Effects of Man-Made Sound on Terrestrial Mammals
Terrestrial mammals are found in all types of natural habitat, and they are also maintained in large numbers in captivity. Much of what is known about the anatomy and physiology of the peripheral auditory system has been learned by studying a variety of laboratory mammals and a smaller collection of exotic and domesticated species. The influence of noise exposure ranges from overt trauma to cochlear structures to nonauditory physiological effects, including outcomes associated with development and behavior. Although most man-made sounds are insufficiently intense or persistent to cause overt trauma to free-ranging terrestrial mammals, recent studies have shown that noise exposures producing reversible hearing loss can still permanently damage synapses between auditory sensory cells and primary auditory nerve fibers and thereby affect hearing function. Harmful effects of noise exposure on nonauditory functions have also been reported, and work on domesticated animals adds further evidence that exposure to noise can induce stress with effects on physiology and behavior. Studies on free-ranging animals have shown that animals are often deterred from busy roads, industrial areas, or noisy recreational activities and that foraging efficiency declines for at least some herbivore species. The wide-ranging diversity of auditory thresholds and spectral ranges of sound detected by terrestrial mammals adds a dimension of complexity in the effort to understand the impact of man-made noise on animals.
KeywordsEar anatomy Farm and zoo animals Inner ear trauma Mammalian hearing Masking and counterstrategies Nonauditory effects Road disturbance Vocal plasticity
Compliance with Ethics Requirements
Hans Slabbekoorn declares that he has no conflict of interest.
JoAnn McGee declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Edward J. Walsh declares that he has no conflict of interest.
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