The Development and Management of Spasticity Following Traumatic Brain Injury

  • Patricia B. Jozefczyk
Part of the Current Clinical Neurology book series (CCNEU)


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from either a penetrating skull injury or closed trauma to the head, and is a major health problem in the United States and worldwide. Penetrating head injuries account for approx 10% of all traumatic injuries and closed head trauma for the other 90%. These injuries tend to occur more commonly in males. There is a bimodal peak of incidence, with males between 16 and 25 yr of age and people over the age of 65 yr tending to have more TBIs (1). Motor-vehicle accidents account for at least 50% of all TBIs with falls, assaults and violence, and sports and recreational accidents following. Approximately fifty to seventy-five thousand people per year in the United States suffer a severe TBI and approx one-third to one-half of those die (2). The remaining survive with varying degrees of cognitive and neurologic damage.


Traumatic Brain Injury Cerebral Palsy Botulinum Toxin Heterotopic Ossification Severe Traumatic Brain Injury 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia B. Jozefczyk

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