International Classification of Sleep Disorders
Two major sleep classifications include that of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-V) which includes a section entitled ‘sleep–wake disorders’ and the International Classification of Sleep Disorders third edition (ICSD3) of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The ICSD3 has significant changes in the overall classification from previous versions. The insomnia category has changed to a single major disorder called chronic insomnia disorder, and a short-term insomnia disorder for symptoms that are present less than 3 months. The sleep-related breathing disorders have been expanded into four main sections: obstructive sleep apnea disorders, central sleep apnea disorders, sleep-related hypoventilation disorders, and sleep-related hypoxemia disorder. Snoring and catathrenia are regarded as isolated symptoms or normal variants. The central disorders of hypersomnolence section include two forms of narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2). Other hypersomnolence disorders include idiopathic hypersomnia and Kleine–Levin syndrome. The circadian rhythm disorders are largely unchanged from previous classifications. The parasomnias include three main groups: NREM-related parasomnias, REM-related parasomnias, and another parasomnia section. The final section is sleep-related movement disorders section which included restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, and sleep-related leg cramps as well as other movement disorders.
KeywordsClassification Sleep Diagnosis International Sleep disorders Insomnia Sleepiness Apnea Parasomnias Hypersomnolence Circadian Movement Breathing
- 1.American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2014) International classification of sleep disorders, 3rd edn. American Academy of Sleep Medicine, DarienGoogle Scholar
- 2.American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-V, 5th edn. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- 3.International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) (2010) National Center for Health Statistics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 20 Dec 2010Google Scholar
- 6.Andlauer O, Moore H, Jouhier L et al (2013) Nocturnal REM sleep latency for identifying patients with narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency. JAMA Neurol 6:1–12Google Scholar