Chemoprevention Trials for Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is the fourth most frequent cancer among men worldwide (40). Given the magnitude of the prostate cancer burden, considerable efforts have been made by the scientific research community to improve our understanding of the factors that contribute to prostate cancer risk and to develop approaches to modify those factors. Age, race, family history, and the presence of certain genetic polymorphisms, all are risk factors for prostate cancer that clearly cannot be modified (13). Prostate cancer incidence increases dramatically with age (46); in the United States, African-American men are at greater risk than whites (46). Heritable effects may account for as much as one-third of prostate cancer risk (1); and genetic polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (24,25,52), the androgen receptor (24), N-acetyltransferase (NATI) (16), and certain glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) (45) likely contribute to variations in prostate cancer risk among individuals. Hormones—both sex hormones and insulin-like growth factors (particularly IGF-I)—may also influence the risk of prostate cancer. Evidence indicates that cumulative exposure of the prostate to androgens—including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)—contributes to prostate cancer development (9,57).
KeywordsProstate Cancer Prostate Specific Antigen Prostate Cancer Risk Prostate Cancer Incidence Chemoprevention Trial
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 3.Bacus, J. W. and J. V. Bacus. 1994. Quality control in image cytometry, DNA ploidy. J. Cell. Biochem. 19: 153–164.Google Scholar
- 22.Hartman, T. J., D. Albanes, P. Pietinen, A. M. Hartman, M. Rautalahti, J. Tangrea, et al. 1998. The association between baseline vitamin E, selenium, and prostate cancer in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prey. 7: 335–340.Google Scholar
- 29.Kelloff, G. J., R. Lieberman, V. E. Steele, C. W. Boone, R. A. Lubet, L. Kopelovitch, et al. 1999. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer: concepts and strategies. Eur. Urol. 35: 342–350.Google Scholar
- 34.Lieberman, R., J. Thompson, H. Akaza, P. Greenwald, and W. Fair. 1999. Progress in new chemopreventive agent development for prostate cancer prevention: modulators of promotion and progression. Prostate Cancer and Prostate Diseases (in press).Google Scholar
- 35.McCormick, D. L., K. V. N. Rao, M. C. Bosland, V. E. Steele, R. A. Lubet, and G. J. Kelloff. 1995 Inhibition of rat prostatic carcinogenesis by dietary dehydroepiandrosterone but not by N-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-all-trans-retinamide. Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 36: 126.Google Scholar
- 41.Pound, C. R., A. W. Partin, M. A. Eisenberger, D. W. Chan, J. D. Pearson, and P. Walsh. C. 1999. Natural history of progression after PSA elevation following radical prostatectomy. DAMA 281: 1591–1597.Google Scholar
- 43.Rao, K. V. N., D. L. McCormick, M. C. Bosland, V. E. Steele, R. A. Lubet, and G. J. Kelloff. 1996. Chemopreventive efficacy evaluation of liarozole fumarate, difluoromethylornithine, and oltipraz in the rat prostate. Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 37: 273.Google Scholar
- 44.Rao, K. V. N., M. C. Bosland, R. A. Lubet, V. E. Steele, G. J. Kelloff, and D. L. McCormick. 1997. Inhibition of rat prostate carcinogenesis by delayed administration of dehydroepiandrosterone. Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 38: 580.Google Scholar
- 45.Rebbeck, T. R., A. H. Walker, J. M. Jaffe, D. L. White, A. J. Wein, and S. B. Malkowicz. 1999. Glutathione S-transferase-µ (GSTMI) and -0 (GSTMI) genotypes in the etiology of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prey. 8: 283–287.Google Scholar
- 46.Ries, L. A. G., C. L. Kosary, B. F. Hankey, B. A. Miller, L. Clegg, and B. K. Edwards. 1999. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1973–1996. National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
- 47.Roberts, R. O., E. J. Bergstralh, S. K. Katusic, M. M. Lieber, and S. J. Jacobsen. 1999. Decline in prostate cancer mortality from 1980 to 1997, and an update in incidence trends in Olmsted County, Minnesota. J. Urol. 16: 529–533.Google Scholar
- 57.Yip, I., W. Aronson, and D. Heber. 1996. Nutritional approaches to the prevention of prostate cancer progression, in Dietary Fats, Lipids, Hormones, and Tumorigenesis ( Heber, D. and D. Kritchevsky, eds.), Plenum Press, NY, pp. 173–181.Google Scholar