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HIV Neuroinvasion

Abstract

Even in these times of highly effective antiretroviral therapy that dramatically limits HIV replication in lymphoid tissues and prevents the development of immune deficiency, HIV-associated neurological disease still occurs. While this disease is often less severe than that seen in the natural history setting, or prior to the clinical use of protease inhibitors, it nonetheless causes considerable impairment and suffering in those afflicted. Effective prevention and treatment of this disease depends upon a comprehensive understanding of HIV infection within the brain, when and how it occurs, and the impact of current anti-HIV drugs on these processes. As a contribution to this understanding, this chapter reviews what is known about HIV neuroinvasion. Topics include the timing, modes and sites of viral entry into the brain, and the potential contributions of viral strain specificity, the immune response and compromise of the blood-brain barrier to this entry. Relevant information from Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) model systems is included.

Keywords

  • HIV
  • SIV
  • Neuroinvasion
  • Brain
  • Macrophage
  • Monocyte
  • Trafficking
  • HIV neuroinvasion
  • HIV encephalitis
  • HIV brain infection
  • SIV brain infection
  • HIV macrophage infection
  • Monocyte trafficking
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  • Blood-brain barrier (BBB)
  • Perivascular space (PVS)
  • Choroid plexus
  • Transendothelial migration

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Fig. 7.1
Fig. 7.2

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Gartner, S., Liu, Y. (2017). HIV Neuroinvasion. In: , et al. Global Virology II - HIV and NeuroAIDS. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7290-6_7

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