Skip to main content

Ginkgo biloba

  • Chapter
  • 425 Accesses

Part of the Forensic Science and Medicine book series (FSM)

Abstract

The ginkgo tree, Ginkgo biloba (L.), is the last remaining member of the Ginkgoaceae family, which once included many species (Tyler, 1993). It has survived unchanged in China for more than 200 million yr, and was brought to Europe in 1730 and to America in 1784. Since then it has become a popular ornamental tree worldwide. Individual trees may live as long as 1000 yr, and grow to a height of about 125 ft (Anonymous, 1998). Ginkgo fruits and seeds have been used in China for their medicinal properties since 2800 bc (Tyler, 1993). Traditional Chinese physicians used ginkgo leaves to treat asthma and chilblains (swelling of the hands and feet from exposure to damp cold) (Anonymous, 1998). The ancient Chinese and Japanese ate roasted ginkgo seeds as a digestive aid and to prevent drunkenness (Anonymous, 1998). Ginkgo use had spread to Europe by the 1960s.

Keywords

  • Ginkgo Extract
  • United States Pharmacopoeia
  • Ginkgo Biloba Extract
  • Flavone Glycoside
  • Ginkgo Tree

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-59259-020-9_4
  • Chapter length: 9 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-59259-020-9
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • Allain H, Raoul P, Lieury A, LeCoz F, Gandon J. Effect of two doses of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the dual-coding test in elderly subjects. Clin Ther 1993; 15: 549–57.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Amri H, Ogwuegbu SO, Boujrad N, Drieu K, Papadopoulos V. In vivo regulation of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and glucocorticoid synthesis by Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 and isolated ginkgolides. Endocrinology 1996; 137: 5707–18.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Anonymous. Ginkgo. In: The review of natural products. St. Louis, Missouri: Facts and Comparisons, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anonymous. Ginkgo biloba active ingredients meet proper levels—Consumer Reports. F-D-C Reports. “The Tan Sheet.” March 8, 1999, p. 8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Arenz A, Klein M, Fiehe K, Groß J, Drewke C, Hemscheidt T, Leistner E. Occurrence of neurotoxic 4’-O-mehtylpyridoxine in Ginkgo biloba leaves, Ginkgo medications, and Japanese ginkgo food. Planta Med 1996; 62: 548–51.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Blumenthal M. Ginkgo biloba. The complete German commission E monographs. Austin, TX, American Botanical Council, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chavez ML, Chavez PI. Ginkgo (Part I): History, use, and pharmacologic properties. Hosp Pharm 1998;33:658–72.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chung KF, McCusker M, Page CP, Dent G, Guinot P, Barnes PJ. Effect of ginkgolide mixture (BN 52063) in antagonizing skin and platelet responses to platelet activating factor in man. Lancet 1987; 1: 248–51.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Duche JC, Barre J Guinot P, Duchier J, Cournot A, Tillement JP. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on microsomal enzyme induction. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1989; 9: 165–8.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fourtillan JB, Brisson AM, Girault J, Ingrand I, Decourt JP, Drieu K, et al. Pharmacokinetic properties of bilobalide and ginkgolides A and B in healthy subjects after intravenous and oral administration of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761). Therapie 1995; 50: 137–44.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gilbert GJ. Ginkgo biloba [letter]. Neurology 1997; 48: 1137.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hasenohrl RU, Nichau CH, Frisch CH, De Souza Silva MA. Huston JP, Mattem CM

    Google Scholar 

  • Hacker R. Anxiolytic-like effect of combined extracts of Zingiber officinale andGinkgo biloba in the elevated plus-maze Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1996; 53: 271–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Houghton P. Ginkgo. Pharm J 1994; 253: 122–3.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim YS, Pyo MK, Park PH, Hahn BS, Wu SJ, Yun-Choi HS. Antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of a combination of ticlopidine and Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761). Thrombos Res 1998; 91: 33–8.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kleijnen J, Knipschild P. Ginkgo biloba. Lancet 1992; 340: 1136–9.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jung F, Mroweitz C, Kiesewetter H, Wenzel E. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on fluidity of blood and peripheral microcirculation in volunteers. Arzneim Forsch 1990; 40: 589–93.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Le Bars PL, Katz MM, Berman N, Itil TM, Freedman AM, Schatzberg AF, et al. A placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. JAMA 1997; 278: 1327–32.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Matthews MK. Association of Ginkgo biloba with intracranial hemorrhage [letter]. Neurology 1998; 50: 1933–4.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nemecz G, Combest WL. Ginkgo biloba. US Pharmacist 1997(Sept):144, 147–8, 151.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oken BS, Storzbach DM, Kaye JA. The efficacy of Ginkgo biloba on cognitive function in Alzheimer’s disease. Arch Neurol 1998; 55: 1409–15.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pietta PG, Gardana C, Mauri PL. Identification of Ginkgo flavonol metabolites after oraladministration to humans. J Chromatogr Biomed Sci Appl 1997; 693: 249–55.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ramassamy C, Clostre F, Christen Y, Costentin J. Prevention by a ginkgo extract (GBE 761) of the dopaminergic neurotoxicity of MPTP. J Pharm Pharmacol 1990; 42: 785–9.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rosenblatt M, Mindel J. Spontaneous hyphema associated with ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract [letter]. N Engl J Med 1997; 336: 1108.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rowin J, Lewis SL. Spontaneous bilateral subdural hematomas associated with chronic Ginkgo biloba ingestion [letter]. Neurology 1996; 46: 1775–76.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tyler VE. The honest herbal. 3rd edit., Binghamton, NY: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  • United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). National Formulary. 18th edit., Suppl 9. Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vale S. Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with Ginkgo biloba [letter]. Lancet 1998; 352: 36.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2000 Springer Science+Business Media New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Mahdavi, F., Cupp, M.J. (2000). Ginkgo biloba. In: Cupp, M.J. (eds) Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology of Herbal Products. Forensic Science and Medicine. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59259-020-9_4

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59259-020-9_4

  • Publisher Name: Humana Press, Totowa, NJ

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-61737-190-5

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-59259-020-9

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive