Advertisement

The Development and Management of Spasticity Following Traumatic Brain Injury

  • Patricia B. Jozefczyk
Chapter
Part of the Current Clinical Neurology book series (CCNEU)

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from either a penetrating skull injury or closed trauma to the head, and is a major health problem in the United States and worldwide. Penetrating head injuries account for approx 10% of all traumatic injuries and closed head trauma for the other 90%. These injuries tend to occur more commonly in males. There is a bimodal peak of incidence, with males between 16 and 25 yr of age and people over the age of 65 yr tending to have more TBIs (1). Motor-vehicle accidents account for at least 50% of all TBIs with falls, assaults and violence, and sports and recreational accidents following. Approximately fifty to seventy-five thousand people per year in the United States suffer a severe TBI and approx one-third to one-half of those die (2). The remaining survive with varying degrees of cognitive and neurologic damage.

Keywords

Traumatic Brain Injury Cerebral Palsy Botulinum Toxin Heterotopic Ossification Severe Traumatic Brain Injury 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Sorensen, S. and Kraus, J. (1991) Occurrence, severity, and outcomes of brain injury. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 6, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Frankowski, R. F. (1986) The demography of head injury in the United States, in Neurotrauma, vol. 1. ( Miner, M. and Wagner, K. A., eds.) Butterworth, Boston, pp. 1–17.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kraus, J., Black, M., Hessol, N., et al. (1984) The incidence of acute brain injury and serious impairment in a defined population. Am. J. Epidemiol. 119, 186–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Povlishock, J. (1992) Traumatically induced axonal injury: pathogenesis and pathobiological implications. Brain Pathol. 2, 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ott, L., McClain, C., Gillespie, M., et al. (1994) Cytokines and metabolic dysfunction after severe head injury. J. Neurotrauma 11, 447–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lobato, R., Cordobes, F., Rivas, J., et al. (1983) Outcome from severe head injury related to the type of intracranial lesion: a computed tomography study. J. Neurosurg. 59, 762–774.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jennett, B., Teasdale, G., Braakman, R., et al. (1979) Prognosis in a series of patients with severe head injury. Neurosurgery 4, 283–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sparadeo, E. and Gill, D. (1989) Effects of prior alcohol use on head injury recovery. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 4, 75–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Najenson, T., Mendelson, L., Schechter, I., David, C., Mintz, N., and Groswasser, Z. (1974) Rehabilitation after severe head injury. Scand. J. Rehabil. Med. 6, 5–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Multi-Society Task Force on PVS. (1994) Medical aspects of the persistent vegetative state. N. Engl. J. Med. 330, 1572–1579.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bond, M. R. and Brooks, D. N. (1976) Understanding the process of recovery as a basis for investigation of rehabilitation for the brain injured. Scand. J. Rehabil. Med. 8, 127–131.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Salazar, A., Jabbari, B., Vance, S., et al. (1985) Epilepsy after penetration head injury: clinical correlates. Neurology 35, 140–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Annegers, J., Grabow, J., Groover, R., et al. (1980) Seizures after head trauma: a population study. Neurology 30, 683–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Temkin, N., Dikmen, S., Wilensky, A., et al. (1990) A randomized, double-blind study of phenytoin for the prevention of post-traumatic seizures. N. Engl. J. Med. 323, 497–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jozefczyk, P. B. (1994) Interdisciplinary team approach to rehabilitation, in Handbook of Neurorehabilitation ( Good, D. C. and Couch, J. R. eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 153–164.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Young, R. R. (1987) Physiologic and pharmacological approaches to spasticity. Neurolog. Clin. 5 (4), 529–539.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Young, R. R. (1994) Spasticity: a review. Neurology 44 (Suppl 9), S12 - S20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Barnard, P., Dill, H., Eldredge, P., et al. (1984) Reduction of hypertonicity by early casting in a comatose head-injured individual. Phys. Ther. 64, 1540–1542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Thaxter, T., Mann, R., and Anderson, C. (1965) Degeneration of immobilized knee joints in rats. J. Bone Joint Surg. 47A, 567–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kaplan, M., Yablon, S., Ivanhoe, C., et al. (1995) Surgical correction of contracture: the casting of failed joint management in acquired brain injury. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 76, 1082–1085.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yarkony, G. M., Sahgal, V. (1987) Contractures: a major complication of craniocerebral trauma. Clin. Orthop. 219, 93–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Salter, R. and Field, P. (1960) The effects of continuous compression on lining articular cartilage. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 42A, 31–36.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Enneking, W. and Horowitz, M. (1972) The intra-articular effects of immobilization on the human knee. J Bone Joint Surg. Am. 42A, 973–975.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Amiel, D., Akeson, W., Harwood, R., et al. (1980) Effect of immobilization on the types of collagen synthesized in periarticular connective tissue. Conn. Tiss. Res. 8, 27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hather, B., Adams, G., Tesh, P., et al. (1992) Skeletal muscle responses to lower limb suspension in humans. J. Appl. Physiol. 72, 1493–1498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Veldhuizen, J., Verstappen, F., Vroemen, J., et al. (1993) Functional and morphological adaptions following four weeks of knee immobilization. Int. J. Sports Med. 14, 283–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Garland, D. E. (1988) Clinical observations on fractures and heterotopic ossification in spinal cord and traumatic brain injured populations. Clin. Orthop. 233, 86–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mital, M. A., Garber, J. E., and Stinson, J. T. (1987) Ectopic bone formation in children and adolescents with head injuries: its management. J. Pediatr. Orthop. 7, 83–90.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stover, S. L., Hahn, H. R., and Miller, J. M. (1976) Disodium etidronate in the prevention of heterotopic ossification following spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 14, 146–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ritter, M. A. and Sieber, J. M. (1985) Prophylactic indomethocin for the prevention of heterotopic bone formation following total hip arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. 196, 217–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Coventry, M. B. and Scanlon, P. W. (1981) The use of radiation to discourage ectopic bone. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 63, 201–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Garland, D. E., Hanscom, D. A., Keenan, M. A., et al, (1985) Resection of heterotopic ossification in the adult with head trauma. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 67, 1261–1269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Young, R. R. (1995) Spastic paresis, in Diagnosis and Management of Disorders of the Spinal Cord ( Young, R. R. and Woolsey, R. M. eds.), Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 363–376.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Little, J. W. and Massagli, T. L. (1993) Spasticity and associated abnormalities of muscle tone, in Rehabilitation Medicine: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. ( DeLisa, J. A., ed.), Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp. 666–680.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Carey, J. R. (1990) Manual stretch: effect on finger movement control and force control in stroke subjects with spastic extrinsic finger flexor muscles. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 71, 888–894.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Odeen, I. (1981) Reduction of muscular hypertonus by long-term muscles stretch. Scand. J. Rehabil. Med. 13, 93–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kabat, H. and Knott, M. (1954) Proprioceptive facilitation therapy for paralysis. Physiotherapy 40, 171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bobath, B. (1990) Adult hemiplegia: Evaluation and Treatment, 3rd ed. Butterworth-Heinemann, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    MacPhail, H. E. and Kramer, J. F. (1995) Effect of isokinetic strength-training on functional ability and walking efficiency in adolescents with cerebral palsy. Dey. Med. Child Neurol. 37, 763–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Damiano, D. L., Vaughn, C. L., and Abel, M. F. (1995) Muscle response to heavy resistance exercise in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Dey. Med. Chlid Neurol. 37, 731–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hagbarth, K. E. and Eklund, G. (1969) The muscle vibrator: a useful tool in neurological therapeutic work. Scand. J. Rehabil. Med. 1, 26–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Miglietta, O. (1973) Action of cold on spasticity. Am. J. Phys. Med. 52, 198–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sabbahi, M. A., DeLuca, C. J., and Powers, W. R. (1981) Topical anesthesia: a possible treatment for spasticity. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 62, 310–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Carr, E. K. and Kenney, F. D. (1992) Positioning of the stroke patient: a review of the literature. Intl. J. Nurs. Studies 29 (4), 355–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Myhr, U. and vonWendt, L. (1993) Influence of different sitting positions and abduction orthoses on leg muscle activity in children with cerebral palsy. Dey. Med. Child Neurol. 35 (10), 870–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bohannon, R. W. (1993) Tilt table standing for reducing spasticity after spinal cord injury. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 74 (10), 1121–1122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kunkel, C. F., Scremin, A. M., Eisenbreg, B., Garcia, J. F, Roberts, S., and Martinez, S. (1993) Effect of “standing” on spasticity, contracture, and osteoporosis in paralyzed males. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 74 (1), 73–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nielsten, J. F. (1995) A new treatment of spasticity with repetitive magnetic stimulation in multiple sclerosis. J. Neuro. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 58 (2), 254–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Yu, Y. H., Wang, H. C., and Wang, Z. J. (1995) Effect of acupuncture on spinal motor neuron excitability in stroke patients. Chin. Med. J. 56 (4), 258–263.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Langlois, S., MacKinnon, J. R., and Pederson, L. (1989) Hand splints and cerebral spasticity: a review of the literature. Can. J. Occup. Ther. 56 (3), 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    McPherson, J. J., Kreimeyer, D., Aalderks, M., and Gallagher, T. (1982) A comparison of dorsal and volar resting hand splints in the reduction of hyper-tonus. Am. J. Occup. Ther. 36 (10), 66l - 670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Langlois, S., Pederson, L., and MacKinnon, J. R. (1991) The effects of splinting on the spastic hemiplegic hand: Report of a feasibility study. Can. J. Occup. Ther. 58 (1), 17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Snook, J. H. (1979) Spasticity reduction splint. Am. J. Occup. Ther. 33, 648–651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mathiowetz, V., Bolding, D., and Trombly, C. (1983) Immediate effects of a positioning device on the normal and spastic hand measured by electromyography. Am. J. Occup. Ther. 37 (4), 247–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sankey, R. J., Anderson, D. M., and Young, J. A. (1989) Characteristics of ankle-foot orthoses for management of the spastic lower limb. Dey. Med. Child Neurol. 31, 466–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    King, II, TI. (1982) Plaster splinting as a means of reducing elbow flexor spasticity: a case study. Am. J. Occup. Ther. 36 (10), 671–673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hinderer, K. A., Harris, S. R., Purdy, A. H., Chew, D. E., Staheli, L. T., McLaughlin, J. F., and Jaffe, K. M. (1988) Effects of “tone-reducing” vs. standard plaster casts on gait improvement of children with cerebral palsy. Dey. Med. Child Neurol. 30, 370–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Booth, B. J., Doyle, M., and Montgomery, J. (1983) Serial casting for the management of spasticity in the head-injured adult. Phys. Ther. 63 (12), 1960–1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Conine, T. A., Sullivan, T., Mackie, T., and Goodman, M. (1990) Effect of serial casting for the prevention of equinus in patients with acute head injury. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 71, 310–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Alfieri, V. (1982) Electrical treatment spasticity. Scand. J. Rehabil. Med. 14, 177–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    King, II, TI. (1996) The effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in reducing one. Am. J. Occup. Ther. 50 (1), 62–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Grillner, S. and Zangger, P. (1979) On the central generation of locomotion in the low spinal cat. Exp. Brain Res. 34, 241–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Larsson, L. E. (1994) Functional electrical stimulation. Scand. J. Rehabil. Med. (Suppl. 30 ), 63–72.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Liberson, W. T., Holmquest, H. J., Scot, D., and Dow, M. (1961) Functional electrotherapy: stimulation of the peroneal nerve synchronized with the swing phase of the gait of hemiplegic patients. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 42, 101–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hines, A. E., Crago, R E., and Billian, C. (1993) Functional electrical stimulation for the reduction of spasticity in the hemiplegic patient. Biomed. Sci. Instrum. 29, 259–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dimitrijevic, M. M. (1994) Mesh glove: a method for whole-hand electrical stimulation in upper motion neuron dysfunction. Scand. J. Rehabil. Med. 26, 183–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Basmajian, J. V., Kukulka, C. G., Narayan, M. G., and Takebe, K. (1975) Biofeedback treatment of foot-drop after stroke compared with standard rehabilitation technique: effects on voluntary control and strength. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 56, 231–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Neilson, R D. and McCaughey, J. (1982) Self-regulation of spasm and spasticity in cerebral palsy. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 45, 320–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Nash, J., Nielson, R. D., and O’Dwyer, N. J. (1989) Reducing spasticity to control muscle contracture of children with cerebral palsy. Dey. Med. Child Neurol. 31, 471–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bleck, E. (1987) Orthopedic Management in Cerebral Palsy. MacKeith Press, London.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kagaya, H., Yamada, S., Nagasawa, T., Ishihara, Y., Kodama, H., and Endoh, H. (1996) Split posterior tibial tendon transfer for varus deformity of the hind-foot. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 323, 254–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Waters, R. L., Frazier, J., Garland, D. E., Jordan, C., and Perry, J. (1982) Electromyographic gait analysis before and after operative treatment for hemiplegic equinus and equinovarus deformity. J. Bone Joint Surg. 64A, 284–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sakellarides, H. T., Mital, M. A., Matza, R. A., and Dimakopoulos, P. (1995) Classification and surgical treatment of thumb-in-palm deformity in cerebral palsy and spastic paralysis. J. Hand Surg. 20 (3), 428–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sakellarides, H. T. and Kirvin, E M. (1995) Management of the unbalanced wrist in cerebral palsy by tendon transfer. Ann. Plast. Surg. 35, 90–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Speelman, D. and Van Mann, J. (1989) Cerebral palsy and stereotactic neurosurgery: long term results. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 52, 23–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Cooper, I. S., Riklan, M., Amin, I., Waltz, J. M., and Cullinan, T. (1976) Chronic cerebellar stimulation in cerebral palsy. Neurology 26, 744–753.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gahm, N. H., Russman, B. S., Cerciello, R. L., et al. (1981) Chronic cerebellar stimulatioin for cerebral palsy: a double-blind study. Neurology 31, 87–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Peacock, W. J. and Staudt, L. A. (1990) Spasticity in cerebral palsy and the selective posterior rhizotomy procedure. J. Child Neurol. 5, 179–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Peacock, W. J. and Staudt, L. A. (1991) Functional outcomes following selective posterior rhizotomy in children with cerebral palsy. J. Neurosurg. 74, 380–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Sindou, M. and Mertens, R (1988) Selective neurectomy of the tibial nerve for treatment of the spastic foot. Neurosurgery 23, 738–744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ritchie, J. M. and Greene, N. M. (1980) Local anesthetics, in The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 6th ed. ( Goodman, L. S. and Gilman, A. eds.), MacMillan, New York, pp. 300–320.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Koman, L. A., Mooney, J. E, and Patersen Smith, B. (1996) Neuromuscular blockade in the management of cerebral palsy. J. Child Neurol. 11 (Suppl. 1), S23 - S28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ritchie, J. M. (1980) The Aliphatic Alcohols, in The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 6th ed. ( Goodman, L. S. and GIlman, A., eds.), MacMillan, New York, pp. 376–390.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Carpenter, E. B. and Seitz, D. G. (1980) Intramuscular alcohol as an aid in the management of spastic cerebral palsy. Dey. Med. Child Neurol. 22, 497–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tardieu, C., Tardieu, G., Hariga, J., and Gagnard, L. (1968) Treatment of spasticity by injection of dilute alcohol at the motor point or by epidural route: clinical extension of an experiment on the decerebrate cat. Dey. Med. Child Neurol. 10, 555–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Felsenthal, G. (1974) Pharmacology of phenol in nerve blocks: a review. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 55, 13–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Botte, M. J., Abrams, R. A., and Bodine-Fowler, S. C. (1995) Treatment of acquired muscle spasticity using phenol peripheral nerve blocks. Orthopedics 18 (2), 151–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Khalil, A. A. and Betts, H. B. (1967) Peripheral nerve block with phenol in the management of spasticity. JAMA 200 (13), 1155–1157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Keenan, M. A., Tomas, E. S., Stone, L., and Gersten, L. M. (1990) Percutaneous phenol block of the musculocutaneous nerve to control elbow flexor spasticity. J. Hand Surg. 15A, 340–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Awad, E. A. and Dykstra, D. (1990) Treatment of spasticity by neurolysis, in Krusen’s Handbook of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 4th ed. ( Kottke, F. J. and Leahmann, J. E, eds.), W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 1154–1161.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hambleton, P. (1992) Clostridium botulinum toxins: a general review of involvement in disease, structure, mode of action and preparation for clinical use. J. Neurol. 239, 16–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hughes, A. J. (1994) Botulinum toxin in clinical practice. Drugs 48 (6), 888–893.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    National Institutes of Health. (1991) Consensus Development Conference Statement, November 12–14, 1990. Clinical use of botulinum toxin. Arch. Neurol. 48, 1294–1298.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. (1990) Assessment: the clinical usefulness of botulinum toxin-A in treating neurologic disorders. Neurology 40, 1332–1336.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. (1994) Assessment training guidelines for the use of botulinum toxin for the treatment of neurologic disorders. Neurology 44, 2401–2403.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Comella, C. L., Buchman, A. S., Tanner, C. M., Brown-Thorns, N. C., and Goetz, C. G. (1992) Botulinum toxin injection for spasmodic torticollis; increased magnitude of benefit with electromyographic assistance. Neurology 42, 878–882.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Das, T. K. and Park, D. M. (1989) Effect of treatment of botulinum toxin on spasticity. Postgrad. Med. J. 65, 209–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Das, T. K. and Park, D. M. (1989) Botulinum toxin in treating spasticity. BJCP 43 (11), 401–403.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Snow, B. J., Tsui, J. K., Bhatt, B. H., Varelas, M., Hashimoto, S. A., and Calne, D. B. (1990) Treatment of spasticity with botulinum toxin: a double-blind study. Ann. Neurol. 28, 512–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Grazko, M. A., Polo, K. B., and Jabbari, B. (1995) Botulinum toxin A for spasticity, muscle spasms, and rigidity. Neurology 45, 712–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Simpson, D. M., Alexander, D. N., O’Brien, C. F., Tagliati, M., Aswad, A. S., Leon, J. M., et al. (1996) Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of upper extremity spasticity: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 46, 1306–1310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Childers, M. K., Brashear, A., Jozefczyk, P. B., et al. (1999) A multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose response trial of Botulinum Toxin Type A in upper limb spasticity post-stroke. Neurology 52 (6), S2.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Dunne, J. W., Heye, N., and Dunne, S. L. (1995) Treatment of chronic limb spasticity with botulinum toxin A. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 58, 232–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Dengler, R., Neyer, U., Wohlfarth, K., Bettig, U., and Janzik, H. H. (1992) Local botulinum toxin in the treatment of spastic foot drop. J. Neurol. 239, 375–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hesse, S., Lucke, D., Maezic, M., Bertelt, C., Friedrich, H., Gregoric, M., and Mauritz, K. H. (1994) Botulinum toxin treatment for lower limb extensor spasticity in chronic hemiparetic patients. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57, 1321–1324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hesse, S., Krajnik, J., Luecke, D., Jahnke, M. T., Gregoric, M., and Mauritz, K. H. (1996) Ankle muscle activity before and after botulinum toxin therapy for lower limb extensor spasticity in chronic hemiparetic patients. Stroke 27, 455–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Yablon, S. A., Agana, B. T., Ivanhoe, C. B., and Boake, C. (1996) Botulinum toxin in severe upper extremity spasticity among patients with traumatic brain injury: an open-labeled trial. Neurology 47, 939–944.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kirazli, Y., Yagiz, D. A., Kismali, B., and Aksit, R. (1998) Comparison of phenol block on botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of spastic foot after stroke: A randomized, double-blind trial. Am. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 77, 510–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Fuxe, K. and Ungerstedt, U. (1970) Histochemical, biochemical and functional studies on central monoamine neurons after acute and chronic amphetamine administration, in Amphetamines and Related Compounds ( Costa, E. and Garattini, S. eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 257–288.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Goldstein, L. B. (1994) Pharmacologic enhancement of recovery, in The Handbook of Neurorehabilitation ( Good, D. C. and Couch, J. eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 343–369.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    From, A. and Heltberg, A. (1975) A double-blind trial with baclofen and diazepam in spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. Acta. Neurol. Scand. 51, 158–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Costa, E. and Guidotti, A. (1979) Molecular mechanisms in the receptor action of benzodiazepines. Ann. Rev. Toxicol. 19, 531–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Corbett, M., Frankel, H. L., and Michaelis, L. (1972) A double-blind cross over trial of valium in the treatment of spasticity. Paraplegia 10, 19–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lossius, R., Dietrichson, P., and Lunde, P. K. M. (1985) Effect of clorazepate in spasticity and rigidity: A quantitative study of reflexes and plasma concentrations. Acta Neurol. Scand. 71, 190–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Scharf, M. B., Hirschowitz, J., Woods, M., et al. (1985) Lack of amnestic effects of clorazepate on geriatric recall. Clin. Psychiatry 46 (2), 518–520.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Basmajan, J. V., Shandarkass, K., and Russell, D. (1986) Ketazolam once daily for spasticity: double-blind, crossover study. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 67, 556–557.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Cendrowski, W. and Sobczyk, W. (1977) Clonazepam, baclofen, and placebo in the treatment of spasticity. Eur. Neurol. 16, 257–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Pinder, R. M., Brogden, R. N., Speight, T. M., and Avery, G. S. (1977) Dantrolene sodium: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in spasticity. Drugs 13, 3–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Katrak, P. H., Cole, A., Poulos, C. J., McCauley, J. C. K. (1992) Objective assessment of spasticity, strength and function with early exhibition of dantrolene sodium after cerebrovascular accident: a randomize double-blind study. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 73, 4–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Bonicalzi, V. and Canavero, S. (1996) Lamotrigine effects of chronic pain: an open-label pilot study (abstract). Proceedings of the 8th World Congress on Pain, p. 173.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Bensimon, G., Lamcomblez, L., Meininger, V. (1994) A controlled trial of riluzole in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 330 (9), 585–591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Bes, A., Eyssette, M., Pierrot-Deseilligny, E., Rohmer, T., and Warter, J. M. (1988) A multi-centre, double-blind trial of tizanidine as antispastic agent in spasticity associated with hemiplegia. Curr. Med. Res. Opin. 10 (10), 709–718.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Goldstein, L. B. and Davis, J. N. (1990) Clonidine impairs recovery of beam waking in rats. Brain Res. 508, 305–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Nance, P. (1994) A comparison of clonidine, cyproheptadine, and baclofen in spastic spinal cord injured patients. J. Am. Paraplegia Soc. 17, 151–157.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Casale, R., Glynn, C., and Buonocore, M. (1995) Reduction of spastic hypertonia in patients with spinal cord injury: a double-blind comparison of intravenous orphenadrine citrate and placebo. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 76, 660–665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Cohan, S. L., Raines, A., Panagakos, J., et al. (1980) Phenytoin and chlorpromazine in the treatment of spasticity. Arch. Neurol. 37, 360–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Albright, A. L., Barron, W. B., Fasick, M. P., Polinko, P., and Janosky, J. (1993) Continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion for spasticity of cerebral origin. JAMA 270, 2475–2477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia B. Jozefczyk

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations