In popular perception ‘ozone hole’ is something similar to a hole in a cloth wherein the hole represents a total absence of the surrounding material. But ‘ozone hole’ doesn’t represent a region of zero ozone concentration in the atmosphere. Rather it represents a region of atmosphere where there is a significant degree of decrease in the concentration of ozone. ‘Thinning of the ozone column’ is a more correct description of the ‘ozone hole’ phenomenon. The word ‘ozone hole’ owes its origin to the satellite images which were taken in the 1970s and 1980s depicting ozone concentration over the Antarctic. Those images were colour-coded to depict regions of low ozone in bright colour. On paper those coloured regions looked like depicting holes (Fig. 2.1). Hence the word ‘ozone hole’. The best example of an ‘ozone hole’ is the ozonosphere over the Antarctic which now has only about 50 % of ozone that was present before the ozone depletion started. As mentioned in the previous chapter, a similarly ‘deep and wide’ hole has been seen in recent years over Arctic as well [1–6].
- Ozone Concentration
- Ozone Depletion
- Ozone Layer
- Stratospheric Ozone
- Methyl Bromide
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This chapter introduces the ozone hole. It recounts the story of the discovery of ozone hole and explains how the ‘thickness’ of the ozone layer is quantified.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
Bernhard, G., Dahlback, A., Fioletov, V., Heikkilä, A., Johnsen, B., Koskela, T., et al. (2013). High levels of ultraviolet radiation observed by ground-based instruments below the 2011 Arctic ozone hole. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13(21), 10573–10590.
Calvo, N., Polvani, L. M., & Soloman, S. (2015). On the surface impact of Arctic stratospheric ozone extremes. Environmental Research Letters, 10(9), 094003.
Manney, G. L., Lawrence, Z. D., Santee, M. L., Livesey, N. J., Lambert, A., & Pitts, M. C. (2015). Polar processing in a split vortex: Arctic ozone loss in early winter 2012/2013. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15(10), 5381–5403.
Manney, G. L., Santee, M. L., Rex, M., Livesey, N. J., Pitts, M. C., Veefkind, P., et al. (2011). Unprecedented Arctic ozone loss in. Nature, 478(7370), 469–475.
Pommereau, J. P., Goutail, F., Lefèvre, F., Pazmino, A., Adams, C., Dorokhov, V., et al. (2013). Why unprecedented ozone loss in the Arctic in 2011? Is it related to climate change? Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13(10), 5299–5308.
Varotsos, C. A., Cracknell, A. P., & Tzanis, C. (2012). The exceptional ozone depletion over the Arctic in January–March 2011. Remote Sensing Letters, 3(4), 343–352.
Hegglin, M. I., Fahey, D. W., McFarland, M., Montzka, S. A., & Nash, E. R. (2014). Twenty questions and answers about the ozone layer: 2014 update (79 pp.). World Meteorological Organization, UNEP, NOAA, NASA, and European Commission.
Gribbin, J. (1988). The hole in the sky (viii+155 p.). Gorgi Books.
Sarma, K. M., & Andersen, S. O. (2002). Protecting the ozone layer. The United Nations History (xiii+544 p.). Routledge.
Christie, M. (2001). The ozone layer: A philosophy of science perspective. Cambridge University Press (xi+211 p.).
Parson, E. A. (2003). Protecting the ozone layer (xiii+369 p.). Oxford University Press.
Parson, E. A. (2003). Protecting the ozone layer (pp. 329). Oxford University Press.
Brune, W. H. (2015). The ozone story: A model for addressing climate change? Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 71(1), 75–84.
Dobson, G. M. B., & Harrison, D. N. (1926). Measurements of the amount of ozone in the earth’s atmosphere and its relation to other geophysical conditions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 110(756), 660–693.
Champman, S. (1930). A theory of upper atmospheric ozone. Memoirs of the Royal Meteorological Society, 3(26), 103–125.
Crutzen, P. J. (1970). The influence of nitrogen oxides on the atmospheric ozone content. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 96(408), 320–325.
Lovelock, J. E., Maggs, R., & Wads, R. J. (1973). Halogenated hydrocarbons in and over the Atlantic. Nature, 241, 194–196.
Stolarski, R., & Cicerone, R. (1974). Stratospheric chlorine: A possible sink for ozone. Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 52, 1610–1615.
Molina, M. J., & Rowland, F. S. (1974). Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethanes: Chlorine atom catalysed destruction of ozone. Nature, 249(5460), 810–812.
Wofsy, S. C., McElroy, M. B., & Sze, N. D. (1975). Freon consumption: Implications for atmospheric ozone. Science, 187(4176), 22–24.
Nebel, B. J., & Wright, R. T. (1993). Environmental science: The way the world works. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Kutterolf, S., Jegen, M., Mitrovica, J. X., Kwasnitschka, T., Freundt, A., & Huybers, P. (2013). A detection of Milankovitch frequencies in global volcanic activity. Geology, 41(2), 227–230.
Forman, J. C., Gardiner, B. G., & Shanklin, J. D. (1985). Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClO x/NOx interaction. Nature, 315(6016), 207–210.
Shanklin, J. (2010). Reflections on the ozone hole. Nature, 465(7294), 34–35.
Saltus, R. (1989). Returning to the world of sound. Boston Globe, 10, 27–29.
Crutzen, P., Lax, G., & Reinhardt, C. (2013). Paul Crutzen on the ozone hole, nitrogen oxides, and the Noble Prize. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 52, 48–50.
Godin-Beekmann, S. (2010). Spatial observation of the ozone layer. Comptes Rendus—Geoscience, 342(4–5), 339–348.
© 2017 The Author(s)
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Abbasi, S.A., Abbasi, T. (2017). The Ozone Hole. In: Ozone Hole. SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-6710-0_2
Publisher Name: Springer, New York, NY
Print ISBN: 978-1-4939-6708-7
Online ISBN: 978-1-4939-6710-0