

Abstract

Seizures induced by toxins most often present as generalized tonic-clonic convulsions of acute onset, either recurrent frequent seizures or consisting of status epilepticus. However, in some circumstances, poisons and toxins can induce partial seizures of different types, including complex partial status, which may be difficult to identify promptly (1–4).

Keywords

Status Epilepticus Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Kainic Acid Domoic Acid Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Cendes F, Andermann F, Carpenter S, Zatorre RJ, Cashman NR. Temporal lobe epilepsy caused by domoic acid intoxication: evidence for glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in humans. Ann Neurol 1995; 37: 123–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Teitelbaum JS, Zatorre RJ, Carpenter S, et al. Neurologic sequelae of domoic acid intoxication due to the ingestion of contaminated mussels. N Engl J Med 1990; 322: 1781–1787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kunisaki TA, Augenstein WL. Drug-and toxin-induced seizures. Emerg Med Clin North Am 1994; 12: 1027–1056.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Delanty N, Vaughan CJ, French JA. Medical causes of seizures. Lancet 1998; 352: 383–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ritchie JM. Tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin and the sodium channels of excitable tissues. Trends Pharmacol Sci 1980; 1: 275–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Catterall W, Mackie K. Local anesthetics: Tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin. In: Hardman JG, Limbrird LE, Molinoff PB, Ruddon RW, Gilman AG (eds.), Goodman & Gilman’s the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996, CD-Rom.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Novelli A, Kispert J, Fernandez-Sanchez MT, Torreblanca A, Zitko V. Domoic acid-containing toxic mussels produce neurotoxicity in neuronal cultures through a synergism between excitatory amino acids. Brain Res 1992; 577: 41–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wright JL, Bird CJ, de Freitas AS, Hampson D, McDonald J, Quilliam MA. Chemistry, biology, and toxicology of domoic acid and its isomers. Can Dis Wkly Rep 1990; 16 (Suppl 1E): 21–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shinozaki H. Discovery of novel actions of kainic acid and related compounds. In: McGeer EG, Olney JW, McGeer PL (eds.), Kainic Acid as a Tool in Neurobiology. New York: Raven, 1978, pp 17–35.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Debonnel G, Weiss M, de Montigny C. Neurotoxic effect of domoic acid: mediation by kainate receptor electrophysiological studies in the rat. Can Dis Wkly Rep 1990; 16 (Suppl 1E): 59–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tryphonas L, Iverson F. Neuropathology of excitatory neurotoxins: the domoic acid model. Toxicol Pathol 1990; 18: 165–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Takeuchi H, Watanabe K, Nomoto K, Ohfune Y, Takemoto T. Effects of alpha-kainic acid, domoic acid and their derivatives on a molluscan giant neuron sensitive to betahydroxy-L-glutamic acid. Eur J Pharmacol 1984; 102: 325–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Debonnel G, Weiss M, de Montigny C. Reduced neuroexcitatory effect of domoic acid following mossy fiber denervation of the rat dorsal hippocampus: further evidence that toxicity of domoic acid involves kainate receptor activation. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1989; 67: 904–908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Strain SM, Tasker RA. Hippocampal damage produced by systemic injections of domoic acid in mice. Neuroscience 1991; 44: 343–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Takemoto T. Kainic Acid as a Tool in Neurobiology. New York: Raven, 1978.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Perl TM, Bedard L, Kosatsky T, Hockin JC, Todd EC, Remis RS. An outbreak of toxic encephalopathy caused by eating mussels contaminated with domoic acid. N Engl J Med 1990; 322: 1775–1780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wright JL, Boyd RK, de Freitas AS, et al. Identification of domoic acid, a neuroexcitatory amino acid, in toxic mussels from eastern Prince Edward Island. Can J Chem 1989; 481–490.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bayne BL, Widdows J, Thompson RJ. Physiology of marine mussels. In: Bayne BL (ed.), Marine Mussels: Their Ecology and Physiology. London: Cambridge University Press, 1976, pp 207–260.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bates SS, Bird CJ, de Freitas ASW, et al. Pennate diaton Nitzschia pungens as the primary source of domoic acid, a toxin in shellfish from eastern Prince Edward Island, Canada. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 1989; 46: 1203–1215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Debonnel G, Beauchesne L, de Montigny C. Domoic acid, the alleged “mussel toxin,” might produce its neurotoxic effect through kainate receptor activation: an electrophysiological study in the dorsal hippocampus. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1989; 67: 29–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Glavin GB, Pinsky C, Bose R. Domoic acid-induced neurovisceral toxic syndrome: characterization of an animal model and putative antidotes. Brain Res Bull 1990; 24: 701–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Iverson F, Truelove J, Tryphonas L, Nera EA. The toxicology of domoic acid administered systemically to rodents and primates. Can Dis Wkly Rep 1990; 16 (Suppl IE): 15–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cavazos JE, Golarai G, Sutula TP. Mossy fiber reorganization induced by kindling• time course of development, progression and permanence. J Neurosci 1991; 11: 2795–2803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sutula TP. Experimental models of temporal lobe epilepsy: new insights from the study of kindling and synaptic reorganization. Epilepsia 1990; 31: S45 - S54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Maeda M, Kodama T, Tanaka T, et al. Insecticidal and neuromuscular activities of domoic acid and its related compounds. J Pesticide Sci 1984; 9: 27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Daigo K. Studies on the constituents of chondria armata. II, Isolation of an antihelmintical constituent. J Jpn Pharmacol Assoc 1959; 79: 353.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tryphonas L, Truelove J, Todd E, Nera E, Iverson E Experimental oral toxicity of domoic acid in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and rats. Preliminary investigations. Food Chem Toxicol 1990; 28: 707–715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Centers for Disease Control. Fish Borne Disease Outbreaks: Annual Summary 1982, 1985.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lange WR. Ciguatera fish poisoning. Am Fam Physician 1994; 50: 579–584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Payne CA, Payne SN. Ciguatera in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. N Engl J Med 1977; 296: 949–950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yasumoto T, Satake M. Chemistry, etiology and determination methods of ciguatera toxins. J Toxicol Toxin Rev 1996; 15: 91–107.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bagnis R, Kiberski T, Lauguer S. Clinical observation on 3009 cases of ciguatera (fish poisoning) in the South Pacific. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1979; 28: 1067–1073.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Goldfrank LR. Mushrooms: toxic and hallucinogenic. In: Goldfrank LR, Flomen-baum NE, Lewin NA, Weisman RS, Howland MA, Hoffman RS (eds.), Toxicologic emergencies. Norwalk, CT: Appleton and Lange, 1994.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Brown JH, Taylor P. Muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists. In: Hardman JG, Limbrird LE, Molinoff PB, Ruddon RW, Gilman AG (eds.), Goodman & Gilman’s the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed. New York: MGraw-Hill, 1996, CD-Rom.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Benjamin DR. Mushroom poisoning in infants and children: the Amanita pantherina/muscaria group. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1992; 30: 13–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Buck RW. Mycetism. N Engl J Med 1969; 280: 1363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hanrahan JP, Gordon MA. Mushroom poisoning. Case reports and a review of therapy. JAMA 1984; 251: 1057–1061.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dewitt MS, Swain R, Gibson LB Jr. The dangers of jimson weed and its abuse by teenagers in the Kanawha Valley of West Virginia. W V Med J 1997; 93: 182–185.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Spiller HA, Willias DB, Gorman SE, Sanftleban J. Retrospective study of mistletoe ingestion. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1996; 34: 405–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tuncok Y, Kozan O, Cavdar C, Guven H, Fowler J. Urginea maritima (squill) toxicity. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1995; 33: 83–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fitzgerald P, Moss N, O’Mahony S, Whelton MJ. Accidental hemlock poisoning. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987; 295: 1657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Landers D, Seppi K, Blauer W. Seizures and death on a white river float trip. Report of water hemlock poisoning. West J Med 1985; 142: 637–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Trabattoni G, Visintini D, Terzano GM, Lechi A. Accidental poisoning with deadly nightshade berries: a case report. Hum Toxicol 1984; 3: 513–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Knutsen OH, Paszkowski P. New aspects in the treatment of water hemlock poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1984; 22: 157–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Starreveld E, Hope E. Cicutoxin poisoning (water hemlock). Neurology 1975; 25: 730–734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Withers LM, Cole FR, Nelson RB. Water-hemlock poisoning. N Engl J Med 1969; 281: 566–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Water hemlock poisoning-Maine, 1992. JAMA 1994; 271: 1475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Theuma A, Vassallo MT. Occult CO poisoning presenting as an epileptic fit. Postgrad Med J 1997; 73: 448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jain KK. Neurologic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning. In• Gilman S, Goldstein GW, Waxman SG (eds), Neurobase, 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Arbor Publishing, 1999, CD-Rom.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Durnin C. Carbon monoxide poisoning presenting with focal epileptiform seizures. Lancet 1987; 1: 1319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mathieu D, Nolf M, Durocher A, et al. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning risk of late sequelae and treatment by hyperbaric oxygen. Clin Toxicol 1985; 23: 315–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kumar A, Dey PK, Singla PN, Ambasht RS, Upadhyay SK. Blood lead levels in children with neurological disorders. J Trop Pediatr 1998; 44: 320–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Yu EC, Yeung CY. Lead encephalopathy due to herbal medicine. Chin Med J (English) 1987; 100: 915–917.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Selbst SM, Henretig FM, Pearce J. Lead encephalopathy. A case report and review of management. Clin Pediatr 1985; 24: 280–282, 285.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Whitfield CL, Ch’ien LT, Whitehead JD. Lead encephalopathy in adults. Am J Med 1972; 52: 289–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Feldman RG. Urban lead mining-lead intoxication among de-leaders. N Engl J Med 1978; 298: 1143–1145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Feldman RG. Effects of toxins and physical agents on the nervous system. In: Bradley WG, Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Marsden CD (eds.), Neurology in Clinical Practice. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1991, pp 1185–1209.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mirando EH, Ranasinghe L. Lead encephalopathy in children. Uncommon clinical aspects. Med JAust 1970; 2: 966–968.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Brown AW, Aldridge WN, Street BW, Verschoyle RD. The behavioral and neuropathologic sequelae of intoxication by trimethyltin compounds in the rat. Am J Pathol 1979; 97: 59–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Besser R, Kramer G, Thumler R, Bohl J, Gutmann L, Hopf HC. Acute trimethyltin limbic-cerebellar syndrome. Neurology 1987; 37: 945–950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ortel TL, Bedrosian CL, Simel DL. Arsenic poisoning and seizures. N C Med J 1987; 48: 627–630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Komaki H, Maisawa S, Sugai K, Kobayashi Y, Hashimoto T. Tremor and seizures associated with chronic manganese intoxication. Brain Dev 1999; 21: 122–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Marquet P, Francois B, Vignon P, Lachatre G. A soldier who had seizures after drinking quarter of a litre of wine. Lancet 1996; 348: 1070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Marquet P, Francois B, Lotfi H, et al. Tungsten determination in biological fluids, hair and nails by plasma emission spectrometry in a case of severe acute intoxication in man J Forens Sci 1997; 42: 527–530.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Friberg L, Piscator M, Nordberg GF, Kjellstrom T. Cadmium in the Environment, 2nd ed. Cleveland, OH: CRC Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Littorin ME, Fehling C, Attewell RG, Skerfving S. Focal epilepsy and exposure to organic solvents: a case-referent study. J Occup Med 1988; 30: 805–808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Jacobsen M, Baelum J, Bonde JP. Temporal epileptic seizures and occupational exposure to solvents. Occup Environ Med 1994; 51: 429–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Silva-Filho AR, Pires ML, Shiotsuki N. Anticonvulsant and convulsant effects of organic solvents. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1992; 41: 79–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Allister C, Lush M, Oliver JS, Watson JM. Status epilepticus caused by solvent abuse. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981; 283: 1156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando Cendes

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations