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The Influence of Microbiota on Gastrointestinal Motility

  • Shreya Raja
  • Vivek Batra
  • Shanthi SrinivasanEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Physiology in Health and Disease book series (PIHD)

Abstract

In recent years there has been a significant advancement in the role of gut microbiota in regulating gastrointestinal motility. The bidirectional cross talk between the host and gut microbiota has been implicated in the regulation of both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Intestinal dysbiosis or alteration in the composition of intestinal microbiota can result in impaired host intestinal permeability, immune response, and metabolism, leading to a proinflammatory state. In this review, we focus on the role of the gut microbiome in regulating gastrointestinal motility and shaping the enteric nervous system. We highlight the mechanisms of microbial metabolites in regulating intestinal motility. Several host factors such as diet and genetic predisposition can influence the gut microbial diversity and ultimately contribute to dysbiosis. Intestinal dysbiosis can contribute to the pathophysiology of disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Manipulation of the gut microbiome is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of motility disorders. Modification of gut microbiota through diet, antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation are all promising strategies for the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders that are currently under investigation.

Keywords

Motility disorders Transplantation Fecal microbiota Enteric neurons Irritable bowel syndrome Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 

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Copyright information

© The American Physiological Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shreya Raja
    • 1
    • 2
  • Vivek Batra
    • 3
  • Shanthi Srinivasan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Digestive DiseasesEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Atlanta VAMCDecaturUSA
  3. 3.Department of Medical Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer CenterThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

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