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Comparison of HACCP and ISO 22000 in the Ready-to-Eat Fruit and Vegetable Industry in Conjunction with Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Ishikawa Diagrams

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Part of the Food Engineering Series book series (FSES)

Abstract

Preliminary hazard analysis was used to analyse and predict the occurring failure modes in a ready-to-eat fruit and vegetable processing plant, in conjunction with ISO22000, the new Food Safety Management System, based on the functions, characteristics and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical control points (CCPs) have been identified and implemented in the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) plan. The decision table for critical control point determination during processing of ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables is shown and compared to the ISO22000 Analysis Worksheet for determination of the prerequisite programs. The prerequisite programs are the main difference between the two systems. The incorporation of PrPs in the ISO22000 made the system more flexible with a much smaller number of CCPs introduced.

Moreover, the whole processing has been described and explained from raw materials receiving, storage, prewashing and preparation, cleaning-prewashing, peeling-cutting-shredding, first washing and disinfection, second washing, drying-draining, packaging, labelling-metal detection-palletising and storage and product distribution.

Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) model has been applied for the risk assessment of ready-to-eat fruit and vegetable manufacturing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables industry was attempted in conjunction with cause and effect diagrams. Critical control points have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram and fishbone diagram).

The main emphasis was put on the quantification of risk assessment by determining the RPN (Risk Priority Number) per identified processing hazard. Receiving, storage and distribution, packaging and cooling were the processes identified as the ones with the highest RPN (225, 225, 180 and 144, respectively), and corrective actions were undertaken. Following the application of corrective actions, a second calculation of RPN values was carried out leading to considerably lower values (below the upper acceptable limit of 130). It is noteworthy that the application of Ishikawa diagram led to converging results thus corroborating the validity of conclusions derived from risk assessment and FMEA. Therefore, the incorporation of FMEA analysis and cause and effect analysis within the ISO22000 system of a ready-to-eat vegetable processing industry is considered imperative.

Finally, the physiology of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is reported with emphasis on respiration and ethylene production.

Keywords

  • HACCP
  • ISO 22000
  • Critical control points (CCPs)
  • Prerequisite programs (PrPs)
  • Ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables
  • FMEA
  • Ishikawa diagram, physiology, respiration and ethylene production

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Fig. 20.1
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Varzakas, T., Manolopoulou, E. (2017). Comparison of HACCP and ISO 22000 in the Ready-to-Eat Fruit and Vegetable Industry in Conjunction with Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Ishikawa Diagrams. In: Yildiz, F., Wiley, R. (eds) Minimally Processed Refrigerated Fruits and Vegetables. Food Engineering Series. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7018-6_20

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