Advertisement

Virtual Reality Applications to Treat Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Chapter
Part of the Virtual Reality Technologies for Health and Clinical Applications book series (VRTHCA)

Abstract

This chapter will provide an overview of the application of virtual reality technology to the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We first discuss the current state of PTSD treatment and provide a brief review of the theoretical underpinnings of virtual reality enhanced exposure therapy (VRE). We then detail the various applications of VRE to date for the treatment of PTSD, including virtual environments for Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan veterans, survivors of motor vehicle accidents, and survivors of terrorist attacks in Israel and on the World Trade Center on September 11th. We conclude with a summary of the evidence and discussion of possible future directions for the field.

Keywords

Post traumatic stress disorder Cognitive behavior therapy Exposure Military population Motor vehicle accident 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines. (2004). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Arlington: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. Amstadter, A. B., McCauley, J. L., Ruggiero, K. J., Resnick, H. S., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (2008). Service utilization and help seeking in a national sample of female rape victims. Psychiatric Services, 59, 1450–1457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Australian Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health. (2007). Australian guidelines for the treatment of adults with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Melbourne: Australian Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, J. G., Palyo, S. A., Winer, E. H., Schwagler, B. E., & Ang, E. J. (2007). Virtual reality exposure therapy for PTSD symptoms after a road accident: An uncontrolled case series. Behavior Therapy, 38, 39–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bisson, J. I., Ehlers, A., Matthews, R., Pilling, S., Richards, D., & Turner, S. (2007). Psychological treatments for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 97–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Blanchard, E. B., Hickling, E. J., Devineni, T., Veazey, C. H., Galovski, T. E., Mundy, E., Malta, L. S., & Buckley, T. C. (2003). A controlled evaluation of cognitive behavioural therapy for posttraumatic stress in motor vehicle accident survivors. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 79–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Botella, C., Banos, R. M., Perpina, C., Villa, H., Alcaniz, M., & Rey, A. (1998). Virtual reality treatment of claustrophobia: A case report. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 239–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Botella, C., Banos, R. M., Villa, H., Perpina, C., & Garcia-Palacios, A. (2000). Virtual reality in the treatment of claustrophobic fear: A controlled multiple-baseline design. Behavior Therapy, 31, 583–595.Google Scholar
  9. Bradley, R., Greene, J., Russ, E., Dutra, L., & Westen, D. (2005). A multidimensional meta-analysis of psychotherapy for PTSD [erratum appears in American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(4):832]. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 214–227.Google Scholar
  10. Breslau, N. (2001). The epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder: What is the extent of the problem? Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62, 16–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brewin, C. R., Scragg, P., Robertson, M., Thompson, M., d’Ardenne, P., Ehlers, A., & Psychosocial Steering Group, & London Bombings Trauma Response Programme. (2008). Promoting mental health following the London bombings: A screen and treat approach. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21, 3–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Carlin, A. S., Hoffman, H. G., & Weghorst, S. (1997). Virtual reality and tactile augmentation in the treatment of spider phobia: A case report. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 153–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. de Kleine, R. A., Hendriks, G.-J., Kusters, W. J. C., Broekman, T. G., & van Minnen, A. (2012). A randomized placebo-controlled trial of D-cycloserine to enhance exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 71(11), 962–968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Difede, J., & Hoffman, H. G. (2002). Virtual reality exposure therapy for world trade Center post-traumatic stress disorder: A case report. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 5, 529–535.Google Scholar
  15. Difede, J., Cukor, J., Jayasinghe, N., Patt, I., Jedel, S., Spielman, L., Giosan, C., & Hoffman, H. G. (2007a). Virtual reality exposure therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder following September 11, 2001. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68, 1639–1647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Difede, J., Malta, L. S., Best, S., Henn-Haase, C., Metzler, T., Bryant, R., & Marmar, C. (2007b). A randomized controlled clinical treatment trial for world trade Center attack-related PTSD in disaster workers. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195, 861–865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Difede, J., Olden, M., & Cukor, J. (2014). Evidence-based treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Annual Review of Medicine, 65, 319–332.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-051812-145438.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dohrenwend, B. P., Turner, J. B., Turse, N. A., Adams, B. G., Koenen, K. C., & Marshall, R. (2006). The psychological risks of Vietnam for U.S. Veterans: A revisit with new data and methods. Science, 313, 979–982.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Duckworth, D. (1986). Psychological problems arising from disaster work. Stress Medicine, 2, 315–323.Google Scholar
  20. Durham, T. W., McCammon, S. L., & Allison, E. J., Jr. (1985). The psychological impact of disaster on rescue personnel. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 14, 664–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Foa, E. B., & Kozak, M. J. (1986). Emotional processing of fear: Exposure to corrective information. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 20–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Foa, E. B., Steketee, G., & Rothbaum, B. O. (1989). Behavioral/cognitive conceptualizations of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behavior Therapy, 20, 155–176.Google Scholar
  23. Foa, E. B., Dancu, C. V., Hembree, E. A., Jaycox, L. H., Meadows, E. A., & Street, G. P. (1999a). A comparison of exposure therapy, stress inoculation training, and their combination for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in female assault victims. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 67, 194–200.Google Scholar
  24. Foa, E. B., Davidson, R. T., & Frances, A. (1999b). Expert consensus guideline series: Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60, 5–76.Google Scholar
  25. Foa, E. B., Hembree, E. A., Cahill, S. P., Rauch, S. A. M., Riggs, D. S., Feeny, N. C., & Yadin, E. (2005). Randomized trial of prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder with and without cognitive restructuring: Outcome at academic and community clinics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 953–964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Foa, E. B., Hembree, E., & Rothbaum, B. (2007). Prolonged exposure therapy for PTSD: Emotional processing of traumatic experiences, therapist guide. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Foa, E. B., Keane, T. M., Friedman, M. J., & Cohen, J. A. (2009). Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the international society for traumatic stress studies (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  28. Freedman, S. A. (2009). Psychological effects of exposure to terrorist attacks. In S. Shapira, J. Hammond, & L. Cole (Eds.), Essentials of terror medicine. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  29. Freedman, S. A., Hoffman, H. G., Garcia-Palacios, A., Tamar Weiss, P. L., Avitzour, S., & Josman, N. (2010). Prolonged exposure and virtual reality-enhanced imaginal exposure for PTSD following a terrorist bulldozer attack: A case study. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 13, 95–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Gerardi, M., Rothbaum, B. O., Ressler, K., Heekin, M., & Rizzo, A. (2008). Virtual reality exposure therapy using a virtual Iraq: Case report. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21, 209–213.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Gillespie, K., Duffy, M., Hackmann, A., & Clark, D. M. (2002). Community based cognitive therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder following the Omagh bomb. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 345–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Harvey, A. G., Bryant, R. A., & Tarrier, N. (2003). Cognitive behaviour therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 501–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Harvey-Lintz, T., & Tidwell, R. (1997). Effects of the 1992 Los Angeles civil unrest: Post traumatic stress disorder symptomatology among law enforcement officers. Social Science Journal, 34, 171–183.Google Scholar
  34. Hidalgo, R. B., & Davidson, J. R. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder: Epidemiology and health-related considerations. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61, 5–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hoge, C. W., Castro, C. A., Messer, S. C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D. I., & Koffman, R. L. (2004). Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care.. [see comment]. New England Journal of Medicine, 351, 13–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Institute of Medicine (IOM). (2006). Posttraumatic stress disorder: Diagnosis and assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  37. Institute of Medicine (IOM). (2008). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: An assessment of the evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  38. Institute of Medicine (IOM). (2012). Treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder in military and veteran populations: Initial assessment. Retrieved from Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  39. Jaycox, L. H., Foa, E. B., & Morral, A. R. (1998). Influence of emotional engagement and habituation on exposure therapy for PTSD. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 185–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Josman, N., Somer, E., Reisberg, A., Weiss, P. L. T., Garcia-Palacios, A., & Hoffman, H. (2006). BusWorld: Designing a virtual environment for post-traumatic stress disorder in Israel: A protocol. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 9, 241–244.Google Scholar
  41. Josman, N., Reisberg, A., Weiss, P. L., Garcia-Palacios, A., & Hoffman, H. (2008). BusWorld: An analog pilot test of a virtual environment designed to treat post-traumatic stress disorder originating from a terrorist suicide bomb attack. CyberPsychology & Behaviour, 11, 775–777.Google Scholar
  42. Karlin, B. E., Ruzek, J. I., Chard, K. M., Eftekhari, A., Monson, C. M., Hembree, E. A., Resick, P. A., & Foa, E. B. (2010). Dissemination of evidence-based psychological treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder in the veterans health administration. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 663–673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kessler, R. C. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder: The burden to the individual and to society. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61, 4–12; discussion 13–14.Google Scholar
  44. Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048–1060.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Kok, B. C., Herrell, R. K., Thomas, J. L., & Hoge, C. W. (2012). Posttraumatic stress disorder associated with combat service in Iraq or Afghanistan: Reconciling prevalence differences between studies. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 200(5), 444–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Larsen, D. L., Attkisson, C. C., Hargreaves, W. A., & Hguyen, T. D. (1979). Assessment of client/patient satisfaction: Development of a general scale. Evaluation and Programming Planning, 2, 197–207.Google Scholar
  47. Leaman, S., Rothbaum, B. O., Difede, J., Cukor, J., Gerardi, M., & Rizzo, A. (2013). Virtual reality exposure therapy: A treatment manual for combat related PTSD. In J. Coll, A. Rubin, & E. Weiss (Eds.), Handbook of military social work. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  48. Levitt, J. T., Malta, L. S., Martin, A., Davis, L., & Cloitre, M. (2007). The flexible application of a manualized treatment for PTSD symptoms and functional impairment related to the 9/11 world trade Center attack. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1419–1433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Litz, B. T., Salters-Pedneault, K., Steenkamp, M. M., Hermos, J. A., Bryant, R. A., Otto, M. W., & Hofmann, S. G. (2012). A randomized placebo-controlled trial of D-cycloserine and exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46(9), 1184–1190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Marmar, C. R., Weiss, D. S., Metzler, T. J., Ronfeldt, H. M., & Foreman, C. (1996). Stress responses of emergency services personnel to the Loma Prieta earthquake interstate 880 freeway collapse and control traumatic incidents. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 63–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Marmar, C. R., Weiss, D. S., Metzler, T. J., Delucchi, K. L., Best, S. R., & Wentworth, K. A. (1999). Longitudinal course and predictors of continuing distress following critical incident exposure in emergency services personnel. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 187, 15–22.Google Scholar
  52. McLay, R. N., McBrien, C., Wiederhold, M. D., & Wiederhold, B. K. (2010). Exposure therapy with and without virtual reality to treat PTSD while in the combat theater: A parallel case series. Cyberspsychology, Behavior, & Social Networking, 13, 37–42.Google Scholar
  53. McLay, R. N., Wood, D. P., Webb-Murphy, J. A., Spira, J. L., Wiederhold, M. D., Pyne, J. M., & Wiederhold, B. K. (2011). A randomized, controlled trial of virtual reality-graded exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in active duty service members with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 14, 223–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Mclay, R. N., Graap, K., Spira, J., Perlman, K., Johnston, S., Rothbaum, B. O., Difede, J., Deal, W., Oliver, D., Baird, A., Bordnick, P. S., Spitalnick, J., Pyne, J. M., & Rizzo, A. (2012). Development and testing of virtual reality exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in active duty service members who served in Iraq and Afghanistan. Military Medicine, 177, 635–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. McLean Hospital. (2006). BASIS-24 instruction guide. Belmont, MA: Author.Google Scholar
  56. McLean, C. P., Asnaani, A., Litz, B. T., & Hofmann, S. G. (2011). Gender differences in anxiety disorders: Prevalence, course of illness, comorbidity and burden of illness. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45, 1027–1035.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Milliken, C. S., Auchterlonie, J. L., & Hoge, C. W. (2007). Longitudinal assessment of mental health problems among active and reserve component soldiers returning from the Iraq war. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298, 2141–2148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Monson, C. M., Schnurr, P. P., Resick, P. A., Friedman, M. J., Young-Xu, Y., & Stevens, S. P. (2006). Cognitive processing therapy for veterans with military-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 74, 898–907.Google Scholar
  59. Nacasch, N., Foa, E. B., Fostick, L., Polliack, M., Dinstein, Y., Tzur, D., Levy, P., & Zohar, J. (2007). Prolonged exposure therapy for chronic combat-related PTSD: A case report of five veterans. CNS Spectrum, 12, 690–695.Google Scholar
  60. National Institute for Clinical Excellence. (2005). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): The management of PTSD in adults and children in primary and secondary care. London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence.Google Scholar
  61. Norris, F. H. (1992). Epidemiology of trauma: Frequency and impact of different potentially traumatic events on different demographic groups. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(3), 409–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. North, C. S., Tivis, L., McMillen, J. C., Pfefferbaum, B., Spitznagel, E. L., Cox, J., Nixon, S., Bunch, K. P., Smith, E. M., North, C. S., Tivis, L., McMillen, J. C., Pfefferbaum, B., Spitznagel, E. L., Cox, J., Nixon, S., Bunch, K. P., & Smith, E. M. (2002). Psychiatric disorders in rescue workers after the Oklahoma City bombing. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 857–859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Pietrzak, R. H., Johnson, D. C., Goldstein, M. B., Malley, J. C., & Southwick, S. M. (2009). Perceived stigma and barriers to mental health care utilization among OEF-OIF veterans. Psychiatric Services, 60(8), 1118–1122.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.60.8.1118.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Prigerson, H. G., Maciejewski, P. K., & Rosenheck, R. A. (2001). Combat trauma: Trauma with highest risk of delayed onset and unresolved posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, unemployment, and abuse among men. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189, 99–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Ramchand, R., Schell, T. L., Karney, B. R., Osilla, K. C., Burns, R. M., & Caldarone, L. B. (2010). Disparate prevalence estimates of PTSD among service members who served in Iraq and Afghanistan: Possible explanations. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 59–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Reger, G. M., & Gahm, G. A. (2008). Virtual reality exposure therapy for active duty soldiers. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64, 940–946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Reger, G. M., Gahm, G. A., Rizzo, A. A., Swanson, R., & Duma, S. (2009). Soldier evaluation of the virtual reality Iraq. Telemedicine and e-Health, 15, 101–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Reger, G. M., Holloway, K. M., Candy, C., Rothbaum, B. O., Difede, J., Rizzo, A. A., & Gahm, G. A. (2011). Effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy for active duty soldiers in a military mental health clinic. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 93–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Resick, P. A., Nishith, P., Weaver, T. L., Astin, M. C., & Feuer, C. A. (2002). A comparison of cognitive-processing therapy with prolonged exposure and a waiting condition for the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in female rape victims. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 70, 867–879.Google Scholar
  70. Rizzo, A. A., & Shilling, R. (2018). Clinical virtual reality tools to advance the prevention, assessment, and treatment of PTSD. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8(sup5), 1414560.  https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2017.1414560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rizzo, A. A., Pair, J., McNerney, P. J., Eastlund, E., Manson, B., Gratch, J., Hill, R., Roy, M., & Swartout, B. (2005). Design and development of a VR therapy application for Iraq war veterans with PTSD. In J. D. Westwood et al. (Eds.), Technology and informatics (Vol. 111, pp. 407–413). Amsterdam: IOS Press.Google Scholar
  72. Rizzo, A., Difede, J., Rothbaum, B. O., Johnston, S., McLay, R. N., Reger, G., Gahm, G., Parsons, T., Graap, K., & Pair, J. (2009). VR PTSD exposure therapy results with active duty OIF/OEF combatants. Studies in Health Technology & Informatics, 142, 227–282.Google Scholar
  73. Rizzo, A., Difede, J., Rothbaum, B. O., Reger, G., Spitalnick, J., Cukor, J., & Mclay, R. (2010). Development and early evaluation of the virtual Iraq/Afghanistan exposure therapy system for combat-related PTSD. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1208, 114–125.Google Scholar
  74. Rosenczweig, C. C., Kravitz, J., & Devlin, E. (2002). The psychological impact of helping in a disaster - the new York City experience, September 11th, 2001. Academic Emergency Medicine, 9, 502.Google Scholar
  75. Rothbaum, B. O., Hodges, L. F., Kooper, R., Obdyke, D., Williford, J. S., & North, M. (1995a). Virtual reality graded exposure in the treatment of acrophobia: A case report. Behavior Therapy, 26, 547–554.Google Scholar
  76. Rothbaum, B. O., Hodges, L. F., Kooper, R., Opdyke, D., Williford, J. S., & North, M. (1995b). Effectiveness of computer-generated (virtual reality) graded exposure in the treatment of acrophobia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 626–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Rothbaum, B. O., Hodges, L., Alarcon, R., Ready, D., Shahar, F., Graap, K., Pair, J., Hebert, P., Gotz, D., Wills, B., & Baltzell, D. (1999). Virtual reality exposure therapy for PTSD Vietnam veterans: A case study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 263–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Rothbaum, B. O., Hodges, L. F., Ready, D., Graap, K., & Alarcon, R. D. (2001). Virtual reality exposure therapy for Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62, 617–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Rothbaum, B. O., & Ressler, K. J. (2009). Psychosocial treatments of posttraumatic stress disorder. In Post traumatic stress disorder (pp. 108–124). CRC Press.Google Scholar
  80. Salloum, A., & Overstreet, S. (2008). Evaluation of individual and group grief and trauma interventions for children post disaster. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37(3), 495–507.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410802148194.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Schnurr, P. P., Friedman, M. J., Engel, C. C., Foa, E. B., Shea, M. T., Chow, B. K., Resick, P. A., Thurston, V., Orsillo, S. M., Haug, R., Turner, C., & Bernardy, N. (2007). Cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in women: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 297, 820–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Smith, S. G., Rothbaum, B. O., & Hodges, L. (1999). Treatment of fear of flying using virtual reality exposure therapy: A single case study. The Behavior Therapist, 22, 154–158.Google Scholar
  83. Stecker, T., Fortney, J. C., Hamilton, F., & Ajzen, I. (2007). An assessment of beliefs about mental health care among veterans who served in Iraq. Psychiatric Services, 58, 1358–1361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Tanielian, T., & Jaycox, L. H. (Eds.). (2008). Invisible wounds of war: Psychological and cognitive injuries, their consequences, and services to assist recovery. Santa Monica: RAND.Google Scholar
  85. Thomas, J. T., Wilk, J. E., Riviere, L. A., McGurk, D., Castro, C. A., & Hoge, C. W. (2010). The prevalence of mental health problems and functional impairment among active component and national guard soldiers 3 and 12 months following combat in Iraq. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 614–623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Wald, J., & Taylor, S. (2003). Preliminary research on the efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy to treat driving phobia. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 6(5), 459–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Warner, C. H., Appenzeller, G. N., Mullen, K., Warner, C. M., & Grieger, T. (2008). Soldier attitudes toward mental health screening and seeking care upon return from combat. Military Medicine, 173(6), 563–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Wilson, J. A. B., Onorati, K., Mishkind, M., Reger, M. A., & Gahm, G. A. (2008). Soldier attitudes about technology-based approaches to mental health care. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 11, 767–769.Google Scholar
  89. Wood, D. P., Murphy, J., Center, K., McLay, R., Reeves, D., Pyne, J., & Wiederhold, B. K. (2007). Combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder: A case report using virtual reality exposure therapy with physiological monitoring. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 10, 309–315.Google Scholar
  90. Wood, D. P., Murphy, J. A., Center, K. B., Russ, C., McLay, R. N., Reeves, D., & Wiederhold, B. K. (2008). Combat related post traumatic stress disorder: A multiple case report using virtual reality graded exposure therapy with physiological monitoring. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 132, 556–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Wood, D. P., Webb-Murphy, J., Center, K., McLay, R., Koffman, R., Johnston, S., & Wiederhold, B. K. (2009). Combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder: A case report using virtual reality graded exposure therapy with physiological monitoring with a female Seabee. Military Medicine, 174, 1215–1222.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Weill Cornell Medicine/NewYork-PresbyterianNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.City of MonroviaMonroviaUSA

Personalised recommendations