Sodium and Other Dietary Factors

  • Myron H. Weinberger
Part of the Current Clinical Practice book series (CCP)


The most recent report of the Sixth Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (INC VI) (1) has recommended a trial of lifestyle intervention as initial therapy in individuals with high-normal (130–139 mmHg systolic/85–89 diastolic) or stage I (140–159/90–99 mmHg) blood pressure (BP) levels without end-organ disease, concomitant cardiovascular disease, or diabetes mellitus. This chapter examines the evidence in support of dietary alterations and their effect on BP. The constituents that are considered include calories (body weight), salt (sodium chloride), potassium, calcium, and combinations of these minerals, other dietary components, and alcohol. Rather than attempting an encyclopedic review of the studies of all these dietary elements, this chapter succinctly summarizes what is currently known.


Salt Intake Potassium Intake Salt Sensitivity Increase Salt Intake Renin Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    The Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the Sixth Report (INC VI) (1997) Arch Intern Med 157: 2413–2446.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Weinberger MH (1996) Salt sensitivity of blood pressure in humans. Hypertension 27 (Pt. 2): 481–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Weinberger MH, Miller JZ, Luft FC, et al. (1986) Definitions and characteristics of sodium sensitivity and blood pressure resistance. Hypertension 8 (Suppl. 2): 127–134.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Weinberger MH, Fineberg NS (1991) Sodium and volume sensitivity of blood pressure: age and blood pressure change over time. Hypertension 18: 67–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weinberger MH, Stegner JE, Fineberg NS (1993) A comparison of two tests for the assessment of blood pressure responses to sodium. Am J Hypertens 6: 179–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Whelton PK, He J, Cutler JA, et al. (1997) Effects of oral potassium on blood pressure. JAMA 277: 1624–1632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sacks FM, Willett WC, Smith A et al. (1998) Effect on blood pressure of potassium, calcium, and magnesium in women with habitual low intake. Hypertension 31: 131–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, et al. (1997) The effect of dietary patterns on blood pressure: results from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Trial. N Engl J Med 336: 1117–1124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weinberger MH, Wagner UL, Fineberg NS (1993) The blood pressure effects of calcium supplementation in humans of known sodium responsiveness. Am J Hypertens 6: 799–805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Svetkey LP, Simons-Morton D, Vollmer WM, et al. (1999) Effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure: subgroup analysis of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med 159: 285–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Myron H. Weinberger

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations