Role of Stress in Development of Hypertension

  • Thomas G. Pickering
Part of the Current Clinical Practice book series (CCP)


The etiology of hypertension remains unknown, but one fact is clearly established: no single cause is responsible. High blood pressure (BP) is the end result of a number of factors, both genetic and environmental, that may be quantitatively and qualitatively different in different individuals. Furthermore, BP is distributed continuously in the population, with no clear separation between normal and raised BP. Any definition of hypertension is thus quite arbitrary.


Panic Disorder Ambulatory Blood Pressure Hypertensive Subject Mental Arithmetic Cardiovascular Reactivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Timio M (1997) Blood pressure trend and psychosocial factors: the case of the nuns in a secluded order. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 640: 137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hallback M (1975) Consequence of social isolation on blood pressure, cardiovascular reactivity and design in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Acta Physiol Scand 93: 455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shaper AG (1962) Cardiovascular studies in the Samburo tribe of Northern Kenya. Am Heart J 63: 437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kaminer B, Lutz W (1968) Blood pressures in Kalahari bushmen. Circulation 22: 289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Truswell AS, Kennelly BM, Hansen JD, et al. (1972) Blood pressures of Kung bushmen in Northern Botswana. Am Heart J 84: 5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shaper AG, Leonard PJ, Jones KW, et al. (1969) Environmental effects on the body build, blood pressure and blood chemistry of nomadic warriors serving in the army in Kenya. East Afr Med J 46: 282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Poulter NR, Khaw KT, Hopwood BE, et al. (1990) The Kenyan Luo migration study: observations on the initiation of a rise in blood pressure. BMJ 300: 967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    James GD, Jenner DA, Harrison GA, et al. (1985) Differences in catecholamine excretion rates, blood pressure and lifestyle among young Western Samoan men. Hum Biol 57: 635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brod J, Fencl V, Hejl Z, et al. (1959) Circulatory changes underlying blood pressure elevation during acute emotional changes in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Clin Sci 18: 269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Neel JV (1962) Diabetes mellitus: a “thrifty” genotype rendered detrimental by “progress”? J Hum Genetics 14: 353.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Julius S, Gudbrandsson T, Jamerson K, et al. (1992) The interconnection between sympathetics, microcirculation, and insulin resistance in hypertension. Blood Press 1: 9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Henry JP, Stephens PM, Ely DL (1986) Psychosocial hypertension and the defence and defeat reactions. J Hypertens 4: 687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ely DL (1981) Hypertension, social rank, and aortic arteriosclerosis in CBA/J mice. Physiol Behav 26: 655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fokkema DS (1985) Social Behavior and Blood Pressure (a study of rats). Dissertation for Doctorate in Natural Sciences. Netherlands: Groningen University.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    D’Atri DA, Ostfeld AM (1975) Crowding: its effects on the elevation of blood pressure in a prison setting. Prey Med 4: 550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    D’Atri DA, Fitzgerald EF, Kasl SV, et al. (1981) Crowding in prison: the relationship between changes in housing mode and blood pressure. Psychosom Med 43: 95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Karasek R, Baker D, Marxer F, Job decision latitude, job demands, and cardiovascular disease: a prospective study of Swedish men. Am J Public Health 71: 694.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Alfredsson L, Karasek R, Theorell T (1982) Myocardial infarction risk and psychosocial work environment: an analysis of the male Swedish working force. Soc Sci Med 16: 463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Karasek RA, Theorell T, Schwartz JE, et al. (1988) Job characteristics in relation to the prevalence of myocardial infarction in the US Health Examination Survey (HES) and the Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES). Am J Public Health 78: 910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schnall PL, Devereux RB, Pickering TG, (1992) The relationship between `job strain,’ workplace diastolic blood pressure, and left ventricular mass index: a correction. JAMA 267: 1209 (letter; comment).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schnall PL, Schwartz JE, Landsbergis PA, et al. (1992) Relation between job strain, alcohol, and ambulatory blood pressure. Hypertension 19: 488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schnall PL, Schwartz JE, Landsbergis PA, et al. (1998) A longitudinal study of job strain and ambulatory blood pressure: results from a three-year follow-up. Psychosom Med 60: 697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Theorell T, de Faire U, Johnson J, et al. (1991) Job strain and ambulatory blood pressure profiles. Scand J Work Environ Health 17: 380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Van Egeren LF (1992) The relationship between job strain and blood pressure at work, at home, and during sleep. Psychosom Med 54: 337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Light KC, Turner JR, Hinderliter AL (1992) Job strain and ambulatory work blood pressure in healthy young men and women. Hypertension 20: 214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Frankenhaueser M (1983) The sympathetic-adrenal and pituitary-adrenal response to challenge: comparison between the sexes. In Dembroski TM, Schmidt T, Blumchen G, eds. Biobehavioral Bases of Coronary Heart Disease. Basel: Karger, p. 91.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lundberg U, Frankenhaueser M (1984) Pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic-adrenal correlates of distress and effort. J Psychosom Res 24: 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Waldron I, Nowotarski M, Freimer M, et al. (1982) Cross-cultural variation in blood pressure: a quantitative analysis of the relationships of blood pressure to cultural characteristics, salt consumption and body weight. Soc Sci Med 16: 419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dressler WW (1982) Hypertension and Culture Change: Acculturation and Disease in the West Indies. South Salem, MA: Redgrave Publishing.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dressler WW, Mata A, Chavez A, et al. (1987) Arterial blood pressure and individual modernization in a Mexican community. Soc Sci Med 24: 679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dressler WW (1987) Arterial blood pressure and modernization in Brazil. Am Anthropol 89: 389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dressler WW (1990) Lifestyle, stress, and blood pressure in a southern black community. Psychosom Med 52: 182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    James SA, Hartnett SA, Kalsbeek WD (1983) John Henryism and blood pressure differences among black men. J Behav Med 6: 259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    James SA, La Croix AZ, Kleinbaum DG, et al. (1984) John Henryism and blood pressure differences among black men. II. The role of occupational stressors. J Behav Med 7: 259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Harburg E, Erfurt JC, Hauenstein LS, et al. (1973) Socio-ecological stress, suppressed hostility, skin color, and Black-White male blood pressure: Detroit. Psychosom Med 35: 276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Diez-Roux AV, Nieto FJ, Muntaner C, et al. (1997) Neighborhood environments and coronary heart disease: a multilevel analysis. Am J Epidemiol 146: 48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Harburg E, Blakelock EHJ, Roeper PR (1979) Resentful and reflective coping with arbitrary authority and blood pressure: Detroit. Psychosom Med 41: 189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Harrap SB, Louis WJ, Doyle AE (1984) Failure of psychosocial stress to induce chronic hypertension in the rat. J Hypertens 2: 653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Henry JP, Liu YY, Nadra WE, et al. (1993) Psychosocial stress can induce chronic hypertension in normotensive strains of rats. Hypertension 21: 714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Coste SC, Qi Y, Brooks VL, et al. (1995) Captopril and stress-induced hypertension in the borderline hypertensive rat. J Hypertens 13: 1391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cooper R, Rotimi C (1997) Hypertension in blacks. Am J Hypertens 10: 804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jeunemaitre X, Soubrier F, Kotelevtsev YV, et al. (1992) Molecular basis of human hypertension: role of angiotensinogen. Cell 71: 169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rotimi C, Cooper RS, Ward RH, et al. (1993) The role of the angiotensinogen gene in human hypertension: absence of an association among African Americans. Genet Epidemiol 10: 339 (abstract).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lifton RP, Warnock D, Acton RT, et al. (1993) High prevalence of hypertension-associated angiotensinogen variant T235 in African Americans. Clin Res 41: 260A (abstract).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hypertension detection and follow-up program cooperative group (1987) Educational level and 5-year all-cause mortality in the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program. Hypertension 9: 641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ordunez-Garcia PO, Espinosa-Brito AD, Cooper RS, et al. (1998) Hypertension in Cuba: evidence of a narrow black-white difference. J Hum Hypertens 12: 111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cruickshank JK, Jackson SH, Beevers DG, et al. (1985) Similarity of blood pressure in blacks, whites and Asians in England: the Birmingham Factory Study. J Hypertens 3: 365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Alexander F (1939) Emotional factors in essential hypertension. Psychosom Med 1: 173.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shapiro AP (1988) Psychological factors in hypertension: an overview. Am Heart J 116: 632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Harburg E, Julius S, McGinn NF, et al. (1964) Personality traits and behavioral patterns associated with systolic blood pressure levels in college males. J Chronic Dis 17: 405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Cottier C, Perini C, Rauchfleisch U (1987) Personality traits and hypertension: an overview. In: Julius S, Bassett DR, Handbook of Hypertension (vol. 9): Behavioral Factors in Hypertension,Amsterdam: Elsevier, p. 123.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wolf S, Wolff HG (1951) A summary of experimental evidence relating life stress to the pathogenesis of essential hypertension in man. In Bell ET, ed. Hypertension, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Perini C, Muller FB, Rauchfleisch U, (1990) Psychosomatic factors in borderline hypertensive subjects and offspring of hypertensive parents. Hypertension 16:627.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Irvine J, Garner DM, Craig HM, et al. (1991) Prevalence of Type A behavior in untreated hypertensive individuals. Hypertension 18: 72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rosenman RH, Brand RJ, Jenkins D, et al. (1975) Coronary heart disease in Western Collaborative Group Study: final follow-up experience of 8 1/2 years. JAMA 233: 872.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Williams RBJ (1987) Refining the type A hypothesis: emergence of the hostility complex. Am J Cardiol 60: 27J.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Everson SA, Goldberg DE, Kaplan GA, et al. (1998) Anger expression and incident hypertension. Psychosom Med 60: 730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jamner LD, Shapiro D, Goldstein IB, et al. (1991) Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate in paramedics: effects of cynical hostility and defensiveness. Psychom Med 53: 393.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Coryell W, Noyes RJ, House JD (1986) Mortality among outpatients with anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatry 143: 508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Simonsick EM, Wallace RB, Blazer DG, et al. (1995) Depressive symptomatology and hypertension-associated morbidity and mortality in older adults. Psychosom Med 57: 427 (comments).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Paterniti S, Alperovitch A, Ducimetiere P, et al. (1999) Anxiety but not depression is associated with elevated blood pressure in a community group of French elderly. Psychosom Med 61: 77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Davies SJ, Ghahramani P, Jackson PR, et al. (1999) Association of panic disorder and panic attacks with hypertension. Am J Med 107: 310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Davies SJ, Ghahramani P, Jackson PR, et al. (1997) Panic disorder, anxiety and depression in resistant hypertension-a case-control study. J Hypertens 15: 1077.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jonas BS, Franks P, Ingram DD (1997) Are symptoms of anxiety and depression risk factors for hypertension? Longitudinal evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Arch Fam Med 6: 43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Manuck SB, Schaefer DC (1978) Stability of individual differences in cardiovascular reactivity. Physiol Behav 21: 675.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Folkow B (1978) The fourth Volhard lecture: cardiovascular structural adaptation; its role in the initiation and maintenance of primary hypertension. Clin Sci Mol Med 4 (Suppl.): 3S - 22S.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Julius S, Li Y, Brant D, et al. (1989) Neurogenic pressor fail to cause hypertension, but do induce cardiac hypertrophy. Hypertension 13: 422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jennings GL, Nelson L, Esler MD, (1984) Effects of changes in physical activity on blood pressure and sympathetic tone. J Hypertens (Suppl. 3):S139-S 149.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pickering TG, Gerin W (1990) Reactivity and the role of behavioral factors in hypertension: a critical review. Ann Behav Med 12: 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    McKinney ME, Miner MH, Ruddel H, et al. (1985) The standardized mental stress test protocol: test-retest reliability and comparison with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Psychophysiology 22: 453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Parati G, Pomidossi G, Ramirez A, et al. (1983) Reproducibility of laboratory tests evaluating neural cardiovascular regulation in man. J Hypertens (Suppl. 2 ): S88 - S90.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Langewitz W, Ruddel H, Noack H, et al. (1989) The reliability of psychophysiological examinations under field conditions: results of repetitive mental stress testing in middle-aged men. Eur Heart J 10: 657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Van Egeren LF, Sparrow AW (1989) Laboratory stress testing to assess real-life cardiovascular reactivity. Psychosom Med 51:1 (comments).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Parati G, Omboni S, Staessen J, et al. (1988) Limitations of the difference between clinic and daytime blood pressure as a surrogate measure of the `white-coat’ effect. Syst-Eur investigators. J Hypertens 16: 23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fredrikson M, Dimberg U, Frisk-Holmberg M, et al. (1985) Arterial blood pressure and general sympathetic activation in essential hypertension during stimulation. Acta Med Scand 217: 309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Turner JR, Girdler SS, Sherwood A, et al. (1990) Cardiovascular responses to behavioral stressors: laboratory-field generalization and inter-task consistency. J Psychosom Res 34: 581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fredrikson M, Matthews KA (1990) Cardiovascular responses to behavioral stress and hypertension: a meta-analytic review. Ann Behav Med 12: 30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Julius S, Jones K, Schork N, et al. (1991) Independence of pressure reactivity from pressure levels in Tecumseh, Michigan. Hypertension 17:(3)12.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rostrup M, Ekeberg 0 (1992) Awareness of high blood pressure influences on psychological and sympathetic responses. J Psychosom Res 36: 117.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Molineux D, Steptoe A (1988) Exaggerated blood pressure responses to submaximal exercise in normotensive adolescents with a family history of hypertension. J Hypertens 6: 361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ravogli A, Trazzi S, Villani A, et al. (1990) Early 24-hour blood pressure elevation in normotensive subjects with parental hypertension. Hypertension 16: 491 (comments).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Harbin TJ (1989) The relationship between the type A behavior pattern and physiological responsivity: a quantitative review. Psychophysiology 26: 110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Weidner G, Friend R, Ficarrotto TJ, et al. (1989) Hostility and cardiovascular reactivity to stress in women and men. Psychosom Med 51: 36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Smith TW, Allred KD, Morrison CA, et al. (1989) Cardiovascular reactivity and interpersonal influence: active coping in a social context. J Pers Soc Psychol 56: 209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Melville DI, Raftery EB (1981) Blood pressure changes during acute mental stress in hypertensive subjects using the Oxford infra-arterial system. JPsychosom Res 25: 487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Parati G, Pomidossi G, Albini F, et al. (1987) Relationship of 24-hour blood pressure mean and variability to severity of target-organ damage in hypertension. J Hypertens 5: 93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Floras JS, Hassan MO, Jones JV, et al. (1987) Pressor responses to laboratory stresses and daytime blood pressure variability. J Hypertens 5: 715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Watson RD, Stallard TJ, Flinn RM, et al. (1980) Factors determining direct arterial pressure and its variability in hypertensive man. Hypertension 2: 333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Thomas DB, Duszynski KR (1982) Blood pressure levels in young adulthood as predictors of hypertension and the fate of the cold pressor test. Johns Hopkins Med J 151: 93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Menkes MS, Matthews KA, Krantz DS, et al. (1989) Cardiovascular reactivity to the cold pressor test as a predictor of hypertension. Hypertension 14: 524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Harlan WR, Osborne RK, Graybiel A (1964) Prognostic value of the cold pressor test and the bassal blood pressure: based on an 18-year follow-up study. Am J Cardiol 13: 683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wood DL, Sheps SG, Elveback LR, et al. (1984) Cold pressor test as a predictor of hypertension. Hypertension 6: 301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Eich RH, Jacobsen EC (1967) Vascular reactivity in medical students followed for 10 yr. J Chronic Dis 20: 583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Carroll D, Davey SG, Sheffield D, et al. (1996) Blood pressure reactions to the cold pressor test and the prediction of future blood pressure status: data from the Caerphilly study. J Hum Hypertens 10: 777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Falkner B, Onesti G, Hamstra B (1981) Stress response characteristics of adolescents with high genetic risk for essential hypertension: a five year follow-up. Clin Exp Hypertens 3: 583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Borghi C, Costa FV, Boschi S, et al. (1986) Predictors of stable hypertension in young borderline subjects: a five-year follow-up study. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 8 (Suppl. 5): S138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Goldstein DS (1983) Plasma catecholamines and essential hypertension: an analytical review. Hypertension 5: 86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Julius S, Nesbitt S (1996) Sympathetic overactivity in hypertension: a moving target. Am J Hypertens 9: 113S.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Guyton AC (1989) Dominant role of the kidneys and accessory role of whole-body autoregulation in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Am J Hypertens 2: 575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lever AF (1986) Slow pressor mechanisms in hypertension: a role for hypertrophy of resistance vessels? J Hypertens 4: 515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Majewski H, Tung LH, Rand MJ (1981) Hypertension through adrenaline activation of prejunctional beta-adrenoceptors. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 8: 463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Majewski H, Hedler L, Starke K (1982) The noradrenaline rate in the anaesthetized rabbit: facilitation by adrenaline. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 321: 20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Brown MJ, Dollery CT (1984) Adrenaline and hypertension. Clin Exp Hyper-tens 6: 539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Blankestijn PJ, Man i, V, Tulen J, (1988) Support for adrenaline-hypertension hypothesis: 18 hour pressor effect after 6 hours adrenaline infusion. Lancet 2:1386 (comments.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Goldstein DS, Golczynska A, Stuhlmuller J, et al. (1999) A test of the “epinephrine hypothesis” in humans. Hypertension 33: 36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Di Bona GF, Jones SY (1995) Analysis of renal sympathetic nerve responses to stress. Hypertension 25: 531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Di Bona GF, Jones SY, Sawin LL (1996) Renal sympathetic neural mechanisms as intermediate phenotype in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension 27: 626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hermsmeyer K (1976) Cellular basis for increased sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Circ Res 38: 53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bevan RD (1984) Trophic effects of peripheral adrenergic nerves on vascular structure. Hypertension 6 (3): 11119–11126.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Vander AJ, Henry JP, Stephens PM, et al. (1978) Plasma renin activity in psychosocial hypertension of CBA mice. Circ Res 42: 496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    McCubbin JA, Surwit RS, Williams RBJ (1988) Opioid dysfunction and risk for hypertension: naloxone and blood pressure responses during different types of stress. Psychosom Med 50: 8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    McCubbin JA, Bruehl S, Wilson JF, et al. (1998) Endogenous opioids inhibit ambulatory blood pressure during naturally occurring stress. Psychosom Med 60: 227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Koepke JP, Jones S, Di Bona GF (1988) Stress increases renal nerve activity and decreases sodium excretion in Dahl rats. Hypertension 11: 334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Anderson DE, Dietz JR, Murphy P (1987) Behavioural hypertension in sodium-loaded dogs is accompanied by sustained sodium retention. J Hypertens 5: 99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Light KC, Koepke JP, Obrist PA, et al. (1983) Psychological stress induces sodium and fluid retention in men at high risk for hypertension. Science 220: 429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Deter HC, Buchholz K, Schorr U, et al. (1997) Psychophysiological reactivity of salt-sensitive normotensive subjects. J Hypertens 15: 839.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Lawler JE, Barker GF, Hubbard JW, et al. (1980) The effects of conflict on tonic levels of blood pressure in the genetically borderline hypertensive rat. Psychophysiology 17: 363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Knardahl S, Sanders BJ, Johnson AK (1989) Haemodynamic responses to conflict stress in borderline hypertensive rats. J Hypertens 7: 585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hollenberg NK, Williams GH, Adams DF (1991) Essential hypertension: abnormal renal vascular and endocrine responses to a mild psychological stimulus. Hypertension 3: 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Whitworth JA (1987) Mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced hypertension. Kidney Im 31: 1213 (clinical conference).Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kalsner S (1969) Mechanism of hydrocortisone potentiation of responses to epinephrine and norepinephrine in rabbit aorta. Circ Res 24: 383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Whitworth JA, Gordon D, Andrews J, et al. (1989) The hypertensive effect of synthetic glucocorticoids in man: role of sodium and volume. J Hypertens 7: 537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas G. Pickering

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations